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Full text of "The history of the island of Antigua, one of the Leeward Caribbees in the West Indies, from the first settlement in 1635 to the present time"

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30latHi of Qlntigua, 



THE 



HISTORY 



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OP' THE 



ISLAND OF ANTIGUA, 



ONE OF THE LEEWAIIJ) CAMHHKES IN THE WEST INDIES, 



EEOM THE EIRST SI7ri LKMKNT. IN 16;J5 TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



BY 



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YERE LANG FORT) OLIVER,' 

iM.It.C.S. EN(i.; I,.U.C!.l'. 1,0ND. 




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T.ONDON: 
MITCHELL AND IlLUniES, I 10 WAliDOUli STIilOKT, W. 

1891. 



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j^reface- 



T^HE various Papers and Pedigrees comprised in these two Volumes have been gradually 
accumulated during the last seven years. Having commenced by collecting information 
about my own family, which was formerly settled at Antigua, I was soon led to make notes 
of many others connected by marriage, and finally to compile the Pedigrees of all those 
formerly resident there. I then visited the Island, and during my stay from December 1888 
to March 1st, 1889, made copious extracts from the parish registers and local records, besides 
copying all the monumental inscriptions in the various churchyards and plantation burial- 
grounds. Here I gratefully record my thanks to Sir William Frederick Haynes-Smith, the 
Governor of the Leeward Islands; to Captain I. C. Maling, then Acting-Secretary; to 
Mr. Octavius Humphrys, the Registrar of Wills and Deeds ; to the various Rectors ; and to 
my kind friends Messrs. Thomas Dickson Foote, John Foote, Arthur Shand, Oliver Nugent, 
John Jarvis, and others. 

The information thus acquired on the Island was subsequently largely augmented by a 
search through the Colonial Papers at the Public Record Office, Mrs. Vernona T. C. Smith 
materially assisting by making extracts for me from the Close Rolls ; and my thanks are 
also due to Mr. Chaloner Smith, the head of the Literary Search Department at Somerset 
House, for his uniform courtesy and help. 

In regard to the Historical Introduction which follows, I have endeavoured to give as 
much original information as possible ; most of it is in a very crude and condensed state, 
but I have purposely avoided putting forward my personal opinions, deeming it better for 
each reader to form his own. As to the Pedigrees, I must point out that some of them are 
unreliable, owing to the absence of sufficient proof, but I shall be very glad to receive corrections 
and additions. The first Volume has taken the Publishers over two years to print, but the 
remaining one will be probably completed next year. 

VERE LANGFORD OLIVER. 

Whitmoee Lodge, Sunninghill, Berks. 
December 1894. 



TJiis Editio)i has heeii limited to 150 copies, 
of which this is No. 4: J 



ilist of Seorlis Consulttti, 

The following Works on tlie West Indies are in the Author's possession, and he has extracted from 
them eveiything of importance bearing- on the History of Antigua : — 

Histoire Naturelle et Morale des lies Antilles de I'Amerique, [by Charles de Rochefort]. 4to. Rotterdam, 1658. 
Histoire Generale des Antilles, by le pere du Tertre. 4 vols. 4to. Paris, 1667 — 71. 

A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes, by Richard Ligon. Small fo. Second edition, London, 1673. 
The Original Lists of Emigrants to the American Plantations 1600 — 1700, by John Camden Hotten. Large paper 

royal 4to. London, 1874. 
A Collection of the Sufferings of the People called Quakers from 1650 — 89, by Joseph Besse. 2 vols, small fo. 

London, 1753. 
A Copy of the Articles Exhibited by Mr. Freeman to the House of Commons against Col. Codrington. 8vo. 1702. 
History of Col. Parke's Administrations, by George French, and an Answer, etc. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1717. 
Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de I'Amerique, by le pere Labat. 2 vols, large 4to. The Hague, 1724. 
Acts of xVssembly Passed in the Island of Barbadoes from 1648 to 1718. Fo. London, 1732. 
Acts of Assembly Passed in the Charibbee Leeward Islands from 1690 to 1730. Small fo. London, 1734. 
Acts of Assembly Passed in the Island of St. Christopher from 1711 to 1735. Fo. London, 1739. ' 

Acts of Assembly Passed in the Island of Nevis from 1664 to 1739. Fo. Loudon, 1740. 
The British Empire in America, [by John Oldmixon]. 2 vols. Svo. Second edition, London, 1741. 
Caribbeana. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1741. 

Memoirs of the Firsc Settlement of the Island of Barbados and other the Carribbee Islands. 12mo. First edition, 
London, 1743. 

A Natural History of Nevis and the rest of the English Leeward Charibee Islands in America, by Rev. William Smith. 

8vo. Cambridge, 1745. 
The Natural History of Barbados, by the Rev. GriflBth Hughes, A.M., with a List of Subscribers. • Small fo. London, 1750. 
The Memorials of the English and French Commissaries concerning St. Lucia. 4to. London, 1755. 
Description geographique des Isles Antilles possedees par les Anglois, by S. Bellin. Small 4to. Paris, 1758. 
Au account of the Expedition to the "West Indies against Martinico with the reduction of Guadelupe and other the 

Leeward Islands subject to the French King 1759, by Capt. Richard Gardiner. 4to. Third edition, Bir- 
mingham, 1762. 
An Account of the European Settlements in America. 2 vols. Svo. London, 1765. 
The substance of the Evidence on the Petition presented by the West India Planters and Merchants to the Hon. House of 

Commons, 16 March 1775. Svo, pp. 47. London. 
The West India Atlas .... together with an Historical Account, by Thomas JeflTerys. Royal fo. London, 1775. 
MS. A Tour through part of the West Indies, containing a particular Description of the Climate, Cultivation, and several 

of the Natural Productions of the Island of Tobago, and other Settlements in that quarter of the world. In a 

Series of 12 Letters to a Friend. Small fo., pp. 255. 18 January 1780 to 1 July 1782. 
The Crisis of the Sugar Colonies. Svo, pp. 38. London, 1785. 

Letters to a Young Planter, or Observations on the Management of a Sugar Plantation. 8vo. London, 1785. 
Proceedings of a General Court-Martial on Captain Robert Hedges of the 67th Regiment : held at the Court-House, 

St. John's, Antigua, from Monday the 30th of .lanuary to Monday the 13th of March 1786. Royal Svo. 

Antigua: St. John's ; Printed by James Hargrove, on the Parade, 1786. 
A Narrative of the Official Conduct of Valentine Morris, Esq., Governor of St. Vincent, by himself. Svo. London, 1787. 
History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies, by the Abbe Raynal. Translated 

by J. 0. Justamond, F.R.S. 8 vols. Svo. London, 1788. 
A Brief Account of the Island of Antigua 1786 — 88, by John LufFman. Crown Svo. Second edition, London, 1789. 
A Treatise on Planting, by Joshua Peterkin, Planter, second edition, with List of Subscribers in Antigua, etc. pp. 104 

and iv. St. Christopher's : Printed by Edward Luth R. Low, Cayou Street, Basseterre, 1790; 
The Case of the Sugar Colonies. Svo, pp. 97. London, 1792. 

A Vindication of the Use of Sugar, the Produce of the West India Islands. Svo, pp. 24. Second edition, London, 1792. 
A Plain Man's Thoughts on the present Price of Sugar, [by James Tobin of .Nevis]. 8vo, pp. 22. London, 1792. 
An Account of the Campaign in the West Indies in the year 1794, by the Rev. Cooper Williams, A.M. Large paper 

royal fo. London, 1796. 

An Historical Survey of the Island of Saint Domingo, tog-ether with an Account of the Maroon Negroes in the Island of 
Jamaica ; and a History of the War in the West Indies in 1793 and 1794, by Bryan Edwards, Esq. Also a Tour 
through the several Islands of Barbadoes, St. Vincent, Antigua, Tobago, and Grenada, in the years 1791 and 1792, 
by Sir William Young, Bart. 4to. London, 1801. 

A Tour through the British West Indies in 1S02 and 1803, by Daniel McKinnen, Esq. Crown Svo. London, 1804. 

The History of the Discovery and Settlement to the present time of North and South America and of the West Indies, by 
William Mavor, LL.D. Royal 24mo. London, 1804. 



iv LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED, 

The Laws of tlie Island of Antigua, consisting of the Acts of the Leewanl Islands from KiOO to 1798, and those of 

Antigua from 1GG8 to 1804. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1805. 
The West India Common-Place Book, by Sir William Young, Bart., F.R.S., M.P. -Ito. London, 1807. 
An Inquiry into the State of the British West Indies, by Joseph Lowe, Esq. 8?o. London, 1807. 
Outline of a Plan for the Better Cultivation, Security, and Defence of the British West Indies, by Capt. Layman, R.N. 

8vo. London, 1807. 
Suggestions arising from the Abolition of the African Slave Trade for supplying the demands of the West India Colonies 

with Agricultural Labourers, by Robert Townsend Farquhar, Esq. 8vo. London, 1807. 
A History of the West Indies .... with an Account of the Wesleyan Missions .... by Thomas Coke, LL.D. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Liverpool, 1808. 
The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies, by Bryan Edwards, Esq., F.R.S., S.A., with a continuation 

to the present time. 5 vols. 8vo, and 4to atlas. London, 1819. 
A Voyage in the West Indies, by John Augustus Waller, Surgeon R.N. 8vo. London, 1820. 
Ten Views in the Island of Antigua, in which are represented the Process of Sugar Making, from drawings made by 

William Clark. 18i inches by 13 inches. London, 1823. 
MS. Reports relating to Mr. Gordon's Estates in the West Indies 1824, illustrated with maps and water-colour views. 

Royal fo. 
Six Months in the West Indies in 1825, by Henry Nelson Coleridge, M.A. Royal 24mo. Second edition, crown 8vo, 1826. 

Third edition, London, 1832. 
Chronological History of the West Indies, by Capt. Thomas Southey, R.N. 3 vols. 8vo. London, 1827. 
An Historical and Descriptive Account of Antigua, illustrated by numerous coloured engravings, by J. Johnson. 23 inches 

by 18i inches. London, 1830. 
Four Years' Residence in the West Indies, 1826—29. 8vo. Third edition, London, 1833. 
The West India Sketch Book. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1834. 
Charges delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Barbados and the Leeward Islands, by the Right Rev. William Hart 

Coleridge, D.D., Bishop. 8vo. London, 1835. 
The West Indies in 1837, being the journal of a visit to Antigua .... by Joseph Sturge and Thomas Harvey. 8vo. 

London, 1838. 
Extracts from Papers relative to the West Indies. Printed by Order of the House of Commons 1839. Medium 8vo. 

London, 1840. 
Antigua and the Antiguans, [by Mrs. Lanaghan]. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1844. 
The Sugar Planters' Manual, by W. J. Evans, M.D. 8vo. London, 1847. 
The Antigua Almanac. 12mo. 1852. 

The West Indies before and since Slave Emancipation, by John Davy, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. London, 1854. 
A Treatise on the West Indian Incumbered Estates Acts, by Reginald John Cust, Esq. 12mo. Second edition, London, 

1865. 
Monumental Inscriptions of the British West Indies, by Capt. J. H. Jjawrence-Archer. 4to. London, 1875. 
A Young Squire of the 17th Century, from the papers (a.d. 1676 — 86) of Christopher Jeaffreson, by John Cordy 

Jeaflfreson. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1878. 
Down the Islands, a Voyage to the Caribbees, by William Agnew Paton. Medium 8vo. London, 1888. 
The West Indies, by C. Washington Eves, C.M.G. Crown 8vo. Second edition, 1891. 



iltst oi illustrations. 

TO FACE PAGE 

Map of the Leeward Islands ......... Frontispiece 

Map of Antigua, 1787 ........... v 

English Harbour and Freemans Bay in the Island of Antigua, 1818 ..... xviii 

Portrait of Daniel Parke, Captain-General and Governor of the Leeward Islands, 1706 — 1710 . . Ixxv 

View of the Entrance of English Harbour, Antigua, 1818 ....... cviii 

English Harbour from Freemans Bay ......... cviii 

View of St. John's Harbour in Antigua, 1752 ........ clx 

Portrait of Christopher Codrington, Captain-General and Governor of the Leeward Islands, 1698 — 1703 . 143 



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CHAPTER I. 
TOPOGRAPHY. 



The Island of Antigua, one of the Leeward Caribbee 
Islands, is situated in the Caribbean Sea, between 
61° 4-i' and 61° 58' W. long-itude, and between 17° 2' 
and 17° 13' N. latitude; about 60 miles E. of St. 
Christopher's, 27 N.E. of Moutserrat, and 40 N. of 
Guadaloupe. 

In shape it is roughly oval, the greatest length 
being about 20 miles E. and W., and the breadth 17 
miles N. and S. ; the area has been estimated at 108^ 
square miles, equivalent to 69,275 acres. The coast 
line, about 50 or 60 miles iu extent, is much indented 
by creeks and bays, which form many excellent 
natural harbours, but of these three only are resorted 
to by ships of large burden, viz. : — English Harbour, 
on the S. coast, Parham on the N., and St. John's on 
the W. It is surrounded on all sides, except the S., 
by islets, rocks, and shoals, which render the naviga- 
tion along the coast dangerous, and the entrance to 
the harbours intricate. The country is somewhat flat 
and swampy to the N.E., undulating elsewhere, and 
hilly in the S.W., where the highest elevation in the 
Sheckerley Mountains is 1210 feet. 

St. John's, the capital, with a population of over 
10,000, is the only town of any importance, and 
owing to its position at the head of an extensive 
harbour, it has become the chief centre for trade and 
commerce ; but a sandy bar across the entrance to 
the latter, about three miles from the city, prevents 
the passage of large ships. On the N. side of the 
harbour is a bold rock called Rat Island, formerly 
the site of the barracks, but now occupied by the 
asylum, access to which is obtained by means of a 
narrow stone causeway. Farther W. are the crumb- 
ling walls of Fort James ; and on the S. side, dominat- 
ing the " Roads," stands the old battery on Goat's 
Hill, now converted into a signal station. 

The streets, which have been laid out at right 
angles to each other, are broad, clean, and airy ; and 
the many substantial old houses testify to the former 
prosperity of their residents. The principal public 
buildings are the Cathedral, erected about 50 years 
ago at a cost of £40,000 ; Government House, the 
residence of the Governor and Captain-General of 
the Federal Colony; the Court House, where the 
Legislature and Judges assemble to transact busi- 
ness ; the Custom House, Arsenal, Market, Hospital, 
Library, etc. 



English Harbour, on the S. coast, about 12 miles 
by road S.E. of the capital, is almost completely 
land locked, occupying as it does the bed of an 
extinct crater. The narrow and intricate entrance 
was formerly secured by a chain, and commanded by 
the battery of Fort Berkeley which mounted 39 guns, 
but at the present time a solitary 18-pounder, dated 
1805, with the monogram of G. R., alone remains to 
attest its former strength. The numerous forts on 
the adjacent heights, with barracks for the accom- 
modation of a regiment, which were constructed 
about 1780 for the protection of H.M. Dockyard, 
are now in a ruinous state. During the long wars 
of the last century huge fleets were I'efitted and 
revictualled here, and our uninterrupted possession 
of this impregnable stronghold was a continual 
menace to the French. On the N. side, on a gentle 
slope, approached by a splendid military road, lies 
Clarenc^ House, the official residence of the com- 
manding naval officer of the station. To the W. 
lie the various buildings comprising the Dockyard, 
which are all kept in good repair. A low and 
narrow neck of sand, separating English and Fal- 
mouth Harbours, leads to Falmouth Town, which is 
a small hamlet grouped around its church, and a 
place of no trade nor importance. Close at hand, on 
the rugged summit of Monks Hill, stands Great 
George Fort, which was constructed by the colonists 
at a great cost as a shelter for the women and 
children iu case of insurrection or invasion ; the 
ramparts enclose an ai'ea of 10 acres, which was at 
one time occupied by dwelling houses, store houses, 
and magazines. Old Road Town in St. Mary's 
Parish is likewise an insignificant place lying on a 
good bay, where the first English settlers are sup- 
posed to have lauded. Bridge Town at Willoughby 
Bay exists now but in name. Parham Town in St. 
Peter's Parish, once part of the lordship of the 
Lords Willoughby of Parham, is a small village 
about seven miles by road E. of St. John's, contain- 
ing a few good houses close to the church, but its 
harbour is not now used for trade. 

Geology.* — Antigua presents three distinct for- 
mations of the tertiary class, of which the most super- 
ficial beds occupy the northern and eastern divisions 

* The following- paragraphs have been copied from the Antigua 
Almanacs of 1845 and 1S52. 

6 



Tl 



THE HISTORY OE ANTIGUA. 



of the island. These consist of a calcareous marl 
and coarse sandstone, interspersed with masses of a 
tolerably compact shell limestone. The monutainons 
district, forming the southern and western divisions, 
is composed of rocks of the newest floetz trap forma- 
tion, as wacke por^jhyry, trap breccia, amygdaloid, 
and some spherical masses of basaltic greenstone. 
The intermediate district is occupied by a series 
of argillaceous strata of varied characters. The 
most superficial consists of a loose friable marl of 
yellow colour, with olive-brown spots, containing 
numerous concretions of a lenticular form. The 
next stratum in the series is of a more compact and 
homogeneous texture, being a white indurated clay 
of a slaty structure, intersected by seams which 
divide it into tabular masses. Inferior to this we 
find another tabular rock, of a coarser grain than 
the last, which, beiiig highly impregnated with green 
earth, presents a beautiful sea-green or bluish colour. 
The next, and lowest in the series of this formation, 
is a stratum of liver-brown colour and conglomerate 
character, having imbedded in it masses of different 
species of the trap family. All these strata dip at a 
considerable angle to the N. and N.E., and extend 
across the island from the Ridge to the neighbour- 
hood of St. John's. The order of stratitication is 
somewhat disturbed by the irruption of a large mass 
of the trap family at Drew's Hill. This spot is 
worthy of a more minute examination, for it contains 
the only marks of I'ecent volcanic action that have 
as yet been discovered in this island. Streams of 
lava, some more compact, others vesicular, are found 
at the base of the hill, bearing the impression of the 
leaves of dicotyledonous plants ; among which may 
be recognized those of the Ficus pertusa, and a species 
of Melastoma. 

These three formations do not pass impercep- 
tibly into each other, but are divided by well- 
marked natural boundaries. The southern limit of the 
calcareous district is formed by a zone of lowland, ex- 
tending from Willoughby Bay on the S.E. to Dicken- 
son's Bay on the N.W., which, at no very distant 
period, appears to have been submerged by a narrow 
firth, dividing the island into two, like the Riviere Sale 
of Guadaloupe. The claystone is divided from the 
trap formation by the Body Ponds and the stream 
which issues from them, running towards the N.W. 
through a beautifully luxuriant plain. The surface 
of each district presents also peculiar features. The 
calcareous is exceedingly broken and undulated, 
consisting of a series of round-backed hills of no 
great elevation, covered with a light arid soil. The 
summits of these hills are overgrown with wild sage 
{Lantana involucrata), among which the loblolly 
{Pisonia suhcordata), Croton halsamiferum, Bauwoljia 
nitida, and other shrubs are interspersed. The 
sides of the hills and intervening valleys are highly 
cultivated, and produce a rapid growth when duly 
favoured with rain. The claystone formation pre- 
sents a precipitous escarpment towards the S. and 
S.W., and a gentle declivity in the opposite direction. 
This is the most barren district in the island, con- 



sidering that it is everywhere accessible to the im- 
plements of husbandry. The district occupied by 
the trap formation consists of mountains, some of 
which rise with conical summits to the height of 
800 or 1000 feet, others of the sam.e elevation are 
more rounded and less precipitous, affording a 
good soil for the sugar-cane even on their tops. 
They are intersected by beautifully romantic valleys, 
and the abrupt sides of the mountains are clothed 
with the verdant foliage of a great variety of herbs 
and trees and twining shrubs. 

Mineral Contents. — Calcareous spar, agates, 
chalcedony, quartz, and jasper of various colours, 
are met with abundantly in both the stratified 
formations. The upper strata of the clay, and the 
alluvial district between it and the marl, contain 
extensive beds of stratified chert, which, in the 
more upland jjarts of this district is broken into 
angular blocks of considerable size and strewed over 
the surface of the land, affording an additional 
cause of its bad agricultural character. The whole 
of this formation is highly impregnated with the 
oxides of iron, and the granular magnetic iron ore, 
or iron sand, may be collected in abundance, espe- 
cially after a shower, when it accumulates in the 
courses of the temporary streams which the rain 
occasions. Suljjhate of barytes is found at Drew's 
Hill, under an insulated mass of wacke porphyry. 

Oeganio Remains.— The organic fossils of the 
calcareous strata consist of a great variety of marine 
exuviffi, analogous to those which at present inhabit 
the surrounding seas, as astrese, meandrinse, tubi- 
porse, echinus, pectan, cardium, strombus, cerithium, 
scalaria, ostrea, etc. Many of the polyj)iferous re- 
mains are seen in a state of beautiful preservation, 
although they have undergone a thorough con- 
version of their substance, the calcareous matter of 
the fossil being entirely replaced by an infiltration 
of chalcedony. Of the higher animals no remains 
have been discovered as yet, except one or two 
sharks' teeth not much inferior in size to those 
found in Malta. 

The chert contains a prodigious quantity of casts, 
apparently of the genus Melania, and some of the 
entire shells adhere to its exterior surface in beautiful 
relief, shewing evidently that this mineral has been 
deposited from the waters which overflowed this dis- 
trict. Associated with the chert, we find great 
quantities of silicious petrifactions of the stems of 
palms and dicotyledonous trees : these take a beau- 
tiful polish, and are much sought after for the 
cabinet of the curious. No organic remains have 
been found in the trap, and few minerals, except 
those which are common to these rocks. 

Springs, Rivers, etc. — There are few springs in 
the island, and no stream that deserves the name of 
a river; but there are several creeks, whose oozy 
waters maintain the growth of impenetrable thickets 
of the different species of mangrove, as Rhigophera 
mangle, Avicennia tomentosa, and Laguncularia race- 
mosa. 

Climate. — In Antigua the weight and tempera- 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



vu 



ture of the atmosphere vary but little throughout 
the year. The mean temperature is 78°, the maxi- 
mum 87° and minimum 66° ; the mean dew point 
70°. The usual height of the barometer is 30 inches, 
but occasionally it rises to 30-15, and sometimes 
falls as low as 29-3. The average fall of rain is 45 
inches* during the year. From A.pril to August 
the fanning trade-wind holds its steady course, in- 
fusing health and vigour into every living creature. 
During the next three months the electrical equili- 
brium is often disturbed, the wind is more variable 
both in force and direction; the clouds collect in 
volumes, and torrents of rain fill the ponds and 
cisterns, on which the inhabitants def)end for a 
supply of water. This is the season at which hurri- 
canes occur. On these occasions the barometer has 
fallen from '5 inch to 1'86 inch below its ordinary 
height. From December to April the wind becomes 
more northerly, and produces frequently a sensation 
of cold much greater than what is indicated 
by the thermometer, but in the cloudless moonlight 
nights at this period of the year even the mercury 
falls now and then to 66° of Fahrenheit. 

Zoology. — With the exception of rabbits, two or 
three species of bats, and rats and mice, there are 
no wild animals of the class Mammalia in Antigua. 
The domestic animals are horses, mules, oxen, hogs, 
goats, and a short-haired hornless breed of sheep, 
the flesh of which is highly esteemed. Domestic 
fowls, geese, turkeys, guinea-birds, and ducks are 
abundant. Cranes, pelicans, wild ducks, owls, hawks, 
kites, quails, and ground-doves ; plovers, sand- 
pipers, and other migratory birds, which visit the 
island for a short time in autumn ; humming-birds, 
and one or two species of Pici nearly complete the 
catalogue of wild birds. Of the order Passeres 
scarcelj' an individual occurs, so that Antigua can- 
not boast of the melody of her groves. In tropical 
countries the ear is not the avenue of pleasurable 
sensations. In the splendour of day Nature presents 
to the eye her gorgeous attire in all the stillness of 
a panorama, and when night has veiled the scene 
in darkness the croaking of frogs and the shrill 
note of the gryllides produce a noise painfully 
discordant, but of which, fortunately, its unvaried 
sameness soon renders the ear almost insensible. The 
coast is well supplied with turtle and the fish pecu- 
liar to these regions, and which, with the exception 
of the yellow-billed sprat, conger eel, and horse-eyed 
cavally, are seldom possessed of the poisonous quali- 
ties with which they are frequently impregnated in 
these seas. 

Vegetable Kingdom. — Sugar is the staple com- 
modity of the island, and consequently the cultiva- 
tion of the sugar-cane is the chief business of the 
agriculturist ; but various articles of provisions, such 
as maize, guinea-corn, yams, sweet potatoes, eddoes, 
arrowroot, cassada, and a great variety of legnminoiis 
plants are also raised, together with pumpkins, 
squashes, okro, and other esculent vegetables. Of 

* For the 18 years, 1870—1887, the average rainfall was 51 
inches. 



fruit a great variety may be enumerated, but little 
care is taken in their culture, such as gnavas, soiir 
soj), sweet sop, custard apples, papaws, plantains, 
bananas, cocoanuts, bread fruit, jack fruit, cashew- 
nuts, granadillas, water-melons, prickly pear, moun- 
tain pear, avocado pear, mango, hog plums, Java 
plums, Barbados cherries, Surinam cherries, I'ose 
apples, and several other species of Eugenia ; grapes, 
tamarinds, pomegranates, sapadillas, Otaheite goose- 
berries {Gica disticha), and Barbados gooseberries. 
Antigim is still celebrated for pine-apples ; and the 
different species of the citron genus were once pro- 
duced here in great perfection, but they ai-e now 
almost totally destroyed by the blight. The prin- 
cipal trees are red and white cedars {Cedrela odo- 
■rata, Bignonia leucoxylon), mahogany, logwood, 
manchineel, mangrove trees, white wood {Bucida 
huceras), broad-leaved terminalia or wild almond 
tree, and tamarind. Guinea-grass is extensively 
cultivated, and together with an indigenous species, 
the Cent-per-Cent {Panicum colonum), and the tops 
of the sugar-cane, it constitutes the principal green 
food of the stable. In moist clayey soils the nut- 
grass [Gyperus hydra) is a troublesome weed ; but 
the great pest of the planters is the devil's grass 
{Cynodon dactylon), which, though by all accounts 
biit of recent introduction, is now extensively dif- 
fused, and has resisted every method of eradicating 
it hitherto practised. 

Of the indigenous botany of the Antilles, there is 
yet much to be discovered ; and it is rather dis- 
creditable to the parent state, that for the little that 
is known we are indebted to the zeal of private 
individuals, chiefly industrious foreigners. The vol- 
canic islands, jjossessing a more humid soil and 
temperate climate than the lowlands of marine origin, 
present a flora more numerous in species and luxu- 
riant in growth. There the orchidese, ferns, and 
lycopodiacea are more abundant. Each island in 
the groui>, however, affords a locality to some par- 
ticular species which is unknown to the others, 
though the same general botanical features pervade 
the whole. Of the truly indigenous plants found 
in Antigua, 401 species have been accurately de- 
termined. (The late Dr. Nicholas Nugent, an emi- 
nent geologist and botanist, was probably responsible 
for the above-quoted articles.) 



RAINFALL 1846—1852. 
Taken at the '^ Ridge." (Davy's 'West Ikdies,' p. 384.) 





1846. 


1847. 


1848. 


1849. 


1850. 


1851. 


18.52. 


Jan. 




2-77 




2-92 


1-57 


3^75 


•81 


Feb. 




1-50 




1-30 


1-95 


6-38 


2-85 


Mar. 




1-72 




1- 


2-60 


2-25 


•40 


April 




■57 


2-92 


•85 


•43 


2-75 




May 




•86 


1-17 


•53 


•25 


5^43 


4^36 


June 




1-92 


1-37 


1-99 


2-64 


8^84 




July 


8-31 


2-33 


2-91 


3-68 


753 


1-81 


2^85 


Aug. 


8-69 


6-38 


4- 


4^26 


7^52 


7-31 


6^24 


Sep. 


3-29 


1-91 


5-47 


V?,7 


3-78 


1-23 


5^09 


Oct. 


2-46 


3-98 


7-49 


2^96 


1-31 


3-99 


•88 


Nov. 


9-17 


6-25 


4-69 




•31 


1^82 


434 


Dec. 


13-47 


2*42 


1-79 


3-30 


3^24 


5-67 


4^28 



Total 



36^51 



24^16 



33^13 



51^23 



32^ 10 



TIU 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sep. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dee. 

Total 







RAINFALL 


1870- 


-1878. 














RAINFALL 18 


79—1888. 








Recorded 


BY THE Librarian at St. John's. 






Recorded bt the Librarian at St. 


John's. 




1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 




1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


4-60 


3-47 


1^64 


4-05 


1-95 


2-50 


4-01 


2-08 


3-57 


Jan. 


3-63 


11-09 


2-77 


2-52 


3-75 


2-83 


2-59 


269 


316 


3-01 


•84 


1-49 


•68 


1-17 


1-79 


2-83 


1-58 


4-06 


1-51 


Feb. 


5-75 


2-83 


2-71 


191 


4-18 


2-69 


1-59 


2^50 


2-76 


2-14 


2-85 


3-05 


1-68 


4-22 


1-50 


3-52 


4-64 


-44 


3-99 


Mar. 


1-81 


2-13 


-66 


•57 


2-27 


3-39 


1^47 


r67 


1-32 


2^02 


•79 


4-20 


1-04 


1-11 


2-46 


1-24 


4-39 


8-45 


2-53 


April 


5-47 


6-94 


4-13 


V37 


4-64 


2-39 


2-25 


4^45 


•54 


4-15 


1-64 


3^30 


1-52 


1-83 


3-10 


1-48 


9-44 


2-64 


11-20 


May 


11-39 


9-46 


8-01 


l-U 


6-76 


4-72 


V57 


2^25 


3-84 


1-84 


2^13 


1-81 


2-22 


i-.so 


1-85 


2-99 


5-89 


6-58 


2-29 


June 


6-90 


4-46 


10-65 


2-60 


5-08 


3-75 


2-04 


3^83 


7-90 


5-57 


5-83 


293 


5-77 


1-75 


3-33 


3-06 


4-53 


3-69 


7-95 


July 


5-96 


10-28 


5-23 


4-46 


3-63 


7-32 


3^31 


4^57 


4-43 


7-19 


6^82 


2-52 


2-96 


4-63 


6-98 


4-71 


3-36 


2-24 


6-65 


Aug. 


12-15 


3-96 


8-70 


5^45 


6-19 


2-44 


9-85 


5^68 


611 


7-46 


2-55 


4^01 


11-86 


5-84 


7-87 


3-16 


4-32 


3-99 


9-82 


Sep. 


2-78 


3-74 


4-79 


5^52 


3-13 


7-37 


263 


9-18 


7-32 


4-72 


4-35 


3-40 


5-87 


6-62 


4-49 


6^11 


2-76 


6-90 


5-90 


Oct. 


8-66 


3-72 


12^65 


7^45 


10-70 


5-93 


9^87 


4^33 


6-31 


6^09 


3^04 


1^97 


4-60 


1-92 


3-68 


ro8 


2-11 


6-35 


5-39 


Nov. 


7-71 


4-84 


5-25 


3-22 


10-12 


6-05 


9^28 


4-20 


4-55 


4-31 


2^28 


2-82 


4-54 


5-52 


2-43 


7-49 


1-96 


4-16 


1-88 


Dec. 


4-22 


3-36 


130 


6-15 


8-69 


4-71 


4^70 


2-79 


1-65 




37-82 


34-97 


44-.S8 


37-05 


40^37 


40-17 


48-99 


51-58 


62-68 


Total 


76-43 


66-81 


66^85 


42-66 


69-14 


53-59 51-15 


4814 


49-89 





CHAPTER II. 

THE SETTLEMENT OF THE LEEWAED ISLANDS, 1623-1635. 



The first discovery of Antigua dates from 1493, 
when Columbus, on his second voyage, is supposed 
to have passed this island, and to have named it 
after a church in Seville, " Santa Maria de la 
Antigua."* 

It was next visited in 1520 by a party of 
Spaniards under the Licentiate Don Antonio Ser- 
rano, who had received Letters Patent from his royal 
master authorizing him to colonize this and other 
islands, which orders were never carried out. 

The actual settlement of the island, however, did 
not take jilace until about 1632, when Sir Thomas 
Warner, the founder of the English colonies in the 
Leeward Islands, despatched a party of settlers from 
St. Christopher's. 

But before proceeding with the history of Antigua 
proper, it wiU be necessary to give an account of the 
settlement of the parent colony — St. Christopher's. 

Thomas Warner, the younger son of a Suffolk 
squire, of ancient lineage, having entered the Army 
at an early age, and attained the rank of Captain in 
the King's Body Guard, accompanied Captain Roger 
North, brother of Lord North, to Surinam, and there 
met a ' Captain Thomas Painton, an experienced 
navigator, who suggested St. Christopher's as a very 
suitable island on which to plant a colony. 

Acting ou his friend's advice, Warner returned 
home in 1620, and having been fitted out by 
Mr. Ralph Merifield, a London merchant, embarked 
on board a vessel bound to Virginia, and arrived 
eventually at St. Christopher's on the 28th of 
January 1623-4, with fifteen men :t William Tasted, 
John Rhodes, Robert Bims, Mr. Benifield, Sergeant 
Jones, Mr. Ware, William Ryle, Rowland Grascocke, 
Mr. Bonde, Mi-. Langley, Mr. Weaver, Edward 
Warner (the captain's son). Sergeant Aplou, one 
sailor, and a cook. Soiithey states that they found 
three Frenchmen, who tried to set the Indians upon 
the English, but at last they all became friends, 

* In the early records the name -svas usually spelt Antego, 
later Antegoa or Antigoa ; pronounced " Autega " at the present time. 

t The names of these original settlers are given by Southey, 
vol. i., p. 252, but Rochefort, Oldmixon, and Bryan Edwards omit 
them. 



lived a month with the Indians, built a fort and a 
house, and planted fruits and tobacco. By Septem- 
ber they had a crop of tobacco, which was destroyed 
by a hurricane upon the 19th of that month. Row- 
land Grascocke stated : " That all that while they 
lived upon cassado bread, potatoes, plantanes, pines, 
turtles, guanes, and fish plenty ; for drink they had 
nicknobby."* Another ship must have shortly 
followed, for James Astry in his sworn deposition 
(read on 2 August ] 660 at a meeting of the Privy 
Council Committee) related, "how in Jan. 1624 he 
and about 23 English planted in S' Christopher's 
without any authority but their own, and shortly 
after other Englishmen did the same." 

On the 18th of March 1624 the ship " Hopewell," 
fitted out by Ralph Merifield, and commanded by 
Captain John Jeaffreson (also a Suffolk man), ari'ived 
with three men passengers and some trade for the 
Indians. Captain Warner then seems to have re- 
turned in her to England with a second crop of 
tobacco ; and soon after his arrival obtained from the 
King a commission, dated 13 September 1625, which 
recites : " The discovery of St. Christopher's alias 
Merwar's Hope, Mevis, Barbadoes, and Monserate, by 
Thomas Warner, who, set forth & supplied by Ralph 
Merrifield, hath also began a plantation & colony of 
those islands, until then inhabited only by savages & 
not under the government of any Christian prince or 
state ; taking the said islands & inhabitants under 
the royal protection, & granting Thomas Warner the 
custody as the King's Lieutenant, with full power to 
make orders, articles, & ordinances, to trade freely 
for all manner of commodities, & to send over people 
to strengthen the plantation. In the event of 
Thomas Warner's decease, John JeafPreson, if he be 
still living, is appointed Lieutenant, & when the 
office becomes void by death, the English subjects 
resident there are empowered to elect a new 
Lieutenant." 

* Rochefort wrote in 1658 that the usual drink of the Caribs 
was called •' Maby," which was made of potatoes boiled with water. 
Lygon, in 1673, calls it "Mobbie," and likened it to Rhenish ■wine 
in the must, but short of it in the strength of the spirit and fine- 
ness of the taste. 



SETTLEMENT OE THE LEEWARD ISLANDS. 



IX 



In tlie meanwhile complications and difficulties 
were arising in the infant colony, for during 
Warner's absence a French pinnace, under the com- 
mand of Monsieur De Nombe, arrived at St. Christo- 
pher's.* Pierre Belain, Sieur D'Esnambuc (called 
De Nombe by Grascock), a French gentleman of the 
ancient house of Vauderop, had sailed from Dieppe 
in a brigantine with forty men, and after being dis- 
abled in fight with a Spanish galleon arrived at St. 
Christopher's to refit, the same day that Warner 
returned from England with recruits. The French 
privateersmen are stated to have then combined with 
the English, and attacked the Caribs, whom they 
severely defeated, at the cost of about 100 whites, 
some of whom died in four hours from the poisoned 
arrows, and having rid themselves of these trouble- 
some savages, Warner and D'Esnambuc returned to 
their respective countries. The above event probably 
took place some time in 1626. On the 3rd of May 
1626 Ralph Merrifield presented his petition to the 
Privy Council, stating that : " Having set foi-th two 
ships, under the command of Capt' Warner and 
Smith, to the new plantation in the Caribbee Islands, 
on their passage to the Downs they made prize of a 
small vessel of Dunkirk, which, being a good sailer, 
they intended to take with them, but Sir Henry 
Palmer required Capt. Warner to clear her in the 
Admiralty. Prays that she may go the voyage, & 
that Warner may answer for her on his return. On 
the same day passed an Order in Council for the 
restoration of the above to Capt' Warner & Smith." 
(' Domestic Correspondence,' Car. I., vol. 26 ; see 
' Colonial Calendar,' p. 328.) 

At the same time that Warner was collecting 
supplies for his colony, D'Esnambuc, his whilom ally 
but future enemy, was not idle, and it was doubtless 
through his representations that the French West 
India Company was founded on 30 October 1626 by 
that far-seeing statesman. Cardinal Richelieu, who 
granted commissions to Captains D'Esnambuc and 
Du Roissey ; the former of whom sailed from Havre 
in the ship the " Catholique " of 250 tons, and 
joining the latter in the " Cardinale " with 70, and 
the " Victoire " with 140 men, dropped anchor ofp 
Sandy Point, St. Chi-istopher's, on the 8th of May 
1627. The Frenchmen, who had suffered severely, 
for on the " Cardinale " but 16 were alive out of 70, 
took up their quarters at Capsterre. On the 13th of 
the same month the three leaders, D'Esnambuc, Du 
Roissey, and Warner, signed the first treaty for the 
partition of the island between the two nations, 
which runs as follows : — ■ 

Anno 1627. Articlesf made betweene y^ gentlmen 
Gov'iio'rs Captaine Warner & Captaiue Denumbuke, & 
Cap. Du Roissey, for j^ maiataining of their Commis- 
sions received from j^ King of England & y<= King of 
France. 
Imp'is. Seeing y' y« English & y« French have together 

conquered y^ Island of S' Christopher in y« West Indies & 

* See Southey, vol. i., p. 253, quotinc; from the narrative of Gras- 
cocke, Simons, and Burjjh, who were among the first colonists. 

f These treaties are to be seen at the British Museum, Egertou 
MS. 2395. 



y' their Kings have given them Commissions for y^ same 
place ; they shall remaine Govern'rs of this Island, each of 
them ill their severall plantation, according to their agree- 
ment. 

All J" Englishmen y' are Ujion y'- said Island shall live 
under y'^ authoritie & com'aiid of y' King of England & his 
Leiutenant Governour ; & likewise y^ french-mea, under 
their King, & y« Governours made by hitn. 

Noe shipping y' shall come to y'^ saide Island shall sell 
their merchandize w'*" out leave of j' said Governours Cap. 
Warner, & Cap. Denumbuke, and Cap. Du Roissey : If it 
be an English ship, y"^ Govern' of y= English shall set a 
price itpon his merchandize. And if it be a freuch-ship y^ 
french Govern'rs shall doe so likewise : But if here come 
any Flemmish ship y<= Governours shall conclude together, & 
set a price upon his merchandize. 

The Governours shall not entertaine any men or slaves 
of either partie, in their habitations, before they have given 
warning one to y'' other. 

If any Indians shall be seene upon y'' said Island hee y' 
first discovereth them shall send word of it pr'sently to y^ 
other nation. 

If any Spaniards shall at any time invade y<= said Island, 
hee y' first discovereth them shall pr'sently send word to j" 
Gov'rnour or Governours of y^ other nation & they shall 
send forces immediately to aide them against y" Spaniards, 
y' they may not be suffered to land there. 

If there be any quarrelling or fighting betweene any of 
y'' Enghsh and y^ french, they shall be judged by y* 
governours ; & after judgment passed upon them they shall 
be sent each of them to their owne plantations to be 
punished. 

If there shall be any warrs betweene England & France 
y^ Governours shall give warning thereof one to y'' other.* 

And allthough there be warrs betweene England & 
France yet y^ English shall not make warre against y^ 
french, nor y^ french against ye English upon y'= said 
Island, unlesse they have speciall order for it from their 
King. 



Partage made (betweene y"' governours Cap. Warner, Cap. 
Denumbuke, & Captain Du Roissey) of y'= Island of St. 
Christopher in j" name of their Kings by j'' vertue of 
their Commissions. Aprill 28, 1627. 

Impr'is. Of y<= baster for Cap. Warner : From y= river 
w'"" is halfe way betweene M. Shambauts plantation & Mer- 
ward to y^ Sandie point. 

Of y^ baster for Cap. Denumbuke & Cap. Du Roissey : 
From ye foresaid river to y= salt ponds Eastward. 

Of Capies ter for Cap. Warner : From y= West side of y= 
river at Christopher's tow to Cans. Pipholet.f 

Of Capies ter for Cap. Denumbuke & Cap. du Roissey : 
From y^ East side of y' river at Christopher's towne to y^ 
salt ponds ; & from Cans. Pipholet to y« sandie point. 

Besides this partage made of y= Island The Island shall 
be free for any of them, to hunt to fish ; The salt ponds 
allso, y^ rivers, y'= seas, y^ roades, y" mines & wood of value 
(if any shall be found) shall be common betweene y^ English 
& y^ french. 

These articles are made & agreed upon betweene y'= 
gov'rn'rs Cap. Warner, Cap. Denumbuke, & Cap. Du Roissey: 
And they have promised, protested, & sworne, that they 
will maintaine y" said Island, & uphould each other, during 
y'= pleasure of their Kings, y'= King of England & y' King 
of France. 

Moreover y'= gov'rn'rs have promised and bound them- 
selves to give notice unto their Kings y= King of England 

* In margin — This article and all form Articles agreed uppon 
were confirmed and (hlanli) in the Engl, and fre. last Articles m.ade 
about 3 montlis before the Isl. was surprised by the french. 

t In the French copy this is called " la Case du Pistolet." 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



& y' King of France of the articles, & partage of }■•= said 
Island to know their M'''== pleasures. 

Endorsed : — '■ 1627. The first agreem' of Partage of y^ 
Island betwixt y« English & french." It is fnrther en- 
dorsed in French, but the writing is very indistinct, though 
some of the witnesses' names can be read. 



On 13 May 1627 the following treaty was signed, 
a copy of which was annexed to the treaty of 15 July 
1637 and re-confii-med : — 

Anno 1627. Articles agreed upon by Ca])' Warner, M' 
Desnambucq and M"' Du Roissy to be maintained 
according to y' Commands they have from the Kings 
of france and England, by virtue of their Commissions 
first. 
Since the french and English have togeather Conquered 
the Island of S' Christophers from the Indians, And that 
the Kings of france and England have allowed it, and given 
them their Commissions, the one and the others shall 
remayne Goveruours Each in their quarter (for y« said 
Kings).* And according to Separation made betweene 
them and shall y^ one and the others beare the quallity of 
Oovernours Each in their quarter. All the french which 
shall be in the Island shall not depend from any but the 
king of france and the goveruours preposed by his Ma*-". 
And the English from the King of England and the 
Goveruours preposed.f Noe shipp shall come to trafficq in 
y" Island but by permition of the sayd Governour. If he 
be English the English Governour shall give the orders and 
prises for y^ marchandizes. If he be french, the french 
Governor shall give the ord"' & prises aisoe to j' sayd 
marchandizes. If he be Dutch they shall both togeatlier 
give their permition. The sayd Goveruours shall detayne 
any men or slaves in their plantations that shall not belong 
to them But shall keepe them till such tyme as they shall 
have given Each other Notice of y« sayd men or slaves. 
If any Cource to be had against the Indians, Each shall Con- 
tribute of men, boates and Armes to their power. If the 
Spanyards should land in the Island, Each shall be bound 
to find the most powerfull helpe that can be, to y'= Landing 
place and shall helpe Each other with all their power. If 
there happen any difierance quarrells or fighteings betweene 
Each others men, the delinquents shall be judged by the 
french and English and after that sent Each in his quarter 
for Execution of y= sentence. If there happen warr in 
Europe twixt the English and french, Yett shall not the 
s"! Goveruours warr with Each other Except Expressly Com- 
manded thereto by their Prince, In which Case, they shall 
be obliged to give Each other Notice before they committ 
any act of hostility. 



Separations of the Island of S' Christophers made betweene 
Cap' Warner, M' De Nambucq, and M"' Du Roissy, ffor 
and in behalfe of y^ Kings of france and England, 
according and Conformably to their Commissions of y" 
Eighth Day of May One thousand six hundred twenty 
and seaven. 
ffirst fifor Basseterre the Limitts of Cap* Warner in said 
behalfe shall Extend from the river which make the midway 
from y<= plantation of Meronard and that form'ly made by 
M'' Chantail, to Sandy pointe Southward, at the foote of 
Samuells Garden. And for Cap* De Nambucq and M'' Du 
Roissy in sayd behalfe, their part shall be from the sayd 
River which makes Separation of the sayd plantations East- 
ward to J" salt panns. And for Capesterre, Cap* Warners 
part in sayd behalfe shall be from the syde of the river of 

* " For y= said Kings," in mergen in y« originall. 
f (Y« English from y' King of England & their Governours 
preposed) Interlined in the Originall. 



S' Christopher's house. Westward to the house of Pifolet. 
And that part of Cap* Du Roissy and De Nambucq in y* 
sayd behalf shall be from the other side of S' Christopher's 
house, Eastward to the Saltpanns, And Westward from the 
house of Pifolet to Sandy pointe. Moreover what sepera- 
tions soever be made hereabove, Its und'stood that fowleing 
or hunting, fishing, the saltpauns. Rivers, the 'sea roades, 
mines, wood for dye and of vallew If any be, and Wayes 
shall be Common betweene the English and french and that 
they shall make use of them in Common. Which articles 
and seperations, the sayd M'' Warner, M"" De Nambucq and 
M'' Du Roissy, Have promised, sworne and protested upon 
the holy Evangelists to follow maintaine and keepe, with 
the good Likeings of y"^ king of france and of the King of 
England. And the sayd S" on each part shall be bound 
and obliged to give Notice of them to their sayd Ma*y*' 
that thereupon the rattification will and Consent of their 
Ma*^". And further the 8'= Warner, De Nambucq and Du 
Roissy in behalfe of their sayd Ma*-''" and Company Doe 
oblige themselves to fortifye and furnish the sayd Island of 
S' Christophers with all their power, Against the striveings, 
Landeings and Incursions of their publicq Ennemies and 
others, who would give them any disturbance and hinder 
them in y^ sayd possession. Done in the Island of S' 
Christophers this thirteenth Day of May One thousand six 
hundred twenty and seaven. In p'sence of M'' Cately 
Minister of Gods word for the Company of sayd M'' Warner 
Phillip Salmon Interpretter, Anthony Hilton, James Ostry, 
John Golbin sarjeant of y' Company, And M''* fHamare, 
Lefebure, Chambault, Le Bruil, La Barre and Picot ffor the 
Company of y" french Occidentall Indies. Signed De 
Belin, Thomas Warner, Urbain Du Roissy, Le febure, 
Chambault Tontain, forat, Du Bruil, La Barrediel, Valle- 
mont, Anthony Hilton, Picot, James Austin, and by 
Colhnge, by Each their hand with florish. (For the 
French copy of this see ' Du Tertre,' vol. i., pp. 17-20.) 



The p'sent Coppy hath beene Compared with its 
Originall in paper Presented by M'' Generall Warner in his 
house, and remitted againe in his hands, which Coppie of 
sayd Originall, hath beene read and againe read, and beene 
found Conforme thereto, Comprehending therein the words 
which are in the first page (for the sayd Kings) and 
Interlined : the English from the King of England and of 
the Govern'^ preposed, Done in the studdy of y" said M"" 
Warner Generall as above and in his p'sence, and in p'sence 
of M' De Boitiere Judge Civill and Criminell in y'= sayd 
Island And Gentilz Commissary Generall of our Lords of y^ 
Company the 15"" July 1637. 

P. Boitiere. 
Thojias Warner. Gentilz. 



Endorsed : — " Papers received from the Lorde W™ Wil- 
loughby 24 Novemb. 1671 concerning S* Christophers to be 
returned if my Lorde come back into Englande else to be 
kept by. 

H. Slingsby." 



Shoi-tly after this occurrence, on July the 2nd 
foUowiuo- the Earl of Carlisle obtained from 
Charles I. a grant of all the Caribbees, including 
St. Christopher's, Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, 
Barbados, Mittalanea, Dominico, Marigalante, De- 
seada, Todosantes, Guadaloupe, Antigua, Montserrat, 
Eedeudo, Barbuda, Nevis, Statia, St. Bartholomew, 
St. Martin, AnguiUa, Sembrera, Enegada, and other 
islands, before found out to his gi-eat cost, and 
brought to a large and copious colony of English, to 



SETTLEMENT OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS. 



XI 



be hereafter named " The Carlisle or the Islands of 
Carlisle Province," reserving a yearly rent of j6100, 
and a white horse vrhen the king, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, shall come into these parts. (Colonial Entry 
Book, vol. v., pp. 1 — 12.) An earlier patent in Latin 
vras issued to him on the 2nd of June, and in this, 
the original grant, the names Barbidas and Barbado 
both appeared.* 

The Earl, who was a great spendthrift, and much 
in debt to some of the merchants interested in 
"Warner's venture at St. Christojjher's, was prompted 
by them to obtain the above grant as a means of 
payment. The names of these merchant adventurers 
were : — 

Maemaduke Rawdon. Robert Swinneeton. 

William Peekin. Henry Wheatlet. 

Alexander Banistee. John Chaeles. 

Robert Wheatlet. John Jaeeingdon. 
Bdmonu Foestee. 

Early in 1628 the colony of St. Christopher's had 
increased so rapidly in strength and numbers that 
Warner was enabled to send a party to settle the 
adjoining Island of Mevis or Nevis, which was only 
distant about two leagues. Southey also relates, that 
Littleton, a planter of St. Christopher's, obtained 
from the Earl of Carlisle a grant of the Island of Bar- 
bouthos or Barbuda, lying a few leagues north of 
Antigua, and there settled. 

On 29 September 1628 Sir Robert Killigrew 
wrote to James, Earl of Carlisle, informing him " that 
things concerning St. Christopher's are in the same 
state, save a letter come to the hands of Tom Davis, 
speaks of a desire a Governor of the West Indies has 
to siipplant the Earl." 

D'Esnambuc having informed Cardinal Richelieu 
of the desperate state to which the French colony 
was reduced, the Company despatched De Cusack in 
Juue 1629 with six sail of the line, two pinnaces, and 
an armed merchantman, with 300 colonists and 
ample stores. On their arrival De Cusack, finding 
the English hostile, plundered ten of their merchant- 
men lying in the Roads, compelled his opponents to 
retire within their proper boundaries, and on 5 
August 1629 ratified a fresh treaty with Edward 
Warner, Governor of St. Christo^jher's (during his 
father's absence), by which the former ones of 5 Sep- 
tember and 8 November 1628 were cancelled, and the 
first one of 13 May 1627 confirmed. Sir Thomas 
Warner, who was knighted at Hamilton Court on 21 
September, came to terms with the Earl of Carlisle, 
and on 29 September obtained from him the following 
Commission : — 

Original Commission for Sir Thomas Warner to be Governor 
of St. Kitts. Dated 29 September 1629. 

1629. James Lord Hay, Baron of Sawley, Viscount 
Doncaster, Earle of Carlisle, Knight of the most noble 
Order of the Garter, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, and 
one of the Lords of y= most Hono""!^ Privye Couneill of his 
most Excellent Ma">= Charles of England, Scotland, France 



p. 51. 



* See ' The Cavaliers and Roundheads,' by N. Darnell Davis, 



and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith &ca. To all 
persons unto whome these presents shall come, or apper- 
taine. Greeting and peace, in our Lord Everlasting. 

aSiijcrcaS S'- Thomas Warner Kn' descended Lineally 
of the worthy and ancient family of the Warners in the 
Counties of Suffolk and Essex hath heretofore with the 
Adventure of his person Life and Estate by Travaile and 
frequentation for many yeares in several! parts of the West 
Indies, discovered, and taken special observations and know- 
ledge of divers Islands towards or neer the Continent of 
America commonly knowne by the name of the Caribee 
Islands, not being in the Occupation or under the Goverm' 
of any Christian Prince or State but eyther wholy vacant or 
uninhabited only by savage people wanting as well Orders 
and Lawes of humane Civilitie as under-standiug and 
religious Advocation of their Creator. And Whereas the 
said S'' Thomas Warner haveiug taken actuall possession of 
all the said Caribee Islands in the name, and for y'= proper 
use of his Late Ma''" of blessed memorie and the Crowne of 
England. And with the Generall consent, Affection, and 
ratification of y"= Natives of the Island of S' Christopher 
al's S* Christovall one of the said Caribee Islands, begun a 
Plantac'on upon the said Island directing his Studies and 
endeavours wholly unto Piety and y" publique of which his 
good service, his most Excellent Ma'''= was pleased to take 
so eflfectuall notice as hee vouchsafed not only to take into 
his Royall protection the person and proceeding of the said 
S'' Thomas Warner concerning the right seizure and tytle 
of all the said Islands, butt by his Letters Pattents under 
the Great Seale of England and during his Ma"*^^ most 
Gracious pleasure Committed also unto him the sole Cus- 
todie Command and Government of all his liveing and 
Loyall subjects eyther then or afterwards to come and be 
upon the said Island of S' Christopher or any other of the 
said Islands. By w'^'' his Ma"'=' favour the said S"' Thomas 
Warner takeing further Encouragement erected severall 
forts (the Chief whereof scituate between the two only 
Rivers of that Island where they fall Southward into y" 
Sea from his Ma"'=' most Gracious name he called Charles 
fort) & divers times Enlarged the number and strength of 
his Colonie and planted provisions as well of necessarie use 
and subsistence for themselves as for gaine and Trafficque 
with others whereby he did not only laye the foundation of 
a lasting and happye plantation upon that Island, But by 
his Example and action stirred up others of his Ma""^' active 
subjects to the like Plantations, and undertakeing as well 
upon some other of the said Caribee Islands or elsewhere 
whicli hithertoe have prospered well, and dayly doe encrease 
with assurance of much advanceing his Ma"'=' Soveraignity 
and power in those parts and with it the true Religion, 
Lawes, Civihty, Navigation & Trade of this Kingdome of 
England for the Eternall Glorie and Comfort of the same. 
Whereas also it hath pleased his most Gracious Ma''= before 
named by Letters Pattents under the Great Seale of Eng- 
land to Give Grant and Confirme unto mee the said Earle of 
Carlile and my Heirs and assignes for ever the foresaid 
Island of S' Christopher al's S' Christovall, and all the said 
Caribee Islands and other Islands whatsoever lyeing be- 
tween the degrees of Tenne and Twenty from the Equi- 
noctiall Lyne, towards the North in Latitude and the de- 
grees of three hundred and fifteen and of three hundred 
and twentye and Seaven of Longitude Meridian distance 
throughout all the said Latitude, with power (amongst 
others) to Create officers, make Lawes, Erect Courts, and 
doe all things for the safety and Good Government of his 
Ma''"'* Subjects and advanceing any other plantation upon 
the said Island and Islands as more at Large appeareth by 
the said Letters Pattents, Proclaimed, and with all possible 
alacritye and obedience acknowledged by the said S' 
Thomas AVarner and the planters restant upon the said 
Island Whereby it may appeare, with how much Loyaltie, 



xu 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Wisdome and Zeale uuto Christian Knowledge and piety as 
well as humanitye Courage and Industrie the said S"' 
Thomas Warner hatb already proceeded in these his Enter- 
prizes, and for them deserved of the publiquc. 

In Consideration whereof as likewise in regard of his 
Especial! affection, and respect upon all occasions towards 
myself and owne particular besides the Confidence I have of 
his Continuance faithfully to employ the best of his abilities 
for the perfecting and finall Establishing of the Colonies 
and Plantations so happily begun, I, James Earle of Car- 
lisle as aforesaid by virtue of his Ma"«= said Letters Patt'' 
doe hereby appoint depute Constitute and finally Confirme 
and Establish the said S' Thomas Warner (in the absence 
of myself and my Deare son James Lord Viscount Don- 
caster) sole Governor and Commander during his Naturall 
Life of all the said Island of S* Christopher al's .... 

(British Museum, Egerton MS. 2395, fo. 15.) 

About the end of October 1629 an unwelcome 
visitor next appeared on tlie scene in the person of 
Don Frederick de Toledo, who arrived off St. Christo- 
pher's on his way to Brazil, with 35 large galleons 
and 1-i armed merchantmen. In passing Nevis he 
had seized three or four English vessels, and another 
was run on shore by her crew under the French 
battery at St. Kitts. In the evening the Spanish 
fleet anchored near the fort, and the Admiral, after 
he had saluted it with five blank shot, sent a boat 
ashore with a flag of truce. M. Du Roissey answered 
the salute by firing three shot at the boat, and sent 
for help to M. D'Esnambue, who commanded at 
Capsterre, and to Captain "Warner, General of the 
English. The former sent him 100 or 120 men, 
under the leadershij) of M. Du Parqvret, his nephew, 
but the English marched over 700 or 800 sti-ong, 
and with this reinforcement M. Du Roissey worked 
all night, throwing up an intrenchment along the 
shoi-e. 

At 8 A.M. next morning the Spaniards, under the 
command of an Italian engineer, landed within two 
musket-shots of the intrenchment, which they imme- 
diately began to approach by traverses. M. Du 
Parquet then made a sortie at the head of his com- 
pany, and himself killed the Italian officer, but being 
deserted by his cowardly countrymen, fell mortally 
wounded. M. Du Roissey, panic-stricken at his loss, 
embarked with some of his officers, and escaped to 
Capsterre ; the rest fled in all directions, throwing 
away their muskets. 

At Capsterre M. D'Esnambue attempted in vain 
to rally the fugitives. Du Roissey called a council 
of war, at which it was determined to abandon 
the island, and to settle at Antigua, and that 
M. D'Esnambue was to be killed if he withheld his 
consent. The whole French colony, therefore, num- 
bering about 400 men, embarked in two vessels, then 
in the Road of Capsterre, commanded by Captains 
Rose and Liot. 

The English, seeing that the Spaniards were in 
possession of the French quarter, ofi'ered to quit 
the island provided they were furnished with the 
requisite shipping, and Don Frederick assenting, as 
many as possible were sent on board the four vessels 
which had been captured at Nevis, and sailed for 



England ; the remainder promising to leave at the 
first opportunity. Don Frederick, threatening that 
he would give no quarter to any he should find there 
on his return, removed 8 French cannon, and pro- 
ceeded on his voyage to Bi'azil. 

The French, who had sailed off without provisions, 
were soon reduced to one glass of water and the 
weight of a musket-ball of biscuit per day, and in 
this state they were for three weeks ; and then, in- 
stead of Antigua, made the island of St. Martin. 
Parched withthii'st, and seeing no springs nor rivers, 
they dug holes in the sand for water ; brackish though 
it was, some of them died from drinking to excess. 
In this situation, M. Du Roissey prevailed upon the 
officer's to abandon the rest, and make Captain Rose 
carry them to France, where, upon his arrival, 
Cardinal de Richelieu immediately ordered him to 
the Bastile. The poor inhabitants thought all the 
officers had abandoned them ; but the next morning 
they saw Captain Liot's vessel, which, having gone in 
search of provisions, had run on a sand-bank off the 
island ; from this vessel M. D'Esnambue landed, and 
called a council of war, at which they again resolved 
to proceed to Antigua; so he embarked with 150 men 
in Captain Liot's vessel, leaving the rest at St. 
Martin's, Anguilla, and St. Bartholomew's, with a 
promise that he would send for them from Antigua. 
D'Enambuc fell in with Captain Giron, one of M. De 
Cusac's squadron at Antigua, with whom he examined 
that island, but finding it unhealthy and marshy, he 
determined to proceed to Montserrat. From Mont- 
serrat, Caj)tain Giron went to reconnoitre St. Christo- 
pher's, and see what had become of the English ; 
these, upon the departure of Don Frederick, had 
determined not to quit the island, and now sent- ofi" a 
boat to Captain Giron to forbid his landing. This 
was quite sufficient reason to Captain Giron for him 
to commence hostilities ; he therefore attacked two 
merchant vessels that were in the Road, who sur- 
rendered after being disabled ; with these prizes he 
went to a third and larger vessel, which surrendered 
without any resistance. He now sent her to St. 
Martin's, Anguilla, and St. Bartholomew's, to bring 
back the remainder of the French to St. Christopher's. 
D'Esnambue also came from MontseiTat with his 
followers, and the whole of them, about 350 well- 
armed men, arrived at St. Kitts, where they took up 
their old quarters, after an absence of three months. 
('Du Tertre,' vol. i., pp. 28-36, and Eochefort.) In 
this year there were about 30 sail of English, Fi-ench, 
and Dutch ships at St. Christopher's, and all the 
Indians were driven out of that island. 

Captain Richard Plumleigh wrote on 7 March 
1630 to Lord Carlisle, that he met at Cadiz, George 
Donne, Lieutenant Hay, and five or six others, 
hostages for the ships lent by Don Frederick de 
Toledo, for transportation of the pdanters upon the 
islands belonging to Carlisle, and promised that he 
would solicit his Lordship to hasten their delivery. 
He found them in great want, and relieved them 
both with advice and money. A Spanish shij^ had 
apparently already arrived at Portsmouth with 



SETTLEMENT OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS. 



xui 



refugees from St. Christopher's. (' Colonial Cal./ 
p. 108.) 

Du Tertre relates that at this period they traffiqued 
in tobacco, cotton, roucou (a red dye), and pimento, 
but that the manufacture of sugar, indigo, and 
ginger was not understood. 

Owing to the disastei-s entailed by the Spanish 
invasion ; the neglect of the West Indian Company ; 
and the overbearing power of the English ; M. D'Es- 
nambuc decided early in 1630 to abandon the colony, 
so all the French worked hard to raise a large crop 
of tobacco, to take with them to Europe, many of 
them destroying their plantations of mandioc and 
yams. Six months later they changed their mind, 
but the want of provisions now caused a famine, 
which was, however, relieved by the timely arrival of 
a Zealander. The French are stated to have num- 
bered but 360 men, whilst the English had increased 
to 6000. On 15 November a treatv of peace was 
signed between England and Spain. 

The following pajjer graphically sets forth the 
condition of the planters at this period, but the 
writer in saying that they were " constreyned to eat 
fruit," the natural food of the tropics, rather 
leads one to think that their hardships were not 
very severe : — 

To the right Hno"'^ the Lords & others of his Ma" 
most Hno'''° Privy Councell. 

4 Feb. 1630-1. The most humble Petic'on of the 
Planters & Adventurers to the Carribbee Islands. 

Shewing : 

That the distressed Planters, and their Servaunts his 
Ma'' most dutifull, & loving Subjects now uppon the sayd 
Islands are at present in very great distresse, & want of 
Victualls ; Many of them not having eaten one Morsell of 
Bread at least one monthe before divers people of good 
Creditt (who lately arrived here in England) departed 
thence ; But are Constre3'ned to feed on Land Crabbs & 
other unholsome provisions, & fruite, w"^'' the sayd Islands 
this winter Season affoard. 

ffor p'vention whereof, some of yo"' p'tic" have allready 
provided a small quantity of Victualls to be sent to the sayd 
Islands ; Some part whereof is allready on Boord, & more 
ready to be shipped, to save the lives of his Ma'^ sayd Sub- 
jects ; But that the petic'^ are hindered by the officers of 
his Ma'" Customes in as they Cannot proceed ; Allthough 
their Shipps lye here at great expence. 

May it therefore please yo'' good Lqpp^ in tender 
Co'siderac'on hereof to give Order to the severall officers 
of his Ma'° Customes, and porte, to permitt, & suffer yo"' 
petic" to transport a reasonable proportion of Victualls 
unto the sayd Caribbee Islands (uppon sufficient Cauc'on 
given to deliver the same there only) for the p'sent supplye 
of the foresayd distressed Inhabitants his Ma'' Subjects 
there. That they may but subsist with Lyvelyhood untill 
the provisions by them planted shall be gathered ; w'eh are 
hoped to be such, & so plentifull, that they shall never here- 
after have occasion to entreate Supplye from this Kingdome 
or any other place. 

And yo'' Petio" as most bound, shall ever pray for yo'' 
LoPP' increase of all bono"'' & happiness. 

(America and West Indies, Leeward Islands, 
No. 552, 1721—1749.) 

By some oversight the above petition has been 
bound up with papers of a very much later date. 



The two following minute and interesting narra- 
tives have been transcribed from a copy existing in 
the British Museum (Egerton MS. 2395) :— 

Relation of the first Settlem' of S' X'phers & Nevis by 
John Hilton Storekeeper and chief Gunner of Nevis. 
Ap. 29'h, 1675. I 

How came S' Xp'hers first to be Settled ? 
By a Genti of Lond. one Cap' Thomas Warner who was 
a good Souldier & a man of extraordinary agillety of bodie 
of a good witt & one who was truly honucst & freindly to 
all men who having made a trading voyage for y^ Amma- 
sones, att his returne came by j'' Careeby Islands, where he 
became acquainted w"' severall Indian Kings inhab'ting 
these Islands amongst y« rest w"" one King Tegreman King 
of S' Xp'hs ; he well veiwing y<= Island thought it would be 
a very convenient place for y|= planting of tobaccoes, w'='' 
then was a rich com'odetie, being arrived att Lond. made 
some of his freinds acquainted hearwith who in hopes of 
great benefitt became p'f' w'" him, & did disburse theire 
monies towards y<^ setting forth a shipp, & men for y« 
designe of tobaccoes, w*^"" was in y"^ yeare of o' Lord 1623 : 
& being arrived at S' Xp'hs w'l" divers gentl' & others he 
brought w"! him w"" licence of King Tegreeman, they did 
settle themselves betwixt y" two rivers neare to y" Kings 
house, where he did live & began to build theire houses, & 
alsoe a fort of pallesadoes w'* flanckers & loope holes for 
theire defence. The King veiwing theire workes, did aske 
w' theire loopeholes and flanckers were for And they told 
him it was made y' they might looke after those fowles they 
bad about theire houses, but how y« King understood it I 
knowe not, but w"* in Sometime after y" King was minded to 
cutt y" off. 

How came Capt. Warner to know their designe ? 

By an old Indian woman y' did often fi'eq' amongst y= 
english, who it seemes they had used courteously, soe y' she 
had taken a great aflfeocon to y". 

How did she make it knowne ? 

She came to Capt. Warner, & told him y^ King & y« 
rest had made theire drinking as it is theire custome to 
make a drinking 3 or 4 dayes, & to be drnncke before they 
goe upon theire designes ; And y' y* King did intend to 
kill y'" all. And y' he should gett into his Cannoes and 
begoun. 

What did Capt. Warner when he understood this from 
y" woman ? 

Like a wise man & a good souldier he tooke y" advan- 
tage of theire being druncke & fell upon y"" by night, & did 
kill & slay a great many of y"" : amongst j<^ rest they slew 
King Tegreeman in his ham'accoe runing him w"* their 
rapiers through y« ham'acco & into the body ; & others gott 
into there cannoes, & soe gott iuto other Islands amongst 
theire neighbouring Indians & friends. 

But I have heard it related how theire was a little 
english boy in ye ham'accoe w"" y" King when he was 
Slaine, how came he not to be Slaine ? 

This little boy was one whome Capt. Warner had 
brought over w"' him, & y^ King had taken a great 
affecc'on to him, & would have him to lie in y« ham'acco 
w'" him, & was Saved by y'= m'cie of god, for they had for- 
gott y^ boy. 

There was a french man y' did live among y" Indians 
when Captain Warner did settle how came he theire ? 

In form' times both dutch and fi-ench, used to rove 
amonge y" Spaniards in men of warr & a french Shipp by 
Storme being cast away, this man being then a boy or young 
man by p'vidence gott ashoare, & did live amongst ye 
Indians, went naked & did goe to warr w'" y"", but when 
Capt. Warner did beat y" Indians off, he came & lived 
amongst y= english & did live a long time amongst y"" : but 

c 



XIV 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



a qiiarrell falling out betwixt him and an English man, he 
slow y" english man & soe fled to y'^ french, where he is still 
living, his name being Peter Cuttey. 

The english having made themselves masters of y' 
Island how came y' french to have halfe y^ Island ? 

A french shipp touching theire. And Capt. Warner 
knowing y' those w'='' did escape would looke revenge 
for his ovvne Safeguard being but weake in men, gave way 
to y" french to settle, & to have halfe y^ Island if they 
would settle, y' Co'mand' of the french was called 
Men" de Numbec. 

Did y"^ Indians attempt it ? 

Yee & did come w"" a great power of men, and fell upon 
y= french where they were settled att Baeketerre Slue div" 
of y" french, And y' rest of y= french gott to y"^ fort they 
had made. And amongst y= rest the Slew one fryer, cutt off 
his menb", & thrust y" into his mouth & pitched him into 
a, well they had made & besett y« fort. 

How gott they of y' was in y' fort ? 

There was by accedent an english lad, w'^'" came upon 
some busines to y" french being in y" fort tould y" y' if 
they would lett him have two pistolls, & lett him out of y« 
fort ho would goe & informe y^ english, w"^'' they did lett 
him have, & hoe p'senting his pistolls made the Indians 
give way, y" woods being neere gott into y"' & soe to y° 
english & tould y™ w' passed & y' english sent aide to y' 
french by land, & alsoe sent a Shipp w"^"" lay then in y" 
roade & so beate y" Indians of y' Island y" Second time. 

In what manner did they devide y'^ land ? 

Both being increased in men did cutt a path round y° 
Island y' then was thought habitable land & found it to be 
32 miles, Soe y"^ english had 8 miles to leward & ye french 
had 8 miles to leward, & alsoe ye english had 8 miles to 
windward & ye french had 8 miles to windward, as for y« 
Savanna, y" Salt ponds & y grounds therto adjoyning 
was thought to be desart lands, And therefore was for 
to bee as a com'on betwixt y= two nacc'ons, as alsoe Brim- 
stone hill. 

How was Nevis first Settled ? 

There was a certaine young man named Anthony Hilton 
borne & brought up in the Bishop pricke of Durliam, who 
teing imployed by y" m'chants of Barstable in y' west 
countrey for a voyage to Virginia, passing by S' Xp'hs as 
they knew no other way came aslioare & waited on y« 
governo' Capt. Thomas Warner, & other gentl'. And soe 
p'ceeding on his voyage for Virginia, made his voyage, & 
eoe returning for england, put ashoare in Ireland, And 
having some discourse w"' one Capt. Vallett & other gentl' 
of Ireland, & finding by y'' discourse of y"= said Hilton, y' it 
might prove p'ffitable f(}r y" to settle a plantac'on att 
Xp'hs to make tobaccoes, w*^" y« s* Hilton thought to ije a 
bettor place then Virginia ; where upon they were desirows 
y" s"! Hilton would und'take y« voyage for them, w<='' as it 
seemes he consented too, & he returning for Barstalile, gave 
uj) his Accompts of y" voyage & discharged himselfo of his 
imi)loye ; And soe returning for Ireland againe, where he 
was accordingly sett forth by those gent' w"* shipp & men, 
<& all thinges necessary for y« voyage, soe by Gods goodncs 
arrived at S' Xp'hs : And w"" licence from Capt. Warner he 
did .settle upon y" windward side of y« Island, being y= first 
y' did settle y' side of y" Island. 

What did happen to him by settling there ? 

Where he & others having cleaned ground built houses, 
& followed planting ; It came to pass y' y^ Indians betimes 
in y= morning came upon y™ & did fire theire houses & 
slue divers of his men, ho w"' some others of his hou.sehold 
makeing their escape into the woods, gott to y<= leward to y<= 
rest of y english, where he did settle another plantac'on & 
w* y"= comi)anie he had, made w' tobaccoes he could, & w^*" 
yi tobaccoes made his returne for Ireland & from tlionce to 
England, being accompanied w"' some gentl' plant" of S' 



Xp'hs to theire desired port Lond. & having sold theire 
tobaccoes for 20' p "' they resolved to settle Nevis Island, 
by meanes of one M'' Tiio. Littleton, m'chant, who sett them 
forth w"" all things necessary ; having a com'ission from y^ 
Earle of Carlile to settle Barbados or any other not habited 
Island And in theire voyage from y^ Downes landed att y" 
Barbados w"^*" they did not like, nor of Antegoa nor Mount- 
serratt, They came downe to Nevis y= 22"' of .July 1628 W^'' 
Island they thought fittest for theire Settlement being next 
Xp'hs, from whence they might be better Supplied. 

What did fall out in ye interim att S' Xp'hs & Nevis? 

Great alterac'ons, att governo" Warners going for eng- 
land, he did leave his Sonn Capt. Edw"" Warner his deputy 
& because he was young in yeares, & as yett not en sighted 
in governm', to assist him he left one M' Asten, who had 
bin an Inns Co't gentl' to much knowing in y' lawes for y'= 
poore plant". 

Why what did he ? 

The governo' of Nevis going downe for S' Xp'hs to see 
his plantac'on & freinds, there had some words passed be- 
twixt M"' Asten as it seemes v/'^^ were not Cordiall. 
M'' Asten had enticed by faire p'missea one of governo' 
Hiltons Servants who belonged to his plantac'on att S' 
Xp'hs to kill liim as he lay to Sleepe, w"^'' if he did, he was 
to have his plantac'on & w' he had att S' Xp'hs. 

Did he seeke to attempt it ? 

Yee & came by night as bee was asleepe w"" a keene 
knife in his hands to p'forme this bloudy murder ; who 
standing over him, & heaving up his hand to give y<' fattall 
blowe god p' vented him Soe y' he had noe power to Strike 
being p'plext hereatt he went out ruminating w"" Selfe w' 
might be y'^ cause, made a Second & a third assault but 
could not, upon w''' being amazed, he ran from his master to 
M' Asten for p'tecc'on. 

How came governo' Hilton to know this ? 

It is an old saying y' murder cannot be longe hid, but 
will out, for by some good freind governo' Hilton had 
notice of it. 

What did governo' then ? 

Hee made it known to his freinds he had upon y' Islands, 
w'*" those y* came w"' him, who abhorring Such acc'ons 
came to assist him, in so much he had gott a considerable 
p'tie not much inferiour to theires. 

What did they then ? 

Both sides Stood upon theire gards & took prission". 

Had young Warner any hand in this murder ? 

Noe I dare be bold to Say he had not, for he was not of 
y' disposic'on for he was alwayos of a loving affable tend' 
disposic'on ; & I have heard him Say he did not knowe 
of it. 

What did governo' Hilton after this ? 

He sought his owne Security, & to abate y'^ pride of 
others, haveing councelled togeather they knowing there was 
a great tobaccoe house y' stood to windward of Capt. 
Warners dwelling house, soe neare y' by firing y"^ tobaccoe 
house it must needs fire y'' dwelling house, therefore they 
resolved & appointed y' night to gett over y' gutt neare unto 
y= house & so w"" fire arrowes from y^ side of y'= wood to 
fire y^ tobaccoe house, & so to fall in upon y™ & try their 
fort amies. This was p'vented by God's p'vidence, for y' 
night appointed to doe theire exploite y' very day before, 
there came in a great English Shipp to anchor in y« roade, 
& y^ governo' of Nevis seeing it, gott into his boate to rowe 
aboard, but M' Asten p'ceiving it, com'anded y" gunner to 
Sinke y^ boace if possibly, upon which y= gunner made a 
Shott w'"^ fell soe neare where y'' governo' of Nevis satt, y' 
it dashed y« water upon y™ into y^ boate, & soe did glance 
over theire heads, & did no more hurt, And Soe they gott 
aboard, made theire case knowne unto y" Capt. who by his 
meanes did quallefie theire furies for y' time And governo' 
Hilton made his returne for Nevis. 



SETTLEMENT OE THE LEEWAED ISLANDS. 



XV 



What was y^ cause IP Asten did seeke after his ruine ? 
It was supposed, y* thinking y' if governo' Hilton wore 
sent into another world then hee made noe question but to 
bring both Islands to bend to his bowe. 

Now y^ two Islands being in a peacable Condic'on And 
governo' Tiio. Warner in england honoured w"' y'^ title of 
Knighthood w' did followe ? 

It might be supposed, 8' Tho. Warner having informed 
my Lord of Carlile of the tumult was likely to arise heare, 
my Lord did send out a Shipp, Capt. Halle Com'and' w"' 
foure Com'iss" to Settle heare, & to displace Governo' 
Antho Hilton, & to put into his place Geo. Hayes my Lords 
Kinsman, as y'' may better und'stand by w' followes. 
Did y" Shipp called y'' Carlile p'ceed on hir vo^'age ? 
Yee, and did touch att Barbados, where y^ gentl' 
com'iss" went ashoare, where they were curteously ent'tained, 
& in requitall of theire curtesie, y" com'iss" invited y« 
governo' and Some others to goe aboard & eate a dish of 
Krettchett brewe as they called it, but indeed it fell 
out to be treacherous brewes, they not thinking of any 
harme did goe, who was no .Sooner aboard but they tooke 
y™ prission". 

What happened after they tooke y" governo' of Barbados 
prission' ? 

They were plotting how to betray y« governo' of Nevis 
w'^'' they thought would prove difficult. 
How did they contrive their plott ? 
They thought it their best way to send downe a boate 
before y" w"" L'ers of Complaint for their easier proceeding 
to put y™ into security w* they did but by that meanes 
their plott was discovered. 
How? 

There was a gentl' y' came over w"" us att y<^ first 
settling named Jacob Lake, who had a brother a minisf 
who came passeng' in y' shipp, & und'standing of theire 
plott, as of sending y" boate before y^ wrights to his 
brother Jac Tjake of theire plott, & how they had betrayed 
y' governo' of Barbados, & privately deliv" it to a seaman 
one y* was to come in y= boate, the boate arriving at Nevis 
the l'ers delivered, M'' Jacob Lake Shooes it to y' governo'. 
What did y^ governo' then ? 

Called his councill, & all y' Inhabit's togeather, & con- 
sulted w' was best to doe ; And it agreed upon, y' he 
should provide himselfe of things necessarie, & soe to goe 
for england to renue his Com'iss", for they found some de- 
fects therin, & to put in his deputy, one y' was resolute & 
they would all stand to him & not accept of any alterac'on 
of governm' till they heard from their governo' from 
england, this concluded upon, a small vessell a west 
countrey man lying in y^ roade, y' governo' did shipp him- 
selfe having taken leave sett sayle, & att y^ turning about 
pellican point, they mett my Lords Shipp & y« Com'iss" 
who haled y", & they made answeare they were a west 
countrey man lay heare to take in tobaccoes, & y'' tobaccoes 
was not yet ready, Soe they were going to y'' windward 
Islands to turne turtle Soe they lett y" pass and came to 
anchor in y^ roade, Soe we beate o'"' droms, gott o'"' people 
togeather, & att theire coming ashoare we did honour''''^ 
ent'taine y™ w"' a stronge gard, & brought y"" into y^ fort 
to o'"' governo" house, where we did feast y™ w"" wine & 
good victualls, they inquired for o'' Capt. Hilton, & we 
told y"" he was on his voyage for england in y" shipp they 
mett att pellican point, upon w''' they looked one upon y^ 
oth'' but said nothing, wee passing C times w"" discourse 
till it was towards night, then wee told y" wee had und'stood 
for w'- they came for, And as for Geo. Hayes wee should 
desire him to goe aboard, for y' rest if they would stay 
ashoare they should be welcome, for Geo. Hayes he should 
come no more ashoare here but upon perill, neither would 
we heare any thinge y' might tend to y^ alterac'on of 
governm', till we heard from o'' governo', soe wee garded y™ 



aboard againe y' night. Now all being in peace & quietnes 
under o' Deputy governo' Capt. William Vallett, who going 
aboard w"> Capt. Halle to be merry in comes y" Spanish 
Armado about pellican point, w='' fort fired att y™ And took 
w' shipps could not run for it, but Some escaped throwe y« 
narrowcs, my Lords Shipp cutt his cables & ran downe to 
S' Xp'hs & theire ran their Shippe aground, Capt. Halle 
getting ashoare w"' o' Deputy governo'. 

What did you then upon y'' Island in this case ? 
Wee had but one great gune, W^'' we had placed pellican 
point, & wee shott soe long' as wee had either bullett or 
powd'' & brought one of theire shipps upon the carreene to 
stopp hir leakes wee had so battered hir. 
This was not all ? 
■ Noe o'"' Servants proved treacherous, run' away from us 
& Swined aboard & told y" where we hid o''' provissions, & in 
w' case o'"' Island Stood in. Capt. Jacob Lake gott a com- 
panie of men togeather to go to y= old windward to fortifie 
himselfe & carry p'vissions along w"' him, but it was in 
value his Souldiers ran' away from him, & did thowe away 
theire p'vissions y'= most of y'" being servants cryed out 
Lib'tyjoyfuU Lib'ty. John Hilton Anth" Hiltons brother 
considering wee were cutt of from o''' p'vissions, o Servants 
revolting, gott a boate & tooke alonge w"' him a younge 
man who had his Spanish language p'fect, <fc soe w"* a flagg 
of truce did goe aboard to speake w"" y^ generall Don 
flfrederigo De ToUedo to Demand w' was his intents for this 
place, who Com'ing to Speake w"' him found him a most 
noble & courteous gentl' ; discoursing w"' him concerning y* 
affaires of y"= Islands, told us he did not delight in bloudsheed, 
Soe wee would yeilde his masters interest to him, w"*" wee had 
usurped noe Man should wronge us, or take y'' life of any & 
if wee wanted Shipping to transport o''' men he would 
furnish us, giving hostages for y^^ returne of y^ said 
Shipping ; soe he y"* said Hilton requested y' said Generall 
to goe ashoare to informe y' Islanders of his most noble 
proffers, & y*^ next day he would come aboard & informe his 
Excellencie w' y= Islanders would conclude on, & soe took 
leave of his Excellencie for y' time, returning to y" Shoare 
to see w' y" Island" would conclude on. 
What did he when he came ashoare ? 
Geather togeather all y" Gentl' & others he could gett to- 
geather & did declare unto y™ w' the Spanish Generall had 
told him, desiring y" to consult upon it, y' hee might 
returne & give y= Generall an answeare, upon w*^'' they 
all consulted to deliver up y' Island upon those con- 
dic'ons propounded by his Excellencie ; Soe he returned 
^th yt answeare, the Generall seeming very joyfull thereatt, 
saying he was very glad he had brought it to passe w'l'out 
bloudshead for said he yu are not able to w^'staml my 
forces, & for y' purpose I am come to cleer y'' Islands, & 
now in respect y" have yielded to myproposic'ons whosoever 
doth either man or woman wronge Shall die for it, giving 
ord" to his Comand" to y' effect, using John Hilton w"" 
great respect, promising him sliipping should be appointed 
for y^ Kings Subjects transporte who was willing to goe, & 
who would Serve y<= King of Spaine willingly, should be 
entertained into his Service & y' Hilton Should See y« 
Shipping furnisht to be furnished w'" w' was necessary for 
y'' voyage, & if any turbulent p'son should offor to w"'stand 
Hilton & bee refractorie, upon complainte to his Excellencie 
hee would doe Justice upon him according to his desarts ; 
this past ; many of y'' Spanish Comand" came ashoare w"" 
Hilton, did goe to o'"' houses, eate & drinke with us, 
recreating themselves, not doing violence to any man, Soe 
att night returned to theire Shipps after many freindly 
complements. 

Did not they goe for S' Xp'hs ? 

Yes having brought to pass w' form'ly is declared, sett 
sayle for S' Xp'hs, coming theire they found my Lords Shipp 
run' aground, & hailed hir of for y^^ King of Spaines use. 



XVI 



THE HISTOEY OF ANTIGUA. 



When they came to S' Xp'hs what was done there ? 

The S' Xp'hs men und'standing w' had passed at Nevis, 
yeilded upon y'= same condic'ons Nevis had done, The 
Spanish Armado laid there till y'= Shipping was made ready 
for y'= transport of y"^ English, & shipped aboard such as 
would for England y"= rest upon y'= Spanish Shipps, Yet for 
all y* there were divers y' tooke y^ woods & were not mist. 

What did y"* Spaniards then ? 

They made choise of theire hostages, sett sayle, & soe 
departed from the Islands w=^ made an end of all o'"' former 
related contraversies, dispersing of us soe, y' wee never all 
mett togeather againe. 

What was y'= names of y« hostages taken by y« Spaniards ? 

The names of y'' hostages y*^ Spaniards made choise 
of was — 

ffor S' Xp'hs Island. 

Serj' Maj'' Donn of Lond. 

Cap' Geo. Hayes y' Lord of Carlile Coz. 

Capt. John Stonne of Lond. 

Capt. Chappell of Ireland. 

Capt. W"" Digby of Lond. 

ffor Nevis Island. 

Capt. John Coolie of Lond. 

Capt. John Husbands a Yoresheireman. 

Robert Merreton of London. 

John Hilton borne in y= Bishop pricke of Durham. 

What yeare was it y<^ Spaniards tooke these Islands ? 

Wee had bene Settled upon Nevis one yeare and halfe 
when y^ Spaniards came, Soe by estimac'on it must be in y^ 
yeare 1G.30 or 1631. 

What became of y'^ french when this did happen to y" ? 

As I have bene informed, some gott boats and gott upon 
Islands not Inhabited & there stayed till y^ Spaniards was 
gone & came downe againe to there settlem". 

Did y^ Spaniard make any great inquiry after them ? 

Noe, It is to be supposed it was in fav'' to their religion, 
as by y'' circumstances happened since may appeare, for y" 
english being beat from of y'= Tartodus by y" Spaniard, & 
likewise from S' Cruze y'^ french did p'sently Settle y", & 
y' Spaniards have not in many yeares y* they have possesst 
y'" any way mollested y" w'^'' argues it must be as aforesaid 
y*^ cause. 

How were these Islands resettled ? 

Sir Tho. Warner being gone for england & likewise 
Capt. Anthony Hilton governo' of Nevis, both being in 
Lond. when newes came y"' Spaniards had taken y'' Islands 
of w* they were governo", renewed theire Comissions gott 
more men & came over againe to resettle y" Islands. 
S'' Tho. Warner att S' Xp'hs found divers men, some y' had 
taken y'= woods, others y"* shipping y' were to carry y" hence, 
had returned, & put such men as was willing ashoare upon 
theire Islands againe, Soe y' they made a considerable com- 
paine for y^ resettling of S' Xp'hs : And as for Capt. Anth" 
Hilton when he came for Nevis found likewise a consider- 
able compaine amongst w'^'' there was one M"' James Russell, 
whome j" people y' was there had made choise of for their 
governo' & betwixt whom & Capt. Hilton there was some dif- 
ference for y' night att Hiltons first coming there about theire 
governm' ; but y"^ next morning it was soe agreed upon y' 
Capt. Anth" Hilton should be governo'. M'' Tho. Little- 
ton, y^ m'chaut before spoken, y' was att all j'' cost & 
charges of settling Nevis att first, being by y' meanes fallen 
behindhand in his estate & hearing y" Island begann againe 
to be well settled came over to see w' he could get amongst, 
now at his arrival att Nevis, Capt. Anthony Hilton, w"" 
others there being most if not all D" to him, Capt. Hilton 
considering his great losses he had had about y« settling 
y' Island, did resigne to him y" governm', and did goe to 
settle Tartodus. 



M'' Thomas Littleton being governo' of Nevis w' did 
happen then ? 

The hostages afore Spoken of was gott out of prisson 
where they had endured much missery for y^ Space of five 
yeares & better one of y" named Jo. Hilton brother to Capt. 
Antb° Hilton gone for Tartodus, to settle, came in a great 
Shipp from Midleborough, w'^'' did wholly belonge to my 
Heare Rueboroe & was honnest w"' y^ Com'and Soe long as 
he remained aboard bound for Tartodus, & touching att 
Nevis did go ashoare to p'sent his Service to governo' 
Littleton & to see some of his freinds & acquaintance there, 
coming to y" governo" house y'' governo' p'tending greate 
freindshipp to him, & did invite him to stay dinner, but 
being att dinner, y'' governo' had cora'anded a gard of mus- 
ketteers come in w'^ their amies ready to p'sent upon him, 
telling him he was his prissio' : w' s'd Hilton, noe sooner 
out of one imprissonm' but into another, I beseech you tell 
me y" cause, I will said y" governo', yo'"' brother is dead, & 
yu are going there to possess w' he hath, & now I have 
yu here, I will be satisfied for w' yo''' brother owes me, 
Hilton made answer, I am more Sorry to hear my 
bi'other is dead then feare w' yo can do to me, am I to 
pay my brothers debts, do I owe yu any thinge, upon w*^'' 
M'' Procter was called for to oversee y« books where Hilton 
was found D"" for six hooes ; Hilton putt his liand in his 
pockett & drew out a handfull of dollers, pay yo' Selfe said 
he, with y' M"' Luke Stoakes did desire y'= governo' to 
Speake w"' him, Soe going into another roome had some 
discourse togeather ; The governo' coming out discharged 
him of his imprissonm' : Hilton being inwardly vext, made 
Shooe to y"^ contrary, but after many cupps Hilton p'tending 
greate freindshipp to y" Invited y" aboard to be merry, 
they consenting did goe aboard, Hilton making y™ welcome 
w"i good wine & victualls & gunning. Seeing his opp'tunity 
stept out & toidd y'= Skipp'' how they had donn by him 
ashoare, well s'd y" Skipp' Speake but y'-' word & I will Sett 
y" ashoare att Hispaniola amonge y' Cow killers ; noe s'd 
Hilton not Soe, but I will fright y"' : let there bee a dozen 
musketteers ready in y" gun'roome w"" their matches 
lighted & when yu heare me give a hem & stampe come into 
y^ Cabin & soe to y"= gallere, & soe clap to each mans 
breast a muskett, to y« governo" first ; w'^'' being p'formed, 
now said Hilton y« are my prission", & I will make 
y" knowe sorrowe & soe well as I have donn, called for irons, 
tould y" he would sett y" ashoare amonge y" Cow killers, 
w"^'' one Capt. Sparrowe began to resist, shoot y'= dogg 
through s'd Hilton, and throwe him out y= gallere (oh) s'd 
y'= governo'"' save o'"' lives & doe what y'' will, being more a 
merchant then a Souldier, was mightely affrighted, soe y' 
Hilton thought he would have p'sently died, soe Hilton 
fearing y' he would have died aboard called for a boate, & 
bid y" turne ye knaves ashoare, who were not worthe the 
Trouble he should bee att with them, Soe sett y™ ashoare. 
Sett Sayle & soe p'ceeded on for Tartodus. 

What did Littleton after ? 

Being in hopes to p'cure some of Hiltons estate did 
followe John Hilton but did die by y'' way, so Hilton did 
never See him more. 

Who did Littleton leave his Deputy when he went off ? 

As I have bene informed he left M' Luke Stoakes his 
Deputy. 

Now you have given me this foregoing relac'on, tell me 
what governo" have bene upon Nevis since y^ first Settling 
as yu are an old Standard ? 

As near as I can I will, first — Governo' Anth" Hilton, 
who settled it in y« yeare 1628 : y' 22"" of July, going for 
England, left Capt. Will. Vallett his Deputy, Vallett fled 
when the Si^aniards came. M'' James Russell, chosen 
governo' by ye people left after the Spaniards departure 
from Nevis ; Capt. Antho. Hilton returned againe with 
Comission, & was governo'' againe, after did goe to settle 



SETTLEMENT OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS. 



xvu 



Tartodiis, & resigned his governm* to y"^ m'chant M"' Tho. 
Littleton, Littleton going for Tartodus left M' Luke 
Stoakes his Deputy, Littleton dying upon y= voyage 
S"^ Thomas put in Stoakes his place, Capt. Thomas Spar- 
rowe, after came Maj'' Hunckes, next him Capt. Jenings, 
after him .Tonkin LTjoyde, after him left by LLoyde parson 
John Meakeni, after him put in by S"' Tho. Warner Capt. 
John Kettleby after him Capt. Jacob Lake, after Lake's 
death Governo' Luke Stoakes, then CoUonel James Russell, 
then Collonell Randall Russell ; his brother. 

What Generalls have bene here in y' Leward Islands ? 

S"" Thomas Warner first. 

Generall S' Charles Wheeler. 

Generall William Stapleton. 

The following account was presented to their 
Lordships in 1675, having been drawn up and 
signed by the principal inhabitants and planters of 
St. Christopher's : — 

St Xp'hs land. Aprill 29"> 1675. 
Narrative of the first settiem* of S* Xp'rs. 

How was y" Island of S' Xp'hs first Inhab'ted by y*' 
English & by the fifrench, & how it was shared betweene 
both nations? 

The Island of S' Xp'hs was first settled by y^ worthy & 
renowned Capt. Thomas Warner (afterwards Knighted by 
King Charles y' first) with seaventeene other p'sons Gentl' 
adventur" w**" him in y= yeare 1623, who when they came 
to Settle found a french man upon itt amongst y" Indians 
& went naked as they did named Peter Cotty putt on 
Shoare out of a Shipp for recovery of his health, in a Short 
time after came a ft'ench Gentl' with a certaine number of 
french men w"" him named Mon" De Numbec betwixt 
whom & S'' Thomas Warner y^ Island was devided & one 
halfe for the English & y|= other halfe for y« french from 
white flag bay being j^ westerly p'te & friggett Bay being 
y Easterly p'te of y^ Island j^ midle of both which sides 
fell to y" English nac'ons lott w"^"" said Settlejs Continued in 
peace & good amitie, untill y« yeare 1629 theire being cer- 
taine Articles made betweene y^ said governo" to assist one 
y"^ other against any enemy y' should oppose or invade y"", 
all w''' above declarac'on y<^ declarants affirm & y' they have 
from time to time received from Coll' John Bedingfeilde 
some time governo' of y« said Island for y"= English nac'on, 
& y" aforesaid Peter Cotte of y^ french nac'on, y" aforesaid 
Coir Bedingfeild, being one of y= first seaventeene English 
Settlers ; & in y' yeare 1629 one of y^ s'd declarants by 
name Leiu' Coll' William ffreeman now here resident came 
to this Island S' Xp'hs ; from Lond. in y^ good Shipp 
called y'^ Carlisle Com'and' in cheife Capt. Henry Hawly & 
one Geo. Deinnis master, & j" s'd declarant further Sheweth 
y' after a moneth or there abouts came a powerfull fleete of 
Spaniards of about 37 Sailes who surprized & tooke most of 
o' Shipping & came to an anchor at Shambers roade in y« 
french quarf" & y" next landed most p'te of theire forces, 



S"' Thomas Warner beinge then in England, had left his 
Bonn Edward Warner to be his deputie governo' who ac- 
cording to Articles caused all his able men to be drawne up 
in armes, & com'anded them to march to Basseterre to 
assist ye french, who being theire ready in armes to resist 
their enemy desii-ed to have y" van w<^'' was granted y™, y= 
Capt. or Com'and' of the said Company leading on 
Couragiously upon y« enemy, It was his fortune to be y* 
first shott & died, y" Company seeing him fall fled p'sently 
away to sandy point as fast as they could throwing away 
their armes along y"^ way as they went, & y^ English re- 
treated in order to theire owne quarf' ; The next day 
following were Gentl' Com'ission"'^ sent from y" English 
on board to treat of peace & ye treaty was concluded y' y'' 
english were all to goe of y^ Island & were to surrend' up 
ye Island, Artillery armes, Am'unic'on & all merchandize, 
only excepting all sorts of apparell linin & woollen, & y"= 
Spaniards to furnish y"" shipping for y<= transporte of their 
people for England. 

There was att y' time a privateere of ffrance named 
Geeroon, w'" two or three Shipps, who tooke on board his 
Vessells all y« french y' were upon y« Island att Sandy point 
& carried y" away from y" Island untill y= Shipping were all 
gone. There was one of y^ eighteene of y first english 
Settlers named Morris Gardner who fled into y^ woods, w"" 
severall others & stayed upon y^ Island untill as well y" 
Spanish Shipps as those y' were to transport y'' english were 
all gone, after w'" those y' fled into ye woods assembled 
togeather, & made choise of said Gardner to be theire 
governo'"' in a short time aftere y" said Geroon returned 
to y" Island w"" his shipping & all y'= men he had 
carried off & by a wilde forceably lauded y™ againe. 
Before y' prission"'^ gott home for england, S'' Thomas 
Warner returned againe & Settled y" Island in y« yeare 
1630 y' aforesaid Leiu' Collonell ffreeman returned again & 
did continue an Inhab't upon y^ Island from y' time till 
y^ fatall yeare 1666 in all w"^'' time y' two nac'ons continued 
in good Ametie. And in the yeare 163- [J/o/J there was 
a Settlement made by one of y'' english att y<= great salt 
pan, by name William Sum'ers, but their being noe water 
to be had w"" out much labour & toyle y" Settlers left ye s'd 
land & went to y' Tartoodes to Settle there ; In y^ time of 
Coir Clement Everards governm' the great Salt pan was 
devided betwixt y^ english & y'= french, but noe parting of 
any of said land betwixt frigott bay & S' Xp'hs point to 
this day. 

In testimonie whereof wee have hereunto Subscribed o'' 
names being thereunto Called this 29"' April 1675. 

William ffreeman. 
John Estridge. 

Eob't Cave. Charles Morris. 

John Wilkinson. John Versill. 

John Allen. William Plumer. 

Gilbert Loxley. John Baylet. 

Rob't Clarke. Sampson Maneringe. 

PHiLLiPP Lambert. Edward Parker. 



XVIU 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



CHAPTER III. 

SETTLEMENT OF ANTIGUA, 1635—1650. 



It has beeu stated by all West Indian historians 
that Sir Thomas Warner despatched some families 
to settle Antigua in 1632, under the command of his 
son, Captain Edward Warner, who has been already 
mentioned as the Deputy-Governor of St. Christo- 
pher's. Sir Thomas also occupied Montserrat, chiefly 
with Irish and Papists 

That there was an ever-increasing flow of emi- 
gration westward is proved by the instructions, 
dated 30 July 1634, from the Company of Providence 
Island, to Joseph Collins, chief pilot and com- 
mander of the " Long Eobert " of London, bound 
thither : " To sail at the beginning of Augiist 
direct for the Caribbees, and there discharge pas- 
sengers." ('Colonial Calendar,' p. 189.) Maurice 
Thompson, Edward Thompson, and George Snelling 
likewise petitioned the Privy Council that having 
hired the " Discovery " and " Sampson " for a 
voyage to the Caribbee Islands, they prayed for 
licence to transport 500 dozen of shoes, 200 muskets, 
and 200 swords for the use and defence of those 
plantations. [Ibid., p. 195.) 

Though, as already stated, Antigua was supposed 
to have been settled in 1632, it was probably 
not ofl&cially administered till the year 1635, for in 
a petition presented in 1685 by Alexander Polling- 
ton to the Council it is recited that : 

" Henry Huncks Gov of Antigua by a Com" fi'om the 
Earl of Carhle did by his patent da. 10 Sep. 1638 in the 
4'* year of that Colony grant to Kowl'' Tompson Esq. a 
parceil of land at y" Body 240 paces wide & 1^ miles long 
& on the following day granted a warr' for its survey. 
400 acres were measured out & the s'' Row. Tompson 
settled the lands & by his will dated 20 Dec. 1641 devised 
them to his only s. & h. Edw^ Tompson," etc 

Scarcely any records remain having any reference 
to the infant colony during the next few years of its 
existence, probably on account of its small popu- 
lation and insignificance. Such papers as have been 
found are here given chronologically. 

The following early list of settlers was bound 
up with papers of a very much later date : — 

1636. To the righ hono''''^ the Lords Com'ssioners for 
the Admiralty of England. 

The humble petic'on of Charles Kilburne W of the good 
shipp the Mary of London. 

Sheweth, 

That yo'' pet' was imployed in his Ma'» Service the Last 
expedic'on to Sea wherein he honestly and faithfully be- 
haved himselfe And being now bound in the said Shipp for 
a Plantac'on in the Carribbe Islands in the West Indies 
with 36 men whose names are expressed in a schedule 
annexed. Yo'' pet" humble suite therefore is, That your 
bono" will be pleased to give some order or direc'on 
whereby bee and his said Company may be free from being 
pressed into his Ma" Service in this p'sent flHeete. 



And hee as in duty ever bound shall daily pray for yo'' 
hono". 

The names of the M' and Company in the \_torii here] 
of London, now bound for the Caribbee Islands. 

Charles Kilburne, M^ 

John Wells. Edward EUett. 

John Lumley. James Slinke. 

George Helborne. John Johnns. 

Robert More. Thomas Puffet. 

Richard Throssle. Symon Bridoman. 

Peter Jonson. Robert Lofto. 

William Snell. George fTalle. 

Charles Unthawk. George Lindsey. 

Nicholas Bitterley. Richarde Willes. 

John Simes. William Wade. 

Christopher Applely. Robert Bamiarde. 

John Loder. Peter Pope. 

James Buoher. -Roger RycrofFte. 

Phillip Hymes. Robert Miles. 

Peter Harris. Steven Harlanole. 

Thomas Clare. Robert Saule. 

Thomas Hale. David Kempe. 

Nathaniell Hale. Thomas Sherley. 

Endorsed :—" April 1636 M' Charles Kilburne's pet." 
(America and West Indies, Leeward Islands, 
No. 552, 1721—1749.) 

1636. S' Christopher's. Sep. 10. Capt. Sir Thos. 

Warner, Governor of S' Christopher's, to Sec. 

Windebank. 
Having but lately arrived, is yet unsettled, & pestered 
with many controversies of the planters, which have slept 
for his coming. The " Plough," one of the two ships 
which he provided for his voyage, and in which were £4000 
of his own adventure, is in all men's judgment lost, with 
about 150 persons, the better part of the victuals, apparel, 
& ammunition, intended for his new designs. In his own 
ship there was great sickness and mortality, not 20 out of 
200 escaped, about 40 having died, some near to him in 
blood, and many of especial quality & use. Had intended 
to have " placed a colony upon Metalina," under command 
of his son-in-law, and for that purpose touched at Barbadoes 
(inhabited with about 6000 English) to raise the necessary 
volunteers. Could have had 500 able men provided with 
arms and victuals had not Capt. Hen. Ilawley, the Governor, 
opposed him, whose conduct Warner stigmatizes as obstinate 
& rebellious, & contrasts it with that of the Governors of 
" the other islands," where he found a willing reception and 
due respect. 
1636. Petition of Capt. Anth. Brisket, Gov. of Montserrat, 

to the King. 
Was made Gov. by Jas., Earl of Carlisle, & has very 
lately obtained another commission from the now Earl. 
Has come to England to carry more planters & necessaries 
thither, where he is erecting a church of stone & brick. 
Prays for letters to the Lord Deputy of Ireland, to be ad- 
mitted a contractor for tobacco at the same rate as Capt. 
Warner & others. (' Colonial Calendar,' p. 240.) 

The sale of negros and Indians for life was 
authorized in 1636; hitherto all the slaves on the 
plantations had consisted solely of Indians, and these 
were rapidly dying out. 



,V:^':^^/^'•' 



Sht-rUy /fcig.Ai^r 










SETTLEMENT OE ANTIGUA. 



XIX 



1686. Henry, Earl of Marlborough presented his 
petition to the King, & stated that in consideration of his 
father, then Lord High Treasurer, who had taken extra- 
ordinary care for planting the Caribbees, releasing unto the 
late Earl of Carlisle his interest in a grant of those islands, 
a rent charge of £300 per annum, to be issuing out of 
S' Christophers, Nevis, and Montserrat, was conveyed to 
the petitioners father, himself, and afterwards renewed to 
petitioners son. Although a great revenue has been 
received from thence, the annuity is more than eight 
years in arrears, and he is informed that he cannot 
recover, because those islands are not within the jurisdiction 
of any of the Kings Courts. Prays that the matter may 
be referred to the Privy Council, and that all parties 
interested may be ordered to attend for his satisfaction. 
(' Colonial Calendar.') 

The omission of Antigua from the above petition 
leads one to suppose that it had been settled much 
later than the three other islands, and Montserrat, 
■which has been considered by all writers to have 
been settled with Antigua in 1632, was probably in- 
habited by whites as early as 1628. 

1637. ? April. The King to [the feoffees of Jas. late 
Earl of Carlisle]. 

It has been noticed that the inhabitants of S' Christo- 
pher's, Barbadoes, & the other Caribbee Islands have mostly 
planted tobacco, to the neglect of cotton, wools, and other 
useful commodities which they had begun, & of corn & 
grain sufficient for the support of those plantations, which 
compels them to receive supplies from the Dutch & other 
strangers. Instructions to be sent to the several governors 
concerning the growth of their tobacco & the prohibition of 
trade in those islands with strangers. 

1638. July. James, Earl of Marlborough, His Majesty's 
Ward, petitions the King reciting the petition of his father, 
Henry, Earl of Marlborough, & complains that his annuity 
is eleven years in arrears, & his estate in no. way able to 
support his dignity. Prays that the present Earl of Car- 
lisle may be commanded to satisfy the petitioner, & in 
case he refuse or delay to do so, that the King will grant 
letters to the Governors of S' Kitts, Nevis, & Montserrat to 
permit the petitioner to seize goods there for satisfaction of 
his arrears. (' Colonial Calendar,' pp. 246 and 281.) 

1639. March. The King to the Governor, Council, 
Planters, & Inhabitants of the Caribbee Islands, or 
province of Carlisle. 
The late Earl of Carlisle, with great industry and ex- 
pense, having settled S' Christophers, Barbadoes, Nevis, 
Montserrat, and Antigua, and the present Earl intending 
wdth all convenient speed to plant divers other of the 
Caribbee Islands within his patent, and from those already 
planted with " such store and numbers of people " to take 
sufficient numbers as may begin their plantations, which 
otherwise may be possessed by strangers ; they are in- 
structed to do their uttermost to oppose any who may 
attempt to allure the inhabitants from those islands, 
whereby the Earl will be disabled of sufficient people to 
plant the residue ; and Lord Carlisle having made choice of 
Serj. -Major Hen. Huncks to be Governor of Barbadoes, 
they are strictly enjoined to yield respect and obedience to 
him. {Ibid., p. 291.) 

Major Huncks tried to assert his authority at 
Barbados, but owing to the violent opposition of 
Henry Hawley, the Governor he was deputed to super- 
sede, he retired to' Antigua, where he seems to have 
acted as Governor, for he signed various patents for 
land there during 1638 and 1639. 



1639. ?May. Petition of "James, Earl of Carlisle, Sir 
James Hay, and Archibald Hay, trustees for the late 
Earl, to the Privy Council. 

" Are informed by Sir Thomas Warner, Governor of 
S' Christophers and Lieut.-General of the Caribbees, that 
there is a great scarcity of ammunition in those islands, 
for want of which about 20,000 pla'nters are in great 
danger, not only by the Spaniards and French, but of being 
devoured by the natives, can'ibals. S' Christophers is 
half planted with French, who receive large supplies, which 
increases their power and number, and they insult the English, 
and set forth colonies in other islands within Lord Carlisle's 
grant, which if not speedily prevented, the benefit of £12,000 
per annum at least in duties from that island will be lost. 

" Through the restraint on tobacco the poor planters 
are debarred from free trade, and unable to furnish them- 
selves with necessaries, much less to buy ammunition." 

" Pray for leave to purchase 20 lasts of powder at the 
price paid by the King, for their encouragement to preserve 
the islands they have gained and to plant others." 

A Warrant was accordingly issued on the 28th of the 
same month to the Officers of Ordnance to deliver to the 
Earl of Carlisle, Sir James Hay, and Archibald Hay, 
trustees for the late Earl, the proportion of powder re- 
quested in the above petition, upon paying the usual price 
of 18rf. per lb. (' Colonial Calendai*,' p. 295.) 

On 26 May 1639 Governors de Poincy and 
Warner signed a decree ordering the destruction of 
all tobacco plants, and forbidding the planting of it 
for 18 months. This was done because the European 
market was glutted, and the price had become un- 
remunerative, so much so that it is probable that 
the planters now turned their attention to the 
growth of the sugar-cane. (Du Tertre, vol. i., p. 143.) 

1640. A Dutchman from Brazil is stated to have 
taught the Barbadians the manufacture of sugar. 

The English at Antigua were attacked by the 
Caribs, who killed fifty of them, and carried off the 
Governor's lady, then great with child, her two 
children, and three other women. At this time the 
inhabitants of Antigua consisted of about thirty 
families. (Southey.) 

1640. June 23. The King's commissioners at Barba- 
does say that they have recalled Major Hunks from Antigua, 
who was very welcome to the people, & is settled in the 
government. ('Colonial Calendar,' p. 313.) 

It is probable that Captain Rowland Thompson 
succeeded Major Henry Huncks as Governor of An- 
tigua. He received a grant of 400 acres on 10 Sep. 
1638, and his will was dated 20 Dec. 1641. 

1643. Nov. 24. Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Mont- 
gomery, Edward, Earl of Manchester, William, Viscount 
Say and Sele, Philip, Lord Wharton, John, Lord Roberts, 
Sir Gilbert Gerard, Sir Arthur Hesilrig, Sir Harry Vane, 
junior. Sir Benjamin Rudyerd, John Pym, Oliver Cromwell, 
Dennis Bond, Miles Corbet, Cornelius Holland, Samuel 
Vassal!, John Rolies, and William Spurstowe, nominated by 
Parliament Commissioners for Plantations, appoint Sir 
Thos. Warner, resident in the island of St. Christopher, 
Governor and Lieut.-General of the Caribbee Islands, 
under Robert, Earl of Warwick, Governor-in-Chief of all 
the Plantations in America. (' Colonial Calendar.') 

1644. A Captain Henry Ashton,* as Deputy- 

* Governor Ashton left a son Henry Ashton who was killed by 
the Indians when the French devastated Montserrat in IGGi;, also a 
daughter Henrietta, who became the wife of Governor Philip Warner. 



XX 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Governor of Antigua, signed land patents in 1644, 
1645, 1647, and 1649. He is probably identical 
witli the Colonel Henry Asliton who was in Dec. 
1639 appointed one of the Royal Commissioners to 
go out to Barbados and settle the dispute between 
Governors Hawley and Huncks. According to 
Governor Keynell's letter of 1656, Ashton had de- 
clared for the King, and he was jjrobably compelled 
by Sir George Ayscue to resign the Government, the 
Roundhead Keynell being appointed in his place. 

1646. James, Earl of Carlile, son and heir of the first 
grantee, by Indenture of lease, and for a valuable considera- 
tion, demised to the Lord Willoughby* of Parham all the 

* Francis, fifth Lord Willoughby of Parham, was second son of 

the third Lord, and succeeded his elder brother, who died young. 
Of his early life little is known. On the breaking out of the Civil 
War he sided with the Commons. In the Parliamentary Army 
List of 1642 his name occurs as Colonel of one of the seventy -five 
troops of sixty horse each under the command of the Earl of Bedford. 
In March 1643 he and Sir John Meldram, with 5000 men, besieged 
Newark, where their forces were hemmed in by Prince Rupert, 
and forced to capitulate with the loss of all their ammunition. 
He took the town of Gainsborough July 16, 1643, getting " great 
store of ammunition and armes in the towne, a good part of the Earl 
of Kingston's treasures ; one writes, more gold than his red beaver 
hat will hold" ('The Kingdom's Weekly Intelligencer,' 18 — -25 July 
1643). Whitelook says : -'That the Lord Willoughby kept the town 
afterwards against the Earl of Newcastle's forces, till overpowered 
with numbers he was forced to surrender it on honourable con- 
ditions." On 7 Aug. 1647 his name appeared as one of the seven 
peers who were accused by Parliament of high treason to them- 
selves. Having retired to Holland with some eight revolted men 
of war, he made his peace with the King, and was appointed Vice- 
Admiral by the Duke of York in June 1648. He subsequently went 



Charibbee Islands for the term of twenty-one years from 
the feast of St. Michael 1646 (Feb. 17, 1646-7) on trust to 
pay one moiety of all the rents and profits to the creditors 
of the said James, Earl of Carlile, the other moiety to be 
retained for the use of the said Lord Willoughby, and 
the last-named was further constituted Lieut. -Greneral of all 
the said Islands. (' Colonial Calendar.') 

The ship " Nonsuch," Captain Middleton, Master, 
arrived at Antigua in 1647, which gave the name to 
Nonsuch Harbour, where he anchored. This was 
one of three vessels fitted out from England by 
Colonel Thomas Moddiford, who had intended 
settling here, but having been driven by bad 
weather to Barbados, he purchased an estate there. 

1648. On 10 March died, the noble and much 
lamented. General Sir Thomas Warner,* Kn', 
L* General of y'^ Carribee Islands, and Governor of 
y<= Island of S' Christopher. He was buried in the 
Old Road Church on that island, where his tomb may 
still be seen. 

to Barbados, where he was well received, and established the royal 
authority in the West Indies. (For an account and portrait of him 
see ' A Survey of England's Champions,' 1647, p. 51.) 

* Christopher Jeaffreson thus alludes to some valuable laws of 
his, probably not now in existence: "1683, March 27. It is well 
you have made an end with unreasonable Mr. Rogers ; but I doubt 
you have forgotten to demand my books which I left in his cus- 
tody ; the one, a Collection of the old Lawes and Orders made in 
the Islands in Sir Thomas Warner's tyme ; the other, some Memo- 
randa of my father's concerning the first settlement of the island 
(S' Christopher's)." 



CHAPTER IV. 

FROM THE ARRIVAL OF LORD WILLOUGHBY TO THE RESTORATION, 1650—1660. 



On the 29th of April 1650 Francis, Lord Willough- 
by of Parham, arrived at Barbados ; proclaimed 
Charles II. at all the islands of his government ; and, 
by the royal instructions, commissioned Major- 
General Sir Sydenham Poyntz to be Governor over 
the Leeward Islands. It was probably at this time 
that his Lordship took up a large tract of land in 
Antigua, which he named Parham, after his ancestral 
castle in Suffolk. "Willoughby Bay" and "My 
Lord's Pond " also remain to remind us of him. Lord 
Willoiaghby was the first to order Assemblies on 
each island ; before his arrival there were no popular 
representatives elected by the freeholders, but each 
Governor conducted affairs with the advice only of 
his Council. There were at Barbados at this period 
many thousand Royalists, disbanded Cavaliers of all 
ranks, who had sought an asylum there, and the 
loyalty displayed by them in proclaiming the " man 
Charles " as their lawful sovereign greatly exas- 
perated Parliament, so much so, that on 29 August a 
warrant was issued by order of the Council of State 
to stay all ships bound to Barbados, and on 10 Sep- 
tember the embargo was extended to the Caribbees, 



Bermudas, and Virginia. On 8 October an Act was 
passed prohibiting all trade and commerce with 
" the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermudas, and Antegoa, 
because of their rebellion against the Commonwealth 
of England ;" and preparations were made for the 
despatch of a fleet to reduce the West Indies. 
That this Act was not effectual in subduing 
the Royalists, may be seen by the tenour of 
the Declaration published on 11 June 1651 by the : 

" Lord Lieut.-General, the Council & Assembly of Barba- 
does, set forth for the satisfaction of all the inhabitants of 
that island : Conceive it necessary to acquaint them with 
the proceedings of those disafiected persons gone hence, and 
of their resolutions to defend themselves against the slavery 
intended to be imposed upon them. Assure them that the 
Council of State of England have resolved to force a 
Governour upon them, as also a garrison of 1200 men in 
arms, to be maintained by the Island ; and that they 
must, ' as they have most wickedly done, renounce their 
allegiance to the King.' Are firmly resolved never to 
permit His Majesty's undoubted right to Barbadoes to 
be questioned, and look upon all persons bringing pro- 
positions to that purpose as professed enemies to the welfare 
of them all." ('Colonial Calendar.') 



FROM ARRIVAL OF LORD WILLOUGHBY TO THE RESTORATION, xxi 



On 5 Aiigiist 1651 Sir George Ayscue sailed from 
Plymouth with, a squadron consisting of the — 



" Raijihow " 

"Success" 

"Ruth" 

" Brazil," Mgate 



Men. Guns. 

Sir George Aiscue 280 52 

Edw. Witheridg 90 30 

Edw. Thomson 80 30 

Tho. Heath 70 24 



100 


36 


150 


36 


90 


SO 


860 


238 



"Increase " of London Tho. Varvell 
"Amity" Mich. Pack 

" Malaga Merchant " Henry CoUins 



and having on boai-d Daniel Searl, who, together 
with Sir G. Ayscue and Ca^jtain Pack, had been ap- 
pointed Commissioners for the reduction of the 
West Indies. The fleet proceeded to the Tagus in 
search of Prince Rupert, touched at Caj)e de 
Verd Islands, and arrived on 16 October at Car- 
lisle Bay, where a landing was effected, but for 
some weeks there was nothing but desultory 
skirmishing, serious fighting being out of the 
question, as Captain Pack wrote, " That through 
continual extremity of rains the soldiers could 
scarce keep a match lighted." On 3 January 
1651-2 Colonel Thomas Modyford, with his regi- 
ment, deserted Lord Willoughby and declared 
for the Parliament ; and this defection, together 
with the news of the Battle of Worcester, 
having considerably disheartened the Royalists, his 
Lordship on 9 Januai-y nominated Sir Richard 
Pearce, Charles Pym, Colonel Thomas Ellice, and 
Sergeant-Ma j or William Byam as Royalist Com- 
missioners, with full powers to treat for peace ; 
but his still unbroken power and great resources 
enabled him to dictate very favourable Articles, 
which were signed on 12 January to the- following 
effect :* 

The Government to remain as now established. All 
Acts not repugnant to the Laws of England, & made 
previous to 1038, to be in force ; those conceruing the 
present differences to be repealed, as also all Acts against 
any of the inhabitants, & a general Act of Indemnity to be 
passed by Parliament. 

The people of the Island to be restored to their 
rights in England, Scotland, & Ireland. Every port, 
etc., under the Parliament to be open to Barbadoes 
for free trade as ever. No customs to be paid for 
three years, for commodities of the island imported or 
exported. 

All persons to be restored to their sequestred estates. 

Goods taken by the fleet to be restored. 

Lord Willoughby's planting of Surinam not to be 
hindered, & his lawful right to the rest of his islands 
preserved. 

The ships to be allowed 10 days to wood and water, and 
thpn.::ci'pt"<.,i;y to depart. These articles to be confirmed 

by Parlia*. 
\ 
The ^ terms were agreed to by the Com- 
missionei" both sides, and the Island was duly 
surrendei 

* For fitails of the proceedings at Barbados the reader 
may consuie ' Colonial Calendar ' and Mr. Darnell Dayis' 
interesting j ' The Cavaliers and Roundheads of Barbados, 
16.50— 1G52.) 



Lord Willoughby obtained very favourable treat- 
ment for himself, which is shewn by : — 

The 16 Article agreed and concluded upon the sur- 
render of the Barbadoes and afterwards confinned by 
Parliament {in hec verba), vizt., That the lord Willoughby 
of Parham have all his lands reuts or estates what- 
soever reall and p'sonall in England without any ffyne 
or composicion paid, restored to him or his assignes free 
from all incumbrances layd on the same by the Parliam' 
of England or any of them authorized since the tyme 
of its first seizure or sequestracon. And that w' settlem' 
the lord Willoughby of Parham hath made at Sarranam 
and any other hee shall make or any part of the Maine 
of Guiana shalbe by him enjoyed and kept without any 
disturbance either of himselfe or those that shall accom- 
pany him thither and that hee have free lib'tie to bring 
Servants from any Port in England or Ireland and 
that his plantation at Antigua accordinge to the bounds 
allready layd out be reserved to him, and what estate 
soever of right doth belonge unto the Lord Willoughby of 
Parham in this Island of Barbados to bee to him intirely 
p'served. 

On 29 March 1652 Sir G. Ayscue left with the 
fleet, Daniel Searl remaining behind as Governor of 
Barbados. 

There is no good account of what took place at 
Antigua, but Oldmixon writes that :— 

To M"- Rich,* the 2'' English Governor of S' Christo- 
pher's, succeeded M'' Everard, who continued in the Govern- 
ment several Years ; and by what we can understand, was 
in that Office when the Rump usurped the supreme power 
in England. The Leeward-Islands refusing to acknowledge 
their Sovereignty, King Charles the II. appointed Major- 
General Poyntz to be Governor, and he was in possession of 
S' Christopher's when Sir George Ayscue arrived at Bar- 
bados and reduced that Island : After which he sailed to 
Nevis and S' Christopher's ; but Major-General Poyntz not 
being strong enough to defend him.self against the Power 
Sir George brought with him withdrew before his Arrival, 
and ship'd himself for Virginia, the only Retreat for 
Cavaliers. (Vol. ii., p. 280.) 

We read, in an old Historian, that Major-General 
Pointz, w'ho was made Governor of the Leeward Islands by 
the Parliament (sic), sail'd from S' Christopher's to Virginia. 
{Ibid, vol. i., p. 376.) 

1652. June 3. Daniel Searle GoV of Barbados to the 
Council of State. News of 5 or 6 saile of ship making for 
Barbadoes " believed to be Prince Rupert's fleet. "f Lord 
Willoughby having been ordered to quit the island, left on 
27 March last for Surinam, but returned yesterday for pro- 
visions, which were granted ; he had been ordered that day 
to withdraw, and goes to Antigua, and so for England. 
(' Colonial Calendar,' p. 380.) 

The Assembly of Barbados, contrary to the 
tenour of the Articles of Peace, passed an Act 
banishing several prominent Royalists; and among 
them Major William Byam, who retired to Lord 
Willoughby's colony at Surinam, of which place he 

* The Hon. Roland Rich signed a treaty with De Poincy on 18 
Ootoljer 1649, and Colonel Clement Everard was Deputy-Grovernor 
in 1654 by Cromwell's commission. 

f Prince Rupert, with a squadron of six ships, had seised some 
vessels in the River Gambia in March 1652-3; appeared off Mout- 
aerrat about the end of June 1653 ; and after reiitting- in October at 
the Virgin Islands returned to Europe. The capture of a few 
unimportant prizes was the only result of his somewhat piratical 
cruise. 

d 



XXll 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



was chosen Governor in 1654, but after the treaty of 
Breda in 1667 he is stated to have removed to 
Antigua, where he died circa 1670. 

The author of ' The Troubles of the Barbados ' 
states that Colonel Humphry Walroud and his 
younger brother Edward Walrond, a lawyer of the 
Temple (both at Barbados in 1653), obtained the 
banishment of Colonel Guy Molesworth, and " This 
Act so plausibly performed, gave them encourage- 
ment to move further, and to procure the office of 
Treasurer and Master of the Magazines, and Capt. 
of the Platforms, to be put into the hands of Serj. 
Major William Byam, a Soldier of Fortune, and one 
very fit for their turn." 

1652. Aug. 20. Orders of the Council of State. 
Liberty to be given to Henry Hazard & Kobert Immans of 
the City of Bristol, merchants, to carry 200 Irishmen 
from any port in Ireland to the Caribbee Islands, and to 
Eobert Lewelliu of London, merchant, to have 300 men. 
(' Colonial Calendar,' p. 387.) 

1053. Feb. 4. Petition of Edward Eltonhead for 
licence to send a French or Hamburgh ship to the island 
of Antigua for supplying a plantation of his there. {Ibid., 
p. 399.) 

Francis, Lord Willoughby, petitioned his High- 
ness the Protector about 1653 for a patent for his 
lands, referred to the Articles on the surrender of 
Barbados, and stated that : — 

The Lord Willoughby of Parham did in the yeare 1650 
sett forth one Ship and a small vessell in w'^'' twenty 
p'sons were transported and furnished to make discovery of 
the Maine of Guiana. 

Upon the retorne of which Shipp accordinge to advice 
hee did fitt a frygott of twenty-guns w"' two other vessells 
to attend upon that Service and in them did send 100 men 
■with all nianer of p'visions to make a Settleni' upon the 
River of Serrenam. 

After which hee did at severall tymes and upon severall 
Vessells send Men, provisions, armes, and Ammunition. 

And in further p'secucon thereof did in the yeare 1652 
take a voyage thither himselfe in p'son and with him 
carryed an adicion of strength soe that hee left well settled 
there 300 p'sons all Englisli well fortifyed and furnished 
■with canon, Armes, ammunition and other necessaryes all 
which was done at his sole proper Cost and Charges to the 
e.xpence of many thowsand pounds. 

1654. Feb. 7. Captain Gregory Butler to the protector. 

May it please your highness, 

Tyme will not permitt me to give you such an account 
of your afiaires heer as I thought to have doun. The com- 
missioners this evening have resolved to send myselfe with 
3 ships for the Leeward Islands, to raise such force as may 
conduce most for your highnes service. We have according 
to your commands laid an embargo upon all ships heer, and 
seised upon 8 Dutch shipps we found here. The islanders 
here much desire commerce with strangers, our English 
merchants trafiquing to those parts being generally great 
extortioners. I humbly represent to your highnes the 
necessity of allowing forreigne commerse, which can be 
noe way prejudicial!, imposing upon them double custom to 
be paid in our English plantations in these parts. As yett 
our London shipps are not arrived with our store. We 
are now ready to sett saile ; wheirforee being in haste 
I humbly beg your highnes pardon for not returning 
soe full an account as I intended. By the nest con- 



veyance I shall endeavour to render you as perfect an 
account as I can possible. In the meantyme I presume 
to style myselfe 

Your highnes most humble servant 

Gregory Butler. 
From aboard the Marston-moore ryding 
before the Berbadoes. Feb. 7, 1654. 

(Thurloe's 'State Papers,' vol. iii., p. 142.) 

1654. M'' Andrew Riccard, etc., to the protector. 

May it please your Highness, 

In pursuance of your highness's instructions, we have 
considered of fitt persons to be commissionated with those 
upon the Barbadoes and the other islands ; and do humbly 
present their names as foUoweth : — 

Edmund Winslow, esquire, 
Richard Holdip, esquire, 
Captain Edward Blagg, to be 
sent from hence. 

Commissioners for the Barbadoes: 

Col. Searle, governor. 

Col. Morrice, 

Col. Muddiford, 

.... Hawkins, esquire, 

Thomas Noel, esquire, 

Edward Thomson, esquire, 

John Roberts, esquire. 

For Nevis : 
Luke Stokes, governor, and his Council. 

For Christopher's : 
Clement Everard, governor, and his council. 

For Mountserat : 
Roger Osborne, governor, and his council. 

For Antigua : 
.... Rennell, governor, and his council. 

{Ibid., vol. ii., p. 543.) 

1054. Ch. Raynell* to the protector. 

May it please your Highnes, 

Upon the reducement of these parts in that expedition 
of Sir George Ascue's imploy, I was by him and the other 
commissioners then impowered, commissionated to be 
governor and commander in chief of this island Antigua, in 
relation and obedience to the commonwealth of England, 
which to the best of my endeavours I hope in my instru- 
ment I have faithfully performed ; in the progress of which 
my imploy, being I have received by several advice, that it 
was and is thought meete, and so established by the greate 
councell and istate of Ingland, with your highness consent 
and acceptation, that the government of our nation and 
dominions remayne in yourselfe as lord protector ; a thing 
most acceptable to mee, whoe doe most faythfuUy wish your 
highnes and the commonwealth wellfare and hapines ; and 
in manifestation thereof have cherfully acknowledged and 
submitted to all such mandates or expresses, which have 
hetherto come in the name of the lord protetii;;;. _ But in 
our private cousultation consideringe of w ,nj sperites 
amongst us, doupting theyre disafections ha ^ not altered 
the titles of our .... or ... . accordinge t, our desii-es 
and intentions, lest an ill-effected partie sh(,i(j presume 
to take an advantage thereby, in preteudige, as some 
have allredy given out, that there were^ :,e powre of 
government ; but all as libitinc, untell a jne' commission 

* Christopher Keynell's name is often writitenyynell in the 
State Papers. I I 



PEOM ARRIVAL OF LORD WILLOUGHBY TO THE RESTORATION, xxiii 



com from your highness, which by that meanes might 
indanger the place to a confusion and ruien ; soe render 
us uncapable of that service we desire to performs to your 
highness and the commonwealth ; the place of itselfe 
(if incoragement and small helps weere afforded) beeing 
of consiqusnce by reson of the fertellity of the soyle, 
and sxossdinge all other settled in these partss in con- 
vsnnisnts and safe harbours, I in relation to the premisses, 
and my loyalty to your highness and the common- 
wsalth, doe prostrate my humble desire at the feete of 
your bigness care and justice, soe far to take up the 
people and place into your consideration, as to give such 
order and directions as may put us not only in a condition 
of walking inoffensively, but allsoe as wee may be servisable 
to your highness and the commonwealth ; which is the 
harty desire of 

Your most obedient subject and servant, 

Chr. Raynell. 
From the island of Antigua, in the partes of 

America, August 20, 1G54. 

I have presumed heerewithall to present a coppy of the 
commission I have acted by, in case your highness please to 
Lave it perused. (Thurloe's ' State Papers,' vol. ii., p. 554.) 

1G54? Petition of Carsten Carstenson, of Stockholm, 
master of the " Stockholm," of Stockholm. Complains of 
his goods being seized in Antigua by Governor Kayuell. 
(' Colonial Calendar,' p. 420.) 

In 1665 all goods and merchandise belonging to 
the Dutch in the West Indies were declared confis- 
cated by Parliament. This was a severe blow to the 
merchants of Holland, who had much capital in- 
vested iu the Plantations, their ships monopolising 
the carrying trade. The following lists are copied 
from Egerton MS. 2395, British Museum. From 
two of the items we learn that 1 lb. of sugar was 
worth 3 lbs. of tobacco. 

Aktigua. 

A List of y^ Inhabitants of j" pond Division and Rendez- 
vous Bay, y'= Leward Devision, and Crab Vallye, and 
Burmudian Vallye, who Confeseth them Selves to 
have bene and are Indb' unto y«^ Estates of Garrard 
and Jacob Derrick By Bill or Accoump' and what they 
are Indebted. As also j" Debts of Severall p'sons 
found due uppon y" Booke who hath not appeared 
at their Summens before Cap'" Richard Lisle, and 
M"^ Tho. firyer Comission'" for y' purpose Appointed. 
Taken and Examined at Severall times by y^ said 
Lisle, & Fryer from y" S"' of Noverab'"' 1G55 unto y" 
first of Decemb'^ 1655 : — 



Tobacco 



Deb. to 
Gar" Derrick 

Idem 
Idem 



Idem 



Idem 

Garr" & Jacol> 



Gov' Kaynell By 12 h'h of wine 
by an acco" brought in by 
Rob. Heme & D'D upon oath . 

Govern' Kaynell deb*'' more 

Govern' Kayuell more to severall 
p'sells of wine by an acco" 
brought in by Rob. Heme and 
del''' uppon oath 

more Charged upon y'^said Hemes 
acco" but to be p'd by Gov' 
Kaynell being due from him as 
y* s'd Hearn hath deposed 

Tho. Wright 

James Southwell hath deposed all 
deb'^ and Acc"= are Satisfied . 



7,700 
4,747 



13,488 



626 

287 

00,000 









Tobacco 


Gan-t 


Mathew Grimes by L' Bruster 


20 


Gar' & Jacob 


Isaac Holland hath deposed not 






Indeb' . 


00,000 


Gar* 


Henry Eliot by his wife Adminis- 






tratrix . 


170 




Michell Culford Confeseth 


686 


Garr* Derrick 


Thomas Armitage Confeseth 


744 


Idem 


Christopher Baldwin by Bill 


660 


Idem 


Clement Alyen confesech . 


100 


Jacob & Garr' 


John Lannet Confeseth 




73 


Garret 


Will' Wilson per Bill 




310 


Jacob 


Will' Warrington Deb. 




673 


Garret 


Will' Ward confeseth 




42 


Jacob 


Will' Morgan confeseth 




526 


Idem 


Sam Irish Confeseth 




148 


Garret 


Hen. Nichole per Bill 




1,722 


Jacob 


John Roberts confeseth 




264 


Garr' Derrick 


Curtise by Bill . 




309 


Jacob 


Francis Kaynell found deb. 


42 


Garret 


Petter Harrise uppon y" Booke 


113 


.Jacob 


Will' Bignall confeseth 


640 


Garret 


Tho. Fryer confeseth to Ballance 


7 


Idem 


Rob. Hearne confeseth 


269 


Jacob 


Rob. Hearne confeseth 


566 


Idem 


Christopher Newsteed confeseth 


116 


Idem 


ffrancis Peatten uppon y"^ Booke 


152 


Idem 


Will' Price uppon y^ Booke 


. 1,360 


Garret 


John Cash by Bill 


247 


Idem 


John Henlock 




2 


Idem 


Richard Nicholles 




85 


Jacob 


Petter Jones Confeseth 




244 


Idem 


Step. Abramson . 




519 


Garret 


Tho. Clurruck confeseth 




286 


Idem 


Rob' Haij 




780 


Idem 


Cap' Tho. Tuck . 




1,488 


Idem 


Madam Ashton by Bill confesetli 






one hundred pounds of sugar 


300 


Idem 


Madam Ashton found upon Booke 


258 


Idem 


M' Smithers 83 '" sugar per Bill 
Toattall summe 


249 




41,018 



lb. 



d. 



Govern' Kaynell Indebted to Garr' Derrick 
82"> 2= 6'! Sterling Money being the full ap- 
praisement of y" Shipp with gunnes tackle 
boate oares and Apparell, etc. 



82 02 06 



A catalog, of what debts are due to Severall people in y<= 
afore menc'oned Divisions from Garret & Jacob 
Derrick Given in uppon their severall oathes to Cap'" 
Rich. Lisle & M'' tho. Fryer Comiss'^^^as afores'd : — 



to tho. Wright being reedy to depose 

L' tho. Southwell being deposed . 

to y'= Relick of Henry Eliot by Bill 

to Mark Hall 

to L' Gilles Blizard his own ace' M' 

Websters being satisfied 
to Gover' Kaynell from Jacob Derrick for 

house .... 
to Mark Brustei- . 
to Will' Bradshaw . 
to Thorn. Cluruck for table & bedsteed 
to Madam Ashton . 
to Rob' Smithers ... 
to Gidion Bryet 
to Madam Ashton . 

Totall . 



Jegon 
a store 



Tobacco 

2,047 

180 

2,287 

77 

3,415 

645 

68 

387 

[hlank'] 

801) 

1,127 

9,011 

659 

20,713 



XXIV 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



The names of those p'sons that are indebted for wine de- 
livered unto them at Several! times by Robt. Hearne 
as he hath given them in unto j'- aforesaid Comiss'" 
upon his oath w'^'' s'd wines did belong unto Cap*" 
Derrick and was taken out of the Ship called y' 
Hope as also what they are indebted : — 

Tobacco 

Martin Purder ..... 188 

Will' Price ..... 54 

John Collars ..... 60 

Eob' Hay ...... 312 

ffrancis Pattean ..... 28 

Henry Collowell . . . . .120 

Cloyce Harty ..... 84 

Owen Griffim ..... 36 

John Kearne ..... 24 

William fFennij ..... 8 

John Cade ..... 180 

Able Kayne ..... 52 

William Gittings . . . . .126 



Totall 



1,272 



A List of y« Inhabitants in Burmudian Vallye and others 
vi^^ are Indebted unto Clans Harty as it hath bein 
made appeare to Cap'" Rich. Lisle and W Thomas 
Fryer uppon ace' and Examinac'on they being Comis- 
sion'" appoynted by Authority for that purpose : — 

Tobacco 

Tho. Halfehide ..... 379 

Rob. Laysey confcseth .... 946 

John Mayotts confeseth .... 60 

John Camell confeseth .... 32 

Alesand' Spettle confeseth . . . 480 

Govern' Kaynell confeseth by Rob. Hearn . 7,136 
John Fry D'^ confeseth . . . .289 

Andrew Curteein per Bill .... 95 

William Wilcocks per Wm. Price . . . 130 

Maurice Shehaun found Deb' upon ye Book . 257 

Cornelus Cornelisoa confeseth . . . 351 

Richard Ayres found Deb'"' . . . 210 



Totall Summe 



10,365 



Insula Antigua. 

Severall Debts of Cap*" Garrard Derrickson and Jacob 
Derrickson by Bill and Accoump* Confest y'= 2 day of 
Aprill 165C : — 

Tobacco 



Tearvy 6 Sham per Bill 

Edward Ma . . 11 per Bill . 

John Winter per Bill 

M"^ Paul Lee per Bill 

to Ballence uppon Percivall Innocents Accoump' 

Cap'" Stodder per Bill . 

More to Peeter Boyer per Bill 

Rest to ballauce upon Wm. Walters Bill and 

Answered per Cap'° Stodder 
Francies Gifford per Bill . 
Phihp Flin upon accoump' 

Zachary Smith uppon Ace" and ans'red by Rob 
Wearner .... 

Thomas Bowes is Charged uppon ace" 1251 But 
denies it but confeseth some 

Thomas Collins per Acc° . 

Frances Hudson per Bill . 

William Pike uppon Ace" . 

more uppon Ace" .... 

Petter Dominico uppon Acc° 

M' Burkingham upon Ace" suger 220 

Thomas Couttenell uppon Acc° 



362 

80 

318 

333 
318 
200 

2,000 

236 

2,250 

49 

254 

1,251 
40 
360 
566 
321 
116 
660 
225 



John Edwards per Acconmpt 
Rob' Jliles by ace" but denies it 
one Bill more 
Tho Mathewes per Bill 
Jn" Walling uppon Balleuc of Acc° 
Sam. Wei bourn 
L' Palmer . 

Robert Trefliiine per Bill 
Dannell 6 Criminy per Bill 
Hugh Evens per Acco' 
Sam. Pile per Bill . 
John Andrews per Bill 
John Grendrip per Bill 
Dearemon Doogon per Bill 
Xf' Toiler per Bill 
John Partington per Bill 
William Tyler per BUI 
Rich. Hallet per Bill 
Thomas Coate per Bill but confeseth 
Hugh Chesword per Bill 
William Kenton per Bill 
Cap. Turfrey per Acco' but will make it appeare 
discharged .... 

Total Summe 



Tobacco 

60 
806 
313 

74 
174 
115 

16 
460 
370 
209 
610 
349 
1,070 
919 
1,330 
180 
215 
380 

33 
388 
180 

327 
18,077 



The names of such as are indebted either for their own 
account & confesed unt. Claus Harty by an Account 
brought in by Rob' Hearne the 10"" of Novemb' 

1655:— 



Cello' Christopher Kaynell by acco' conf 
Capt. Richard Lisle Confeseth 
Thomas ffryer confeseth 



7,136 
900 
454 

8,489 



A list of Bills belonging to Claus Harty deliver unto Cap'" 
Lisle and M'' tho. ffryer by Rob. Hearne : — 

1 Bill of W"' AVilcocks 
1 Bill of John Docody 



362 
468 
62 
257 
1,173 
379 
793 



3,494 



1 Bill of John Mayots 
1 Bill of Morrise Phalela 
1 Bill of Rob' Lacy 
1 Bill of M'- Hatfields 

1 Bill of William Hopten 

2 Notes of M"- Winthorp 

1 discharg of Claus Harty 
1 Neat of Jn" Boyse 
1 Noat of Will' Price 
1 Noate of Will' Bangers 

North Sound and Popes Head. 
A list of Debts due to Cap' Derrick Jacob Derrick and 
Claus Harty as are made Appeare by bills Books and 
Confession : — 

Tobacco 
L' Henry Smith Confeseth . , . 1,300 

2,888 

352 

265 

586 

4,676 

115 

137 

2,924 

131 

531 

1,164 



Ensigne Thomas Kelland . 

Will fford D'^ 

Richard Packins Deb'"' per Bill 

Edmund Cooper per Bill . 

Col' Chamond RumdeU D'' 

Henry Tanckerd D'' 

Straphon Martin d''' 

John Sellers 

Will' y« Scot Alias Bitton . 

L= Henry Stote 

Major Jacob Withers 



15,069 



EHOM ARRIVAL OE LORD WILLOUGHBY TO THE RESTORATION, xxv 



A List of Such people as are Indebted unto Cap'° Garrard 
Derrick Jacob and Clans Harty in y« five Islands : — 

Tobacco 
Will' Willson per Bill . .' . .310 

Sargt William Lyne per BiU . . .133 

Sargt Major Garden . . . .300 



/ 







743 




41,018 






20,713 






1,272 




This is the totall 


10,365 




sumin' due to 


18,077 




y" State from 


8,489 




Antigua besides 


3,494 




82"' 2' e*. 


15,069 
743 





119,240 

1655. Cap' Gregory Butler to the protector. 

May itt please your highness, 

During my stay at Barbadus, which was but eight 
dayes, severall strangers shipps were seized, and an im- 
bargoe laid on all vessells. Aboard the Swiftshore a 
conferrence was held with collonell Mudeford and coll. 
Morrice, the night before I sett sayle for Crestifores ; the 
some of it was, what place might bee best attempted, but 
indeed nothing concluded before my departure, which was 
earely next morning. Coll. Holdet and capt. Blagg were 
joined in commission with my selfe to raise men, and seize 
all strangers shipps trading with the Leward Islands under 
the English governemente. Our first arrivale was at 
Antegoe ; whoes governer is Chrestopher Kennell, som- 
tyme a capt. in England under the command of the 
honourable major generall Skippon. There wee staid but one 
night : having proclaymed your highnes, wee departed, 
after I had wryte to capt. Fountaine to come and serve 
your highnes, judgeing him fitt, whoe formerly was with 
capt. Cromwell in the Indes, knoweing him formerly to bee 
vallient. I enlured the governer to laye waite for capt. 
Campoe Subbatha, formerly Jackson's pillate ; besids with 
moneys and promises I gott mr. Wentworth, capt. Crom- 
well's mate, whome I placed in the Marstonemore friggett 
as piUate. 

This Island of Antegoe is much moUested with the 
Indyens of Guardelupp, Domineca, and S' Vencent, which 
made me uuwilling to entertaine any of the inhabitants 
for souldiers, there not being one the island above twelve 
hundred men. The place hath very good harbors in it, and 
of all the islands formerly possessed by the English, is the 
best, haveiug stoore of earth to make saltepeter. The next 
is Moncerrate, where with all sevellitye wee were enter- 
tained by the governer Osborne. Here wee raised fower 
score men, and toke two Dutch shipps and two Dutch 
shallups, proclamed your highnes, and see departed for 
Meves, where the governer, a most sober, godley, and dis- 
crete person, intertained ns nobley, drew his people in 
armes, and proclaymed your highnes. The same day wee 
listed three hundred men. This gentleman being old was 
willing to laye downe his commission, but wee incuredged 
him to retaine it. 

Hee was much perplexed with some annebaptest. 

Of him and another I bought two Indyens of Floreday 
shamefully betraid by a private man of warr, and sould in 
this island ; the which I left with my man upon the 
Island of Gemecoe. In Meves wee staid but two dayes ; 
see departed to S' Cristophers, where wee found the greate 
ons verey unwiUing, that wee should raise any men, ferring 
by that meanes the French might rewing them. The 
French were jellius of us, the old fier being unwilling to 
rune any hassard in his old agge, knowing his estate in 



S' Cristophers to bee better then the faviour of his master 
the King of France. The English governer Everrard is 
a covetuous and grevious opresser, not earring what will 
become of his people, soe hee thrives. Here we raised eight 
or nyne hundred men ; and had those quartered, which wee 
brought from Neves and Mountsearate. The English 
would a faiiie a fanlne out with the* French during our 
staying here ; but wee tooke such care, that the ammetye 
was renewed,* and the people left in peece. This island 
is almost worne out by reason of the multituds that live 
upon it. The fleete appearinge, wee shipped our men to 
the number of twelve hundred, and departed. (Thurloe's 
' State Papers,' vol. iii., p. 574.) 

As the conquest of Jamaica by Pen and Venables 
was effected with the aid of the settlers from the 
West Indian colonies, a brief allusion to that event 
may be uiade. 

On 18 December 1654 the soldiers were shipped, 
and the Rear-Admiral sailed from England next day, 
leaving the others to follow. The fleet of thirty sail, 
under the command of Admiral William Pen, with 
five regiments, amounting to 3000 men, besides 
officers, arrived at Barbados on 1 February 1654-5. 
Twenty Dutch ships were captured there, and after 
refitting, the Admiral sailed on 3 March, taking 
with hira a troop of Barbadian horse, besides many 
settlers. On 6 April the fleet anchored off St. 
Christopher's, and received 1200 volunteers from the 
Leeward Islands under Captain Gregory Butler. 
There were now 6000 West Indian settlers on 
board " that went to plant," besides women and 
children. On the 13th the expedition arrived at 
St. Domingo or Hispaniola, the conquest of which 
was Cromwell's object ; 7000 troops were landed the 
following day, but after some desultory fighting for 
several days the commanders gave up the enter- 
prise, having lost 1700 out of 9700 men landed, 
together with six colours. On 3 May 1655 the 
fleet sailed, arriving on the 10th at Jamaica, which 
island was easily conquered. Each regiment was 
assigned a district, and the officers and men received 
large grants of laud. It will thus be seen how the 
sui'plus population of Barbados and the Leeward 
Islands greatly contributed to the successfiil con- 
quest and settlement of Jamaica. (Egerton MS. 
2395, fo. 60, contains a very good detailed description 
of this expedition.) 

1655. Nov. 7. Extract of a letter written by Daniel 
Searle, Governor of Barbados, to Oliver Cromwell. 

The collony of Surranam settled on the maiue of 
Guyanna have applied themselfs unto mee with some com- 
plaint of theire unsettled condition. Theire governor coll. 
Holdip deserteing them retorned for England, and was there 
employed for the service of your highnes expedition into 
America ; since which time theye have binn and still are with- 
out any person authorized in the government amongst them. 

Some addresses have likewise binn made unto mee by 
mr. Joseph Lee, Benjamin Langhanf (sic), and Richard 
Furfey, inhabitants of the island Antegoe, in behalfe of 

* A copy of the Articles is g-iven by Du Tertre, vol. i., pp. 
447—479. 

t Ralph Webster of Antigua, Gent., in his will dated 1.3 April 
1G49, referred to his plantation and slaves held in partnership with 
Captain Benjamin Langham, and appointed as overseers Captain 
Joseph Lee and Mr. Thomas Akehurst. 



XXVI 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



themselfs and the people of that collony, concerning some dis- 
tractions among them, and the present unsettled and dis- 
turbed condition of that collony ; but findeing I have noe 
power to take cognizance of anything of that nature without 
the boundes of this collony without spetiall order from your 
highnes, I have transmitted theire complaints and the state 
of the matter in differance betwixt them upon theire 
governour's goeing off, which your highnes will hearewith 
receve. (Thurloe's ' State Papers,' vol. iv., p. 1.57.) 

On 1 1 November Cromwell established tlie Board 
of Trade, being a Committee of the Privy Council, 
appointed for the special consideration of trade and 
the affairs of the plantations. 

J. Daniel auditor general to the expedition under Pen & 
Venables, to Oliver Cromwell, dated 3rd June 1C55. 
"Mrs. Lee, wife of Captain Lee (of Antigua), was 
carried away by the Caribs, and kept prisoner 3 years at 
Dominica, her husband and many English slaughtered." 
('Antigua and the Antiguans,' vol. i., p. 15.) 

Extract of a letter from Major Sedgwick & vice-admiral 
Goodsoun, to the protector, dated at Jamaica 12 
March 1G55-6. 
.... We have as much as we could animated our 
souldiers to planting ; something they do but not much ; 
however to give them good example, we are now making a 
common plantation for the fleet, which is undertaken with 
chearfulness by the seamen. We have also despatched a 
ship, the Hope fly-boat, for New England to fetch masts 
and such necessaries as are wanting for the fleet, with 
letters to Captain Grookin, promising our best assistance of 
shipping, if he give us notice of any considerable number 
that desire to be transported hither. She is ordered like- 
wise in her return to touch at Barbados and Nevis, with 
letters to the governours there to the same effect, and to 
desire them to signify so much to all their neighbour plan- 
tations, as Montserrat, Antigua, etc. (Thurloe's ' State 
Papers,' vol. iv., p. 601.) 

1656. Draught of a Commission for Christopher Cannell 
to be Gov' of Antego. 

Oliver P. 

OHver Lord Protector of y>= Common- wealth of England, 
Scotland, & Ireland, & y'= dominions thereto belonging. To 
all to whom these presents shall come, Greetinge. Know 
ye y' we being well assured of j^ faithfuUness, prudence, & 
ability of our well-beloved Collonel Christopher Keynell ; 
have made, ordeined, constituted, & appointed, & by these 
presents doe make, ordeiue, constitute, & appoint him y' 
said Christopher Keynell Goveruer of our Island of Antigua 
in America ; with y'' Island of Barbado,* & other j'= little 
lies thereunto adjoyning, & belonginge : & all our forts, 
castles & fortresses, havens, roads & harbours there ; 
dureing our pleasure : & to y'' end & purpose we doe by 
these presents grant, & comitt unto him y'= said Governour 
Keynell, y'^ charge, custody, & government of y|= aforesaid 
Islands, & premises, with full power & authority for us, & 
in our name, to rule, govern, & order all & singular y'^ 
person, which now are or hereafter shall be abideing on j" 
said IsUmds, & every or any of them accordinge to y'' laws 
& customs of England, & such good, just, & reasonable 
customes & ordinances, as are or shall be there used & 
approved : & all such as shall be found disobedient in y' 
premises to chastize, correct & punish accordinge to theire 
severall demeritts ; & w"' force, & strong hand to fight 
with, kill, slay, represse, & subdue all such persons as in 
hostile manner shall attempt to encounter our forces there, 
or to possesse & invade our said Islands, or any of them, or 
in any wise to impeach our title & possession thereof ; or to 
hurt or annoy him y" said Christopher Keynell, or any y'' 
* Barbuda. 



people there beinge ; or others under our protection, & to 
y' purpose to receive into his command y^ severall companys 
of hors & foot belonginge to y" said Island & them to 
trade, lead, exercise & discipline in warr-like manner, 
accordinge to his discretion ; & from time to time to make 
constitute, & appoint under him fitt & convenient Officers 
& ministers of Justice both Civil & Military ; for j" peace & 
safety & y" good and peaceable governement of our said 
Islands, & people there : & we doe hereby streightly charge 
& command all manner of persons w"^"" now are, or shall 
hereafter be abideing upon y same Islands, to be obedient, 
aidinge & assistiuge of him y*" said Christopher Keynell, as 
CoUonell & Governour of our said Islands in all things as 
becometh. 

And for y' better execution of our service in y'' premises, 
& secureinge our interest in j" said Islands, we doe by these 
presents give, & grant further power & authority unto him 
y^ said Christopher Keynell, to erect, rais, & make such 
fortifications in such convenient harbours & places there as 
he shall Judge necessary; & for defrayinge & bareing y« 
Charges of y^ premises, to tax, & assess y' Inhabitants 
there, equally & proportionately accordinge to their severall 
degrees & estates. 

And further we doe by these presents grant unto him y« 
said Christopher Keynell full ])oure & authority from time to 
time, & when, & as often as to him shall seem necessary & 
expedient to summon courts of Assembly in y" said Island, & 
to heare & determine all, & all manner of causes & businesses 
there happeninge & to happen, whither Civil or Military, & 
from time to time, in case of eminent danger to proceed 
against in a summary & expeditious way, & cans execution 
to be done upon mutinous & incorrigible persons, disturbers 
of y^ publique peace, accordinge to y^ cours of y'= law Mar- 
shall : & allsoe by & with y'' consent of his counsell & free- 
holders of y" said Islands from time to time & when, & as 
often as to him shall seem necessary, to make, & ordeine 
such laws constitutions & ordinances not repugnant to y* 
Laws of England, as shall be thought meet for y" good 
governement of y' said Islands, & inhabitants thereof. 

And we doe hereby grant, & confirme unto y'' said 
Christopher Keynell, in consideration of his attendants, care 
& diligence in service there, all & every such, & y« like ad- 
vantages, proffitts, immunitys, customs, priviledges, emolu- 
ments whatsoever incident, due, and belonginge to his said 
place & office of Collonel & Governour of y"" said Islands : & 
for y'^ better encouragement of all such persons as shall desire 
to plant themselves in our said Islands, we doe by these 
presents further give, & grant unto him y<= said Christopher 
Keynell, full powre & authority to sett out, allott, & grant 
unto all, & every such person & persons such proportions of 
Lands in y'= said Islands as y'= said Christopher Keynell shall 
think fit. And lastly we doe by these presents give & grant 
unto y'' said Christopher Keynell full powre & authority to 
substitute under him, as necessity shall require, one fitt & 
discreet person to be his Deputy in his absence, & further to 
doe & execute all & every such other act, & acts, as shall or 
may tend or conduce to y^ settlinge of our governement there, 
& of our said Collony & plantations & inhabitants thereof, 
in peace & quietness, & for y" advanceing of trade, & com- 
merce & as shall be found there most fit & beneficial for y^^ 
honour of us & these Nations, & ye good & well-fare of our 
people there. And we hereby will & command him y" said 
Christopher Keynell dilligently & carefully to intend this 
our service & observe, & perform such further instructions 
& commands, as he shall ft-om time to time receive from us, 
or from us with y<= advice of our Counsell ; in y'' premises 
whereof we shall expect a due account : given under our 
signett at our pallace of Westminster, y" sixt day of August, 
in y" yeare of our Lord ; one thousand six hundred, & 
fifty-six. 

(Egerton MS. 2395.) 



FROM ARRIVAL OE LORD WILLOUGHBY TO THE RESTORATION, xsvii 



1G56. July 15. Petition of Got. Keyuell to the Council 
of State. 

At the desire of his Council & all the inhabitants he 
undertook a voyage to England at his own charge, to give an 
account of the island, which he has performed to the best of 
his abilities. Is desirous that the business should be deter- 
mined that he may return. His salary not half enough to 
defi-ay the charges of housekeeping. Has spent the greatest 
part of his estate in the purchase of ammunition, or else the 
Island had not been in possession of the English. Has for- 
borne to levy upon the inhabitants because of their poverty. 
His goods, to the value of nearly £1000, sent from Antigua 
to defray his expenses in England, all taken by nunkirkers. 
Wishes to go to sea within 14 days. Prays that the premises 
may be taken into mature consideration, so that he may 
return to his charge, his dearest relation and family. 

On the 23'' certain armes & ammunition were ordered by 
the Council out of the public stores for defence of the island, 
the merchants trading thither to be allowed 300 men out of 
Scotland, to be transported to Antigua at their own charge. 

1656. May6. Eeport of the Committee of Trade"deliv'd 
by his Highness in Council 6 May 1656." The purport of 
the above considerations more in detail, with the exception of 
foreign trade, recommended by the Committee to be adopted, 
as well as that Protestants of what nation soever be en- 
couraged to live under the English Government in the Island. 

July 1. Govr. Keynell also proposes that: — 

If importation of the commodities of the island into Eng- 
land, custom free, be not allowed, he proposes that a garrison of 
500 soldiers be kept upon the island, or a supply sent of Eng- 
lish and Scotch servants, with arms, ammunition, and negroes. 

The number left to their Lordships. 

Two ships of 200 tons each, provided for the use of the 
Colony, may give such encouragement, that the island may be 
kept in possession of the Commonwealth, without further 
charge. 

A continued supply of servants necessary as prisoners 
and the like. Course for their transportation. 

Endorsed: — "Read 1 July 1656. Ord. to be resumed 
Thursday." 

This paper was referred on the 3'''' to a committee, to con- 
sider of the raising of a fort in Antigua for securing the in- 
terest of the commonwealtii, & of such inhabitants as 
remain there, & of transplanting the rest to Jamaica. 

Another proposal was also presented by Kaynell to Col. 
Jones, one of the Council of State, viz. : — 

Propositions concerning the customs upon coimnodities & 
trade of the island. That it may be supplied with 400 or 
500 servants. No able-bodied men to be allowed to leave 
until they are in a condition to defend themselves. Twelve 
minions would be very useful. Will set out two ships to 
sea without any charge to his Highness, if he will bestow 
them for the service of the colony. Believes, if these pro- 
posals be not speedily granted, that it will be impossible to 
retain the island. Some resolutions then necessary, that so 
the people may shift for themselves. 

1656. April. Gov. Keynell petitions the Committee 
for Trade & navigation on behalf of the merchants, inhabi- 
tants & traders of Antigua. Prays to be heard about certain 
proposals intimating the situation, commodities, benefits, etc., 
of those fruitful islands that speedy resolutions may be taken. 

Annexed are : 

l''iy. Proposals for the preservation of Antigua from 
present ruin and destruction. Situation bigger than Bar- 
badoes, with large and secure harbours on all sides : climate 
healthy, soil not inferior to any of the Caribbee Islands, and 
very productive in tobacco, sugar, indigo, and. cotton. 
Great store of saltpetre ; natural salt ponds, plenty of fish 
and fowls, and good stock of cattle. 



Many plantations have been deserted because Colonel 
Henry Ashton declared for the adverse party, and through the 
wars between England and Holland commerce has been hin- 
dered. Prohibition of foreign trade has pi-evented the arrival 
of considerable supplies expected, especially by " the Nor- 
weesers " already settled there. No supplies of servants 
have of late arrived from England ; number of fighting men 
very inconsiderable. 

Unless some speedy course is taken to remedy these 
evils, the island will be quite deserted, and if it fall into the 
possession of an enemy, the utter rnin of all the English 
plantations in those parts will be imminent. 

2ncii.v_ Considerations upon the above proposals by order 
of 16 April 1656, for keeping afoot the island of Antigua. 

All arms and ammunition, of which a supply to be sent, 
and clothing outward bound, and all commodities imported 
for five years to be free of customs. 

English servants to be sent over " as prisoners and the 
like, if not, Scotch and Irish." 

Planters to be encouraged to go on with their plantations ; 
those that fail to be disposed of by the Governour to others 
who will settle them. The " Norweeses " and other 
strangers to be permitted to trade and supply their re- 
spective plantations. 

John Davies in liis translation of Rochefort's 
' History of the Caribby Islands,' the first edition of 
which was published in French in 1658, and the 
English translation in 1666, gives the following 
short account of Antigua: — 

The Island of Antego lyes at the Altitude of 16 degrees 
and 11 minutes, between the Barbados and the Desviddo. 
It is in length about six or seven leagues, the breadth not 
the same in all places. The access of it is dangerous for 
Shipping, by reason of the rocks which encompass it. It 
was conceiv'd heretofore, that it was not to be inhabited, 
upon this presumption, that there was no fresh water in it : 
but the English, who have planted themselves in it, have 
met with some, and have made Ponds and Cisterns, which 
might supply that defect. This Island is abundant in Fish, 
most sorts of wild Fowl, and in all of tame Cattel. It is 
inhabited by seven or eight hundred men. 

So large a quantity of tobacco had been grown in 
the Leeward Islands that the price had become too 
low to make its further cultivation profitable ; sugar- 
cane, ginger, and indigo took its place. 

A League offensive & defensive concluded between the 
English & French in the Charribee I^eeward Islands 
ag^' the Indians 1659. 

In the Castle of the Lord Generall the Bayliff Deponcij 
the King of ffrance his Ijieu" Generall in America, where 
were Assembled togeather Colonell Roger Osborne, Govern' 
of the Island of Montserrat, and the Captaynes, Captayne 
Randall Russell, Captayne Michaell Smith, the Deputyes of 
serj' Maior James Russell Governo' of the Island of Nevis, 
and the said Governo' Osborne in the behalfe of Colonell 
Christopher Kaynell Governo' of Antigua for the English 
Nation ; and the Gent. Charles Houel, Lord Governo' of 
Guardaloopa and the Zaints, etc., and Robert Houel Knight 
as well for his owne p'ticuler part as what concern es the 
Heires of the Deceased Gent. Boiserett Lord of the Island of 
Marigalanta & Disserada Representing the french Nation, 
of which p'sons soe Assembled the said Generall Bayliflf 
Depoincij was president. 

The Manifould Disorders which hath happened by the 
Insolence of the dayly Invasions of the Indians into divers 
Islands Inhabited by the said Two Nations Represented es- 
pecially by the Indians of S' Vincents and Dominica, the 



XXVIU 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



severall Murthers and outrages Executed by them and the 
Detention of the people of both nations whose Lives were in 
dainger of Ijooseing untill this present time not being able 
to suppress their Insolency, much less possible to Adventure 
to Declare unto them the Light of the Gospell the principall 
Motive of Establishing the CoUonyes in America, because 
they allwayes had the Craft & Subbilty to make peace with 
one of the Two Nations before they would Enterprize any- 
thing against the other, By which meanes they politiquely 
did maintaine frieudshipp with one of the said two Nations. 
Wherefore to Compas the Salvation of these Idolato" & to 
contayne them in a Civill & pollitique way ; It is thought 
Necessary to ifavorize the endeavo" that any Eclesiasticall 
p'son or p'sons shall from time to time & at all times here- 
after take on that behalfe. Upon all which Considderac'ons 
the said Assembly haveing Maturely Deliberated doe thinke 
fitt, for Grods Glory the Service of their Supreames and the 
Quietnes of the Inhabitants of both Nations to make an Of- 
fensive and Defencive League & Union amongst themselves 
the said English & ifrench Nation as they doe by these 
p'sents Confedderate in a firme absolute and Everlasting 
League or Union between themselves the said Nations both 
Offensive & Defencive against the said Indians & every one 
of them, If they or any of them who have concluded a peace 
with eyther or both of the said Nations or any other the 
Carribee Indians shall offer any violence or practize any 
mischiefe against the people of eyther the said Nations, and 
in p'ticuler & more especiall manner the Indians of the said 
Islands of S' Vincent & Dominica. And ffor the takeing 
away of all jealousies & prevention of any JMisconstructions 
of the true Intent of the said Assembly; It is Concluded 
& Agreed that the said Two Islands S' Vincent & Dominica 
shall remaine proprietory unto the Indians Inhabitants 
thereof, and that neyther of the p'sons in this p'sent Assem- 
bly shall Arme any Souldiers against them in their said 
Islands or in Hostile way or otherwise (Dureiug the peace 
with the said Indians) compass the Disposession of the said 
Indians of their said Land or lay any title or Clayme of 
proprietorshipp thereunto. It is further Concluded & 
agreed by the said Assembly that for the Maintaynance of 
the said League there shalbee the summe of ffourty thousand 
pounds of Suger ffrench weiglit putt into the hands of 
Anthony Reyersou m'chant at Bastarr within six Monthes 
after the Date hereof by the English Nation, And ifourty 
thousand pounds of Suger ffrench weight put into the hands 
of Samuel Queivy m'chant at Bastarr by the ffrench Nation, 
which said Summes shalbee by the said Reyerson & Queivy 
disbursed & paid by order & at the Joint appointm" of the 
Hon"'' Colonell Roger Osborne Governo' of the Island of 
Montserratt on the p'te of the English Nation, and the 
Hon'"''^ Lord Charles Houel Governo' of the Island of 
Guardaloope on the p'te of the ffrench Nation, ffor the use 
of both Nations for the Carrying on & maintayning the 
Union. It is further Concluded & Agreed by the Joint con- 
sent of the persons of the said Assembly that if it shalbee 
thought necessary to wage warr with the said Indians by 
Sea or Land to build fforts or entertaine Garrisons for a 
time or Longer the said United Nations shall equally 
ffurnish Amunition men & victualls, and that the necessity 
Requireing the same shalbee adjudged by the p'sons in the 
said Assembly or their Successo" in power and Authority, 
flurther the said Assembly haveing Judged that this Union 
wilbee of small effect were it not . . . .* of knowledge and 
understanding amongst them Doe unanimously Nominate 

* Here a narrow strip is missinfj from the MS. — V. L. 0. 



Elect & Chuse .... Collonel Roger Osborne Governo' of 
Montseratt & the Hon^e the said Lord Charles .... the 
Island of Guardaloope jointly to undertake & on the behalfe 
of both Nations .... Correspondence to manadge & Carry 
on the said Designe both in warr & peace according .... 
& meaning of this Union & Confedderacy who have Nobly 
& Generously Accepted of ... . promise of a CarefuU Im- 
provement of their best endeavours therein. It is alsoe 
Agreed by the p'sons of the said Assembly that all proffitts 
soever that any way .... union shall be to the equall benefitt 
& belioofe of both nations, of which there shalbe .... to the 
said Governo"'^ Imployed. It is ffurther Agreed to the end 
that this p'sent League may not give any occasion to the 
peop .... to neglect their Guards that on eyther p'te the 
accustomed orders for their safety shall .... bee Continued 
to prevent Surprizall. It is alsoe Agreed upon by the As- 
sembly that the saide Governo" or whome shall bee .... 
shall use their best endeavors to Recover as soone as they 
can possible all the Captives .... deteyned prisoners by the 
said Indians, and their Ransom shall be paid by those of 
.... they shall appertaine by Reason that the peace is not 
as yet Generally Conclud .... of both the said Islands. 
That this present League & Union may not bee Impeached 
by any other not Interrested .... Lawfull to any one of 
Eyther of the Nations to Deale or Trade or have any .... 
the said two Islands, may not ffish nor hunt tiiere without 
the Lycence or p'mission .... said Governo" or Eyther of 
them. It is alsoe Concluded that the Governo'^ & In- 
habitants of other Islands not here p'sent to this Assembly 
may enter into this League if please them within the space 
of Six Monthes from the Date hereof in declareing them- 
selves & Contriljuting for their p'te & proporc'on ordayned 
as aforesaid. And to the end this Union may bee of ever- 
dureing Continuance & ffidelity between the said Two 
Nations, the said Assembly doth Agree that the p'sons 
therein named shall Respectively endeavour y'' confimac'on 
thereof from their princes Chiefs or Rulers at Home. That 
notwithstanding any warrs Declared there the said Union 
may Continue Inviolably for Six Monthes. 

Dated the [blank] Rog" Osborne. 

Houel. Jas. Ru.ssell. 

Le Ch'l' Desales.* 

Endorsed : — " Articles betwixt y= Inglish & french w"" 
the Indians 1659." 

(Egerton MS. 2395.) 

1659. Jan. The inhabitants of S' Christopher's make 
complaints against their Governor Col. Clement Everard 
& say that an Expedition against the Caribbee Indians, 
mutually agreed upon by the Governors of Nevis, Antigua 
and Montserrat, " was lost and ruined " through Gov"" 
Everard breaking his engagements. 

It was enacted by the Commonwealth that " no 
goods shall be imported into or exported from the 
plantations but in British-built ships, and wholly 
owned by British subjects, and navigated by three- 
fourths sailors of the same." 

By 12 Charles II. for every vessel sailing from 
England or Ireland for the plantations, bond for 
£1000 had to be given if she were under, and £2000 
if over 100 tons. (Southey.) 

* Charles de Sales, Chevalier of the Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem, Governor-General of the French at St. Christopher's. 



FROM RESTOEATION OE CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OE JAMES II. xxix 



CHAPTER V. 

FROM THE RESTORATION OE CHARLES II. TO THE ABDICATION OF JAMES II., 

1660—1688. 



Anno 1660. — The first of the people called Quakers, who 
came to reside in this Island was Jonas Langford, who upon 
his arrival there on the 14th of the fifth month this year 
applied liimself to the Governonr, whose name was Christo- 
pher Kayneth (sir), and acquainted him with his intentions 
of settling there The Governour treated him kindly and 
gave him liberty to live where he saw meet. So he pur- 
chased a piece of land and sent for his family. Within a 
short time after the Governour was displaced, and Colonel 
Robert Carden succeeded him, who committed the said 
Jonas Langford to prison for speaking to a priest after he 
had ended his preaching, and ordered an Act for banishing 
him in case he did so any more. 

In September the same year, the said Jonas Langford's 
wife came to him, and in November, Justinian Hollyman, 
who had been banisht from Nevis for being a Quaker, came 
also and settled here. Being now two or three of them, 
they began to meet together to wait upon God and worship 
him. 

The Governour being informed of this, sent for the said 
Jonas and Justinian, but after examination, finding no just 
occasion against them, he dismissed them with a charge to 
come to him again when sent for. 

(Besse's ' Sufferings of the Quakers,' vol. ii., p. 370.) 

?1660. The Most Himible Proposalls of the Merchants, 
Planters & Traders to y« Island of Antigua. 

The Island of Antigua is one of the Northermost of all 
y^ Careeby Islands, & therefore the fittest Receptacle for all 
shipps occupying both too & againe in the Indies uppon 
any stress of weather or other extremety whatsoever as 
many have & dayly doe find. 

It is in Circomference bigger than y« Barbados. 

It hath many large convenient & secure Harbours on 
all sides Iwth to the Leeward & Windward, two of which 
may be secured by one piece of fifortification, y^ least of y™ 
Capable to containe a very considerable ffleet of shipps of 
what burthen soever. 

The rest of y'' Careeby Islands yet settled by the 
Christians haveing no Harbour at all, have & dayly doe 
make use of those Harbours for the Careening & trimming 
of theire shipps uppon all occasions where they may have 
several! sorts of timber for their use. 

It hath a very Healthfull Aire as is reported. 

It is likewise y'' best wooded & sufficiently watered y' 
with a very small charge there may be sufficient excellent 
good water produced in most of y« Harbours for all shipping 
that come. 

The Boyle is not inferior to any of y'= other Careeby 
Islands to produce provisions, Tobacco Sugar Ginger 
Indico and for Gotten there is not any of those Islands 
Comparable to Antigua. 

It hath many large salt ponds which have yealded great 
quantities of salt naturally. 

It hath store of salt peter of which there hath been 
made excellent good powder. 

There is good fishing to y<= great releife both of shipping 
and Inhabitants & for fibwleing there is none of y« Careeby 
Islands comparable to it. 

It may employ as many Inhabitants as the Barbados & 
the produce of commodityes from thence not inferiour to it 
both for quantity & quallity. 

At present divers are in a hopefull way uppon y" designe 



of sugar Gotten Indico & other Commodityes & all of 
them generally well stocked with Cattell that they transport 
them from thence to the Barbados & all other English 
plantations in those parts. 

The not haveing supplyes of any men servants lately 
from England, & the goeing off^ of many of our ablest men 
in the late expedition downe into the West Indies by dis- 
couragement in the ill Government is the occasion that at 
present the number of fighting men are very inconsiderable 
for makeing good y'' place against our Common Enemy the 
merciless Indians. 

That whereas through defect of those necessitous 
supplyes y*" Island requires it should happen into the 
posession of an Enemy (which severall have sought for) 
it would prove very prejudiciall if not the utter Ruine of 
all the English plantations now settled in these parts & an 
obstruction to our further progress into the West Indies 
with the utter ruine & undoeing of the present Inhabitants 
& the great damage of y'' Merchants who have been ad- 
venturers to that Island. 

And whereas much hath been granted by Pattent or 
otherwise to severall persons & never setled, or for severall 
yeares disserted, which are an Inlett to y" Common Enemy 
y^ Indians, to y'' spoyling of y'^ present Inhabitants, It is 
therefore humbly thought requisite y' those Lands may be 
acquitted of all taxes or Governo''^ dues since ye said time 
of non improvem', and y" persons owneing them be ordered 
to settle theire Lands within 12 moneths or a time prefixed, 
or otherwise y'= Governour be impowred to dispose y™ to 
such persons as will presently settle. 

That whereas y"* late protecto'' for y^ safety & security of 
this Important Island did bestow on y« said place severall 
Arms & Amunition w'='' haveing unhappely miscarried, 
it is humbly desired y* 500 firelocks, 12 demyculverin & 12 
sakers with carriages ladles & scuppers & other necessaryes 
thereunto belonging & 20 barrells of powder with shott 
proportionable & match for the use of j'^ great Gunns Or 
what yo"' Hono'' uppon yo"" most prudent consideration shall 
please to think fitt may be speedily provided. 

(Egerton MS. 2395. No date.) 

July 9. The King to Francis, Lord Willoughby, & 
the inhabitants of Barbadoes, S' Kitts, Nevis, Moutserrat,. 
Antigua, and the several islands of the province of Carliola.. 
Directing him inscantly to apply himself to undertake the 
government of those islands. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' p. 483.) 

His Ma'y^ L're in behalf of my Lord Willoughby. 
Right trustie & Right wellbeloved And trustie & well 
beloved wee greet you well. Whereas wee have observed 
and understood that the many revolutions and Disorders 
with which it hath pleased God many yeares to punishe our 
severall Dominions have had their effects alsoe upon you ; 
and that your Peace, and the Duty you testified to our 
Royall Person and Government in the yeare 1651 : was dis- 
turbed by a fleet sent from England, which besieged our 
Island of Barbados, and threatened the good People thereof 
with the exti'eamities of warr, if they did not Submitt to the 
Powers then lying before them, and to those that sent them ; 
and dispossessed the Lord Whilloughby of Parham of his 
Go.vernment and right there, which bee exercised by virtue 
of Letters Patents graunted to the Earle of Carlile from whick 



XXX 



THE HISTOUY OF ANTIGUA. 



hee derived his Authoritie Wee have now thought fitt out 
of our tender wellfare to the good People of our said Island ; 
and for its better Governm', Regulation and improvement, 
to encourage and require the said Lord Whilloughby, instantly 
to apply himself to take care of the Affaires and Government 
thereof either by goeing in his own Person or by sending 
or appointing such a Governour and giving such Instructions 
as to him shall seem meet, and shall bee agreeable to the powers 
grannted in the said Letters Patents. And wee streightly 
charge and Com'and you, and ererie of you ; that you doe 
fourthwith yeild the same readie obedience to him the said 
Lord Whilloughby as at any time you have donn (before 
these Interruptions) to him, or to the Earles of Carlile, or to 
such as have been, by them appointed and empowred. 

Given at our Court at Whitehall this 23" dale of June 
in the 12"' yeare of our Eeigne. 

By his Maties Comand, 

Ed. Nicholas. 

To our I'ight trustie and right well beloved Francis 
Ld Willughby of Parham. And to our trustie and well- 
beloved the Inhabitants of our Island of Barbadas, and to 
everie of them. 

Colonel Joha Buncle as Deputy-Governor signed 
patents on March 1661 and 6 February 1662. 

Anno 1664. Anne Coleman came to this Island and 
had some religious meetings with the aforesaid persons, 
■which coming to the ear of Colonel John Bunkly then 
Governour, he committed the said Jonas Langford, Anne 
Coleman, and Justinian Hollyman to prison, for meeting 
together and speaking to the people in their own house. 
They were kept confined till Sessions, and then, after 
examination, the two men were discharged, but the said 
Anne Coleman, not being an inhabitant, was sent back to 
prison, there to remain till there was an opportunity of 
sending her away, which was done soon after. The said 
Governour also committed Henry Graydon, an honest old 
man, to prison, for refusing to bear arms, and not going to 
the guard. He also caused an Act to be made for banishing 
such as should meet together for the exercise of religion, 
but before he could put that Act in execution, he was 
displaced from his office ; for a remonstrance of his pro- 
ceedings being presented to Francis Lord Willoughby of 
Parham who was sent over with Commission from the King, 
he caused the said Act to be reversed, and permitted the 
return of Anne Coleman to the Island, turned Bunkly out, 
and restored the former Governour Robert Garden. He 
also gave such directions concerning liberty of conscience, 
that Friends generally had their meetings in quiet, and 
their number was in a few years after considerably in- 
creased. (Bcsse's 'Sufferings of the Quakers.') 

1665, June 28. John Winthrop, jun., writes : 

"The inclosed came this night fro' Boston, and y= tener 
of it speakes of y^ taking of 15 ships of y' English fro' y" 
Bode at Mevis and Mountserrat. This is all y<= intellegence 
■we have about Be Rut' at present . . . .," and in a second letter 
of .luly 11, "and co'paring all intelligence besides, and 
those y' have lately come fro' Nevis concerning De Ruiter 
his fleet, it appeares to them that he is vpon a ranging 
voyage." ('Winthrop Papers,' pt. iv., p. 97.) 

A relative of the above also wrote the follo^wing 
interesting epistle : — 

To the Worpii Jn° Winthrop, Esq'', these pi'sent, at New- 
England. 

June y« 27, 1665. 
Honnoured Cozen — The wisdom of God has so ordered 
it as to bringe my husband and selfe to this Island here to 



live, and through mercy to enjoy the company and comfort 
of your deare brother. Truely, Cozen, he is a deare and 
tender cozen to me and I have much cause to praise God 
for him.* He is a reall Winthrop and truely noble to all, 
but much more to my husband and selfe. I am at this 
time at his house, but wee live 7 or 8 miles from him. My 
husband is agent to Coll. Middleton, and wee live on his 
plantation. And truely. Sir, I am not so much in love with 
any as to goc much abroad. This house of your brother's 
and my cozen's is all the joy 1 have in this place ; not that 
I want anything, for I praise God I have no want ; but 
they all be a company of sodomites that live here, and 
truely. Cozen, I am really my father's daughter and can not 
comply with their ill manners. Sir, although it was not 
my happynes to see you in England, yet, sweet Cozen, 
honnor me so much as to let me kiss your hand once before 
I die, and in it you will engage her ever to remaine, 

Your truely loving Cozen and faithfull servant, 
Margaret Heathcoat 
(Margaret Gostlin that was). 
My husband presents his love & service to you. 

How S' Xp'hs was taken by y" french from my Lord Wil- 
loughbyes Deputy-Governo'', and of all ye transaccon 
betweene y" english and them. 
In y« time of Coll. William Watts, who was my Lord 
Willoughbies Deputie-Governor, there was an Article made 
betweene both nac'ons : & confirmed w"* y'' oth's formerly 
made betweene S'' Thomas Warner & Mon" De Nambucq, 
^yciie -(ygj. yt thclr shouW be no acts of hostillity used by 
either nac'on ag' y" other, without speciall ord''' had from 
theire Severall Princes, and y' if they received any Such 
ord''" yett their Should be three times twenty & foure 
houres warning given before any hostillity should be used 
on either Side, notwithstanding W^"" sd Articles y" french 
forces upon y" tenth day of Aprill 1666 fell upon o'' 
English on y« windward side of this Island at Cayenne,! 
& soe wasted, slaughtered & burnt untill they came as farr 
as Capistarr, to theire owne french ground, before y" english 
offered any violence to y"' : y' day, about noone, o'' enghsh 
forces fell upon y" french att y^ house of Mon" De Lespraine 
att Sandy point where they were worsted & putt to retreate, 



y' next day being y' 



of Aprill 1666 they came to 



y« Capitulac'on : hereunto annexed by w"'' in y'^ sixth & 
seaventh Articles y^ english were to remaine peacably 
possessors of theire estates or dispose of them to theire 
most advantage contrary to w'^'' Articles these declarants 
togeather w"' severall others y^ Inhabit's were constrayned 
to sell theire estates att a very lowe price & y' price was 
paid to y'° in Merchandize at such rates as y"" buyer was 
pleased to sett upon theire Comodeties, And besides theire 
was in severall of theire Contracts great Sum'es of Suger & 
monies menc'oned by y"" paid w'^'' y« Sellers never agreed 
for, nor never Received, by w<^'' indirect meanes togeather 
w"" y' p''tenc'ons of their great MeUorac'ons, y= Sellers 
could not reimburst y"' before y^ time was elapsed. 

(Egertou MS. 2395.) 

Matter of fact of injuries received since y<= peace w"' attested 
p'bac'ons of y"". 
The peace was concluded y'= 21-31 July 1667 a Coppy 
whereof did appeare y'= french, and about y'' last of October 
following heare did arrive y^ Articles of y<= peace made att 
Breda, att w"^'' time there came a Com'and from y^ french 
nac'on y^ Inhabit's of this Island com'anding all ye english 
Inhabit's then heare residing to keepe theire habitac'ons 
from sunnsett to sunn riseing upon perill of theire lives, by 

* Samuel Winthrop, youngest son of Governor John Winthrop 
the elder, was then a leading: planter in Antigua, and in 1668 
Deputy-Governor of that Island. 

t For the French account, together with engravings of the various 
fights, see Du Tertre, vol. iv. 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xxxi 



w"^'' meanes and at w'^'' time from y= latter end of October 
aforesaid to j' may following (then my Lord Willoughby 
appeared) they did transporte and carry away from ye 
English quarters all y^ timber of o'' churches & bells, y^ 
Cannon belonging to y' forts, & demolished the said forts, 
& all y'' timber of other housen and buildings, standing upon 
those plantao'ons called by ye freucli y' Kings land, because 
they were abandoned some by the proprietors & of others y' 
were Slaine in y" Combate w"' many other housen and good 
buildings, & Coppers sold for a very small value liesides y^ 
demolishing many good ludigeo & Suger workes, the 
destrucc'on of all y= timber in y^ woods aud mountaines w"''' 
hath made y" Inhabit's incapeable of rebuilding, To y= utf 
ruine of us y^ poore inhabit's lieare a more particuler narra- 
tive of o'' Injuries have remitted to yo"' Lordshipps formerly. 
In testimoine whereof wee have hereunto Subscribed o'' 
names being thereunto Called this 29"' Aprill lfi75. 

William ffeeeman. 

John Esteidge. 
Eob't Cave. Charles Morris. 

John Wilkinson. John Versill. 

John Allen. William Plumer. 

Gilbert Loxley. John Bayly. 

Rob't Clarke. Sampson Maneringe. 

phillipp Lambert. Edward Parker. 

Articles betweene y^ English & flfrench upon S' Xp'hs, made 
upon the evasion of y" ffrench, and y'' Surrend'' of y*' 
English ye 11-21 Apr. 1666. 

j. The result of y'= Councell of warr being p"'seut iu 
cheife Mon^"^ Le Chevalier of St. Lawrence assisted w"" y« 
principall officers having deliberated upon y" demand w'^'" 
y'= english gentl' men have made to come to a treaty have 
resolved not to consent therunto in any wise unlesse y^ 
english gentl' doe acknowledge his thrice Christian Maj''^ 
for theire Soveraigne & give theire oathes unto him. 

2"'"y. They shall have uoe oth. governo'' but y= freuch. 

3. They shall Surrend' y"^ forts, artillery, & fire armes. 

4. That all vollentiers, vagabonds & loose p'sons shall 
be obleiged to departe this Island w"' in y'= time y' shall be 
appointed, and Securitie of this treaty they shall send for 
hostages Leiu' Coll' Loveraine, Maj'' Crooke, Capt. Cooke, 
Capt. Jefl'eries, M'' Herbert, & Leiu' Robt. Clarke to be att 
foure a clocke in y' afternoone in the Campe att Sandy 
point upon default whereof without any more to be con- 
sidered and without remission they shall vigriously proceed. 

5. That all english Inhabit's shall continue peacable 
possessors of theire goods w"='' wee promise as wee are p'sons 
of hono^ 

6. Moreover it is agreed y' y'' s'd English gentl' may 
imbarque y™ selfes & their famillies & moveables & dispose 
of theire immoveables whensoever they please in w"^'' move- 
ables negroes & beasts are not comp'hended w"^*" they shall 
not carry off but may dispose of y"' by sale, upon Condicon 
y' y' boates barques & vessells w'^'" shall come to fetch y"°, 
shallbe obleiged to come to an anchor directly into ye roade 
of backstarr of this Island in w'='' case they shall take an 
ord'' from Mon*'' Le Chevalier S' Lawrence of y'' place where 
y« s'd English gentl' who have desired to depart would goe. 

7. It is furth' agreed by y« s'd M" Le Chevalier S< 
Lawrence & by all ye principall officers of y'= s'd English 
gentl' y' they who would remaine und'' y" obedience of his 
Ma* may live in y'' Lib'ty of theire conscience but not to 
have temples or to make any assembly whatsoever or to 
com'itt any Act whereby y'' Catholique may be Scandelized, 
made y^ day & yeare above written. 

M^" Chevalier De S'' Laurence. 

Early in May 1666 Lord Willoughby despatched 
his nephew Lieut. -General Henry Willoughby with 
800 men to reinforce Colonel William Watts at St. 



Christopher's. Upon the passage between Guada- 
loupe and Antigua they took a French vessel, from 
whom they learnt the news of the capture of St. 
Kitts by the French, so Willoughby landed his troops 
at Nevis and Antigua and sent to his uncle for 
further orders. 

After the conquest of St. Kitts, the 'French com- 
manders promptly set to work to get i-id of the 
English inhabitants. Du Tertre states that 8000 
whites were compelled to quit the island, the English 
portion being sent to Nevis, Montserrat, Antigua, 
Jamaica, Virginia, Bermuda, and St. Domingo, and 
the Irish to St. Bartholomew, Martinique, and 
Guadaloupe. He also relates : " That during all the 
month of June 1666 the savages from the two islands 
of St. Vincent and Dominica carried on a very ci-uel 
war against the English of the Antilles, surprising 
them in divers quarters, burning, pillaging, and 
killing, without giving any quarter to the men, but 
even eating several, carrying away the best looking 
women and killing the rest, and committing such 
unheard of cruelties and ravages that the English 
were in despair. Four or five hundred of those of 
St. Vincent, in eleven piraguas, sailed from Mar- 
tinique to attack Antigua, but were discovered by 
two English vessels who watched them and then 
retired to give the alarm. The savages having landed 
on that Island were so well received that they beat a 
hasty retreat to their canoes, as it was not their 
custom to ever rally when they were repulsed." 

On 7 July the French heard that two English 
frigates of 26 and 40 guns, convoying a fleet of 15 
or 16 merchant shijjs with six companies of troops 
on board, had arrived at Barbados on the 6th inst. 

On the 28th Lord Willoughby embarked with 
2000 jiicked men, mostly officers and gentlemen, the 
flower of Barbados, and arrived off Martinique on 
the 30th, where he hoj)ed to seize shipping for the 
volunteers which he intended to collect at the Lee- 
ward Islands for the attack of St. Kitts. But here 
he was disappointed and only captured one barque, 
the others having taken refuge under the batteries. 
He left Martinique therefore on the 1st of August, 
arriving next day at Guadaloupe. 

On the 4th he despatched his Vice-Admiral with 
five vessels to the adjoining islands called " The 
Saints," where one French vessel of 14 guns was 
burnt and another of 18 captured. The same evening, 
about 6 P.M., the main fleet was cruising in the 
straits between Guadaloupe and The Saints when they 
were overtaken by a fearful hurricane. The wind 
blew from the N. for six hours, then, after 15 
minutes' lull, suddenly veered round to the E.S.E., 
and drove the whole fleet on to the coast of Guada- 
loupe, where the shijjs were wrecked and the men 
lost. The few vessels in the harbour at The Saints 
were either stranded or sunk. Out of the whole 
expedition but one vessel of 22 guns arrived dis- 
masted at Montserrat, and the " bruslot du Milord" 
at Antigua. The 300 English, under the Vice- 
Admiral, who had intrenched themselves at The 
Saints, capitulated on the 16th of August. On the 



XXXll 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



20tli Henry Willoughby arrived there from Antigua 
with 300 troops, but was too late to be of any service, 
and narrowly escaped capture himself, his small 
squadron having to strike to four heavily armed men 
of war ; he, however, gained St. Vincent and thence 
went to Barbados. The Scotch captain of one of 
the Antiguan vessels stated that Lord Willoughby 
had 2800 men on his fleet, and had intended taking 
2000 fi-om Antigua, 1100 from Nevis, and 300 or 
400 from Montserrat; but these figures must have 
been greatly exaggerated. 

August 21. The Caribbee vessels report that at 
Nevis are 500 or 600 men under the command of 
Lord Willoughby's kinsman. At Antigua strict 
guard is kept for fear of the negros. 

(' Colonial Calendar.') 

The following relation of the French conquest of 
Antigua is an abridged translation from Du Tertre's 
' Histoire des Ant. -Isles de I'Amerique,' vol. iv., pp. 
141— 164 and 173—194. 

On 2 November 1666 the following ships, belong- 
ing to the French West India Company, were col- 
lected at Martinique for the expedition against the 
English Islands : — • 





Guns 


Le Florissant, Admiral's ship 


28 


Le Li/s ..... 


40 


La Justice 


32 


Le Saint Sehastien 


26 


La Vierge 


18 


La Bergere ..... 


8 


L' Afriquaine .... 


14 




106 



M. de la Bai-re was Commander-in-Chief, having 
with him M. de Clodore, Governor of Martinique, 
M. de Lion, Governor of Guadaloupe, M. de Chambre, 
the Comjjany's Agent, 130 soldiers of the regiment 
of Poitou, under Captain d'Orvillier, and two com- 
panies of Colonial infantry. The fleet ari-ived oS" 
Antigua on the 4th of November, and cast anchor in 
Five Islands Bay. Here there were two batteries 
mounting eight and six guns, but owing to the 
absence of any parapet, gabion, or embrasure, they 
were quicklysilenced. A second fort, a good " demy 
Lune de pierre," where the English had a great red, 
blue, and white flag displayed, was also rendered un- 
tenable, and 180 men were then landed, who spiked 
the guns and burnt everything they could in that 
quarter. The same night Captain d'Orvillier set out 
with 200 men, and guided by a Frenchman called 
Baston, who had recently escaped from Antigua, 
arrived at daybreak at a stone house where the 
Governor and about 200 men were stationed. The 
French, under a heavy fire which killed only one 
man, attacked the place " comme des Lions furieux j" 
most of the English fled, and the Governor with 
Colonel Moiik (Monk) and about 30 of his bravest 
ofi&cers and men retired inside the house, and after 
making a feeble resistance surrendered. D'Orvillier, 
after burning the house, returned to the batteries, 
■whence they had already removed the guns to the 



ships. On the 6th it was agreed that M. de Lion 
and M. de Clodore should remain with 240 men to 
complete the conquest of the Island, while the other 
Governors remained on board. The sam.e day the 
trooj)S landed in two bodies, marched to the house 
they had previously burnt, and seeing about three- 
quarters of a league distant a large stone house on a 
hill, defended by a strong and extensive palisade, 
the extremities of which terminated at a great wood, 
they proceeded thither, and sent a trumpeter to 
demand the surrender of its defenders, who also 
delivered a letter from Governor Garden to his wife 
describing his good treatment. The answer given 
was that the inhabitants were resolved to do their 
duty. The French party under M. de Lion then 
proceeded to attack their opponents who numbered 
400, but they were received with such a heavy fire 
that they were thrown back in confusion, and their 
commander was shot in the leg. M. de Clodore now 
arrived on the scene with the other body, and having 
rallied his countrymen, succeeded in breaking through 
the palisade, and forced back one battalion of the 
English, while d'Orvillier and others effected an 
entrance into the house, where in the first room they 
found Colonel Quests (Guest) seated in his arm-chair, 
with a pistol in his hand, surrounded by several brave 
English. The Colonel asked for quarter, but received 
a pistol shot for answer, and all his companions were 
butchered. M. de Clodore, hearing of this cold- 
blooded massacre, entered the house, where he found 
30 dead bodies in two rooms, and gave quarter to 50 
of the survivors. The French losses had been three 
ofiicers and 10 or 12 soldiers killed, and 50 or 60 
wounded. The officer who was superintending the 
removal of the wounded sent word to M. de Clodore 
that Colonel Guest was so severely hurt that they 
would have much trouble in carrying him, and that 
if permission were granted " il le feroit achever." 
The Governor did not accede to this request, and the 
Colonel died of his wounds at St. Kitts a few clays 
later. M. de Clodore did not remain many hours at 
the house he had captured, but burnt it, and retii'ed 
to the shipping that same night. This mansion and 
its surrounding buildings were well built of dressed 
stone and roofed with tiles, as were also the mills, 
the sugar house, and the storehouses full of sugar 
and tobacco. Of the English, 50 or 60 were left 
dead, a great number who were wounded escaped, 
and 50 were taken prisoners. Colonel Bayart 
(Baijer) afterwards related that seeing M. de Clodore 
at the head of his soldiers, wearing a large white 
scarf, he ordered all his men to aim at him, and that 
it was wonderful how he escaped being hit. 

The following day the French commanders held 
a council, at which it was arranged that a trumj)eter 
should be sent to summon the English to surrender 
the Island, and if this were not done within twenty- 
four hours they threatened " y mettre tout a feu et 
a sang," at the same time agreeing amongst them- 
selves that if the inhabitants would not submit they 
would proceed to St. Kitts. The trumpeter carried 
out his instructions, and returned to say that the 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xxxiii 



inhabitants would give an answer next day ; accord- 
ingly the following evening an English oflScer arrived, 
and it was then agreed that deputies shouhl meet 
the French next day, Wednesday the 10th of 
November, at St. John's Bay, when the following 
articles were agreed to and signed : — 

Articles et conditions accordees au nom du Roy, par Messieurs 
de Clodore Conseiller du Roy en son Conseil Souverain 
de risle de la Martinique & Gouverneur d'icelle, & de 
Chambre aussi Conseiller du Roy en ses Conseils, 
Intendant des troupes de sa Majeste aux Ant.-Isles, & 
Agent General de la Compaguie des Indes Occidentales, 
ayant plein pouvoir de Monsieur M. Antoiue le Febure 
de la Barre, Conseiller du Roy en ses Conseils & son 
Lieutenant General tant par mer que par terre en 
Amerique, aux OlBciers, & habitans de I'lsle d'Antigoa ; 
represeutez par Jean Bonche Colonel, Sebastien Bayart, 
Lieutenant Colonel, Joseph Lee, Samuel Vvinthrop 
Capitaine, Phil. Vvaernard aussi Capitaine, & Jacques 
HoUiaday ; ayant des Officiers, Commandeurs & 
habitans pour I'effet des presentes, pouvoir, par Acte 
du trente Octobre stil Anglois, revenant au nostre, au 
dixieme Novembre present mois 1666. 

I. Que les Officiers & Habitans remettront de bonne foy 
dans deux jours entre les mains dudit sieur de la Barre & 
des troupes Franpoises de sa Majeste, tous les forts, bateries, 
redoutes & maisons fortes servans a la defense de I'lsle 
d'Antigoa, ensemble leurs canons, armes & munitions, si 
aucuns y a. 

II. Que les Officiers & soldats estant dans I'lsle, ponrront 
y demeurer si bon leur semble comme engagez ou haliitans, 
aux conditions cy-apres, & ceux qui s'en voudront retirer, il 
leur sera permis ; a I'efiet de quoy ils seront embarquez dans 
les vaisseaux du Roy & conduits en France pour se retirer 
oil bon leur semblera, le tout aux frais de sa Majeste, & en 
consideration de leur pauvrete, & remettront toutes les armes 
ainsi que lesdits habitans. 

III. Que lesdits Officiers & habitans seront tenus de 
prester serment de fidelite au Roy, entre les mains de celuy 
qui sera a ce commis ; & moyennant ce, jouiront eux & 
leurs heritiersde leurs biens en toute liberte, & des privileges 
& exemptions dont ils out cy-devant joiiy, & seront reputez 
Eegnicoles & Originaires Fran9ois. 

IT. Que les Commandeurs, Officiers & Habitans 
reconnoistront pour leurs Seigneurs, la Compaguie des Indes 
Occidentales Franpoise, & conformement a I'Edit du mois 
de May mil six cent soixante quatre. 

V. Que ceux d'entre lesdits Habitans qui voudront se 
retirer, soit en Angleterre ou ailleurs, excepte a Nieve, le 
pourront faire, & toutes fois & quantes dans I'espace de six 
mois, emporter le provenu de leurs habitations, dont il leur 
sera libre de faire la vente : sinon pourront laisser le soin 
de I'admenament ou de la vente a personnes chargees de leurs 
procurations, qui auront preste le serment a sa Majeste. 

VI. Que les Officiers & habitans auront toute liberte de 
conscience en I'estendue de toute I'lsle, ou ils pourront 
bastir deux ou trois Temples ; excepte au quartier ou sera 
cy-apres destine lelogement du Gouverneur pour sa Majeste. 

VII. Que I'exercise de la Religion Catholique Apostolique 
& Romaine sera libre en toute I'etendue de cette Isle, a 
I'eflfet de quoy seront basties des Eglises & Chapelles, au 
n ombre qui sera juge k propos pour desservir ; dans lesquelles 
seront cstablis des Prestres ou Religieux suffisamment. 

VIII. Que les Officiers & Habitans qui demeureront sous 
i'obeissance de sa Majeste seront par elle maintenus envers 
& contre tous, mesme centre les Sauvages & centre les Indiens. 

IX. Que lesdits habitans qui se voudront retirer en 
Angleterre ou ailleurs, ainsi qu'il est porte au cinquieme 
article ne seront tenus de prester serment a sa Majeste ; 
mais seront obligez de ne faire aucunes pratiques, ni avoir 



aucunes correspondances avec ceux de leur Nation, au 
prejudice du service de sa Majeste ; ni ne pourront prendre 
les armes contre elle, a peine d'estre traites comme criminels 
de leze Majeste : & s'il paroissoit aucuns enuemis du Roy 
pour insulter cette Isle, ou autrement, seront tenus de 
demeurer pour lors dans leurs maisons a peine d'estre traite 
comme ennemis. 

X. Que ceux d'entre lesdits Officiers & Habitans qui 
presteront le serment de fidelite a sa Majeste, leur seront 
rendus leurs armes. 

XI. Pourront lesdits Officiers & Habitans faire commerce 
avec les Isles Francoises, les Fraugois veuants de I'Europe, 
Hollandois, & autres alliez de sa Majeste, qui seront tenus 
payer les droits d'entree & de sortie deiis a la Compaguie 
des Indes Occidentales. Ne seront tenus lesdits Officiers & 
Habitans paj'cr aucuns droits des marchandises qu'ils feront 
venir d'Europe pour leur usage particulier. 

[There is no twelfth clause, the numbering being wrong 
in the original.] 

XIII. La Barboude estaut uue des dependantes de I'lsle 
d'Antigoa, la moitie est laissee aux habitans dudit Antigoa, 
qui presterout serment de fidelite a sa Majeste, pour y fuire 
telles nourritures & habitations que bon leur semblera : bien 
entendu que leurs habitations leur demeureront, feront i)artie 
de la moitie. 

XIV. Que les biens des abseus de I'lsle seront acquis & 
confisquez au profit des Seigneurs de la Compaguie, suivant 
qu'il leur est accorde par le Roy, excepte pour le Colonel 
Milleton, & la plantation des marchands ; a la charge que 
ceux qui feront radmenagement desdits biens, seront tenus 
prester serment de fidelite dans huit mois, sinon ledit temps 
passe, seront tenus de vendre leurs biens, & d'en tirer le 
provenu, & en attendant seront tenus d'avoir en chacune 
plantation, deux ou trois Francois pour Officiers, ouvriers 
ou engagez. 

XV. Que si le Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel Fitche qui est 
presentement a Nieve vent conserver sa plantation en ladite 
Isle d'Antigoa & y venir demeurer, il le pourra faire huit 
jours apres que I'avis luy en sera donne, a condition de se 
rendre a Saint Christophle dans le mesme temps, oii il 
prestera le serment de fidelite k sa Majeste. Pour donner 
lequel avis, Monsieur de Chambre Intendant fournira une 
barque pour aller a Nieve aux depens & risque dudit Fische. 

XVI. Ne seront tenus lesdits Habitans & Officiers de 
prendre les armes contre sa Majeste Britanuique, pendant 
la presante guerre seulement, mais s'il se presente aucuns 
vaisseaux & troupes dudit Seigneur Roy, pour s'emparer de 
risle d'Antigoa, ou autrement ils seront tenus de demeurer 
en leur maison. 

XVII. Les Commandeurs, Officiers & Habitans seront 
tenus payer pendant deux ans, outre les droits ordinaires & ac- 
coutumez dans ladite Isle, dix pour cent de toutes les 
marchandises qui se fabriqueront ; suretantmoins desquelies, 
sera presentement paye cent mille livres de sucre poids 
Anglois, ou la valeur en marchandise du pays, bonnes & 
loyales, & cent autre milles livres dans le mois de Mars 
prochain : pour asseuronce dusquels derniers cent milles 
livres seulement, & jusqu' a payement entier d'iceux, ledit 
sieur Colonel Boncley demeurera hostage ; lesquelles deux 
cent mille 1. de sucre seront precomptez & deduites sur les 
dix pour cent pendant les deux annees egalement : & en 
consideration de dix pour cent accordes, ne seront lesdits 
Habitans tenus de faire guet, ni garde, ni fournir aux 
fortifications ; si ce n'est quelques dix journees de negres 
en tout pour y servir. 

XVIII. Que le Colonel Garden Gouverneur pour sa 
Majeste Britanuique prisonnier de guerre, sera rendu, lequel 
joiiyra en liberte de ses biens, a la charge aussi de prester 
serment de fidelite a sa Majeste ; & que ci ceux de sa 
Nation se presentent pour insulter I'lsle d'Antigoa, il se 
remettra es mains du Commandant pour le Roy ; & s'il 



XXXIV 



THE HISTOllY OF ANTIGUA. 



estoit pris de sadite Nation, il ne pourra porter les armes 
contre le service de sa Majeste dii-ectemeut ou indirecte- 
ment. 

XIX. Que si aucuns des Gouverueurs ou autre personnes 
demarque, FrauQois, estoient pris prisomiiers des ennemis 
durant la presente guerre, le sieur Colonel Garden sera 
oblige de la faire rendre sans raufon, sinon se remettra 
prisonnier comme il est preseutemeut. 

XX. Que tons autres prisonniers seront reudus, lesquels 
jouiront en liberte de tons leurs biens, a la charge qu'ils 
preteront serment de fidelite a sa Majeste, & ne pourront 
prendre les armes contre son service pendant la presente 
guerre, directement ou indirectement quand mesme ils 
Bortiroient. 

XXI. Que la maison qui sera trouvee la plus fortifiee de 
risle, sera jusqu' a nouvel ordre destinee pour le Gouverneur 
& sa garnison ; neantmoins sans pouvoir en oster la propriete 
au possesseur non plus que les terres : & quant aux autres 
maisons, dont il est cy devant fait mention, il en sera de 
mesme, a la charge que les fortifications y seront demolies 
s'il y en a. 

Fait & atteste double en I'lsle de saint Jean en Antigoa, 
le dixieme de Novcmbre mil six cent soixante six, & le 
dernier d'Octobre stil Anglois, mil six cent soixante-six. 

On the 14tb of November, two days after the 
signing of the Articles of Capitulation, Colonel 
Boncley (Buncle) was sent by the dej^uties to notify 
the French commanders that 300 soldiers who had 
arrived from Barbados prevented them from executing 
the treaty. Next day M. de la Barre released Colonel 
Garden, in order that he might use his influence in 
persuading the people to submit, and tell them that 
if they did not do so they need expect no quarter. 
Colonel Boncley was kept as a hostage, and the 
French weighed anchor and sailed to St. Kitts, where, 
at a council, they determined to compel the An- 
tiguaus to execute the treaty, and the various 
Governors then separated to collect an overwhelming 
force. M. de Clodore i-eturued to Guadaloupe on the 
19th of November, where he learnt news which 
caused him to alter his plans, for some Englishmen, 
who had been captured in a boat ofE St. Lucia, 
asserted that a powerful fleet of 48 vessels, including 
six large frigates of 50 and 60 guns, was getting 
ready at Barbados for an attack on St. Kitts. This 
advice having been confirmed, M. de Clodore retained 
only 350 men with him, and M. de Lion sent 250, 
so that the expedition now only numbered 600 or 700 
instead of 1300 ; these were embarqued on eight ships 
and three barques, and arrived at Antigua on the 
last day of November. Here they found that the 
English had received a reinforcement f i"om Barbados, 
that Colonel Fitche had been sent from Nevis by 
Lieut. -General Henry Willoughby as Governor in 
the place of Colonel Garden, and that they numbered 
900 effective men. M. de Clodore proceeded to 
summon the inhabitants in the following terms : — 

COPPIE DE LA SO.MIIATION. 

Le sienr de Clodore, Gouverneur pour le Roy de I'lsle 
de la Martinique, ayant les ordres de M. de la Barre, Cou- 
seiller du Roy en tous ses Conseits, & son Lieutenant 
general en toute I'Amerique tant par mer que par terre. 

Nous sommons les Officiers, Habitans «& soldats de I'lsle 
d' Antigoa, de remettre la dite Isle eutre nos mains, suivaut 



le traite & la capitulation faite & arrestee le dixieme du 
mois de Novembre passe, signe & ratifie de tous les Officiers 
& principaux Habitans de ladite Isle, pour lequel effet ils 
ayent a nous remettre (en certe Radc des cinq Isles) dans 
Jeudy matin deuxieme du present mois de Decembre, les 
armes, canons & munitio's de guerre : a faute de quoy leur 
declar'ous qu'ils y seront forcez par la voye des armes, sans 
avoir egard audit traite. Enjoignons au Colonel Garden, 
Governeur de ladite Isle & aux autres prisonniers qui ont este 
remis en liberte sous leur foy, serment & parole, & en exe- 
cution dudit traite & capitulation, de se venir remettre 
prisonniers : & que tous les deputez qui ont eigne ledit 
traite, & ceux qui leur ont donne le pouvoir se rendent aussi 
a nostre bord, sinon seront traitez comme gens sans foy, qui 
ont manque a leur seing & parole. 

Et enfin qu'il soit notoire a un chacun que nous avons 
fait la presente Bommation, nous I'avons fait signer en 
double par le Colonel Boncley deineure en ostage pres de 
nous, par un article dudit traite, dont nous avons envoye 
I'un par nostre Trompette, & I'autre garde par devers nous 
pour servir & valoir ce que de raison. 

Fait au moiiillage des cinq Isles d'Antigoa, le premier 
jour de Decembre, mil six cent soixante-six. 

(Signe) De Clodore. 
I. Boncley. 

The following letter was addressed by Mrs. Garden 
to the French Governor : — 

A M. de la Barre. 

Monsieur — Mon mary cette nuit a este enleve d'aupres 
de moy par deux Officiers & deux soldats, & ce qu'ils pre- 
tendent faire de moy & des miens, jusqu'a present je u'en 
S9ay encore rien ; mais en crains qu'il ne nous en arrive mal. 
Je vous supplie tres-huniblement, Monsieur, voyant que 
moy, les miens, & ma famille est delaissee & abaudonee de 
nostre Nation ; qu'il vous plaise nous prendre sous votre pro- 
tection, nous qui n'avous leve la main ni le cceur contre 
vous ; & moy & les miens, & beaucoup d'autres prierout pour 
vostre prosperite, & je preud la hardiesse de me qualifier. 
Monsieur, 

Vostre, tres-humble & tres-obeissante servants, 

Marie Garden.- 

2 Novembre, vieux still, 1(366. 

The same day her husband addressed M. de 
Clodore in these terms : — 

Monsieur — J'aurois eu I'honneur de vous aller trouver, 
mais j'ay este intercepte par ordre de Monsieur le 
Governeur Fiscbe, & il ne m'a pas este permis de sortir. 
J'espere, Monsieur, que ne croirez, ni ne jugerez autre 
chose de celuy qui prend la liberte de se souscrire. 

Vostre tres-obeissant & plus humble serviteur, 

Egbert Garden. 

Two hours after sending the above letter, Colonel 
Garden eluded his guards, delivered himself on board 
M. de Clodore's ship, and informed that person that 
all the people had taken the oath under the new 
Governor Fitche, that they were encamped at Popsede 
(Popeshead), were weU armed and fully determined to 
fight. M. de Clodore accordingly sailed round to 
Popeshead, and next morning received these two 
letters : — 

Copie de la lettre ecrite a Monsieur de Clodore, par 

Messieurs les Colonels & Officiers Anglois d'Antigoa, 

le deux Septembre mil six cent soixante-six, vieux 

stile, trente-un stile nouveau. 

Monsieur— Nous avons receu vos semonces de venir a 

bord delivrant en vostre possession nos armes & munitions 



FROM RESTOEATION OP CHAELES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xxxv 



de guerre, laquelle chose, le changement de nos affaires est 
tel depuis vostre depart, qu'il ne voiis la pent pas permettre. 
Monsieur le Lieutenant General de nostre Roy ayant envoye 
icy le Colonel Daniel Pische pour son Gouverneur, luy a 
donne pouvoir sur toute la milice de cette Isle : si-bien, 
Monsieur, que nous sonimcs devenus tout-a-fait incapables 
de vous donner aucune reponse satisfactoire ; & sur 
I'examination des affaires passees, a trouve qu'elles estoient 
beaucoup a nostre prejudice ; & en particniier envoyant les 
Careibes deux fois sur nous centre I'obligation de vos 
Articles, & les loix des Nations, des personnes qui sont 
cruels, tout-Si-fait barbares & ignorans de Dieu & de toutes 
civilitez : Neanmoins, Monsieur, nous tous supplions suivant 
ce que nous avons deja fait, d'en faire vos demandes a 
nostredit Gouverneur, qui est uniquement experimente en 
matiere de guerre. En attendant nous demeurons. 

^ronsieur, Vos tres-hunibles serviteurs, 

Bastien Bayard. Samuel Vtintrop. 

Philipe Vvaernard. Gilbert Gregorie. 

ElCHARD Baraston. Harnet Keinel. 

The deputies also sent this letter to Colonel 
Boncley : — 

Monsieur — Nous avons receu la vostre, a laquelle nous 
ne pouvons a present i'aire aucune reponse, sinon qu'il n'est 
pas en nostre pouvoir de convenir h vos semonces, ni a 
aucunes choses cy-devant faites ; parce que depuis vostre 
depart d'icy, est arrive le Colonel Daniel Fische, avec com- 
mission de Monsieur le Lieutenant-General pour Gouver- 
neur, en vertu d'un mandement du Roy, lequel a este 
public : c'est pourquoy ces affaires la sont entierement 
demeurees entre les maines dudit Gouverneur, auquel vos 
semonces & demandes doivent estre faites, comme estant 
seul Commandant de la milice. Nous trouvons que nous 
avons receu grand prejudice k la rupture des Articles con- 
cernans les Careibes, qui ont deux fois attente sur nous 
a, leur maniere accoustumee, qui est cruelle & barbarienne. 
Nous serions rejoiiis de vous voir si le souhaittez ; car on 
attend icy quinze navires de la Barbade, dont il j en a cinq 
de trente pieces de canon chacun, & deux de soixante, & 
huit navires marchands de vingt a trente pieces de canon, 
avec mil soldats du Roy vestus de casaques rouges, avec 
qnantite d'armes : vous presentant vous rendrez service. 
Nous demeurons, 

Monsieur, Vos asseurez amis et serviteurs, 

Bastien Boyer, etc. 

Upon receiving these letters, M. de Clodore held 
a council with his officers, the results of which 
were : — 

That as the enemy have made no answer to our summons, 
sent three days ago, to fulfil the conditions of the treaty 
made with them ; but, on the contrary, they have sent these 
letters this morning, in which, after having sought vain 
pretences of rupture, they declare they are not willing to 
fulfil it, and at the same time they have disposed guard- 
houses along the coast, and caused several armed persons to 
oppose our landing ; it has been found proper to accept the 
rupture they have made of the treaty, and after having fired 
a cannon-ball at them, to land, in order to make them 
return to their duty, without paying regard to the letters 
they have sent. Besides the absence of Monsieur de la 
Barre, and the necessity we are in to send back immediately 
the island troops to Martinique and Guadaloupe, to oppose 
the enemy, who, according to advices received, will soon 
arrive there, it is impossible now to keep the Island of 
Antigua for the king. It has therefore been thought 
proper to land, attack the enemy, and, in case of success, 
place the island in such a state that the enemy can draw no 



sort of profit from it. Done unanimously between us, the 
undersigned, in the harbour of Antigua, the 3rd December 
1666. 

De Clodore. 

Blondel. 

HiNSSELIN. 

Before the French council broke up, an English 
officer brought this letter to M. de Clodore : — 

Monsieur — Nous vous avons envoye ce matin telle 
reponse que nous pouvions, estant sons le commaudement & 
autorite de Monsieur le Gouverneur, an pouvoir duquel 
n'estions pas capables de resister ; mais depuis que nous 
luy avons fait voir amplement la raison de nostre premier 
Traite & nostre refus de rompre, avons tant fait qu'il en est 
demeure d'accoi'd, moyennant qu'il y soit compris comme le 
reste des habitaiis ; Icdit traite & accord sera ponctuellement 
ratifie et effectue en toutes ses particularitez. 

Monsieur, Vos tres-humbles serviteurs, 
Bastien Bayart. Samuel Baraston. 

Philipe Waernard. Jeremie Vvathier. 

A Antigoa le vingt-trois Novembre, vieux stile. 

But without considering it, M. de Clodore re- 
plied : — 

Messieurs — J'ay este fort surpris, lorsque j'ay veu que 
vous n'avez pas repondu a la sommation que je vous ay 
fait faire, & encore davantage lorsque j'ay leu la lettre que 
vous m'avez envoyee ce matin, ou vous nous accusez de vous 
avoir traite avec rigueur, pour chercher pretexte de rompre 
comme vous avez fait, en manquaut a vostre foy & a vostre 
parolle. Je descends a terre & vous vais trouver, pour vous 
mettre a vostre devoir par la voye des armes: ceux qui les 
poseront, aurout de moy bon quartier, & les autres seront 
traitez selon la rigueur de la guerre. 

Vostre serviteur, 

De Clodore. 

A la Rade d'Antigoa le 3 Decembre 1667 stile nouveau. 

On the French landing, their ojjponents at once 
laid down their arms, and Governor Fitche,* hearing 
that M. de Clodore was marching towards him, es- 
caped in a barque with Colonel Warmer and some 
others. 

Du 5 de Decembre 1666 stil nouveau. 

Acte de serment fait par les Officiers, chefs de famille, <fc 
habitans de I'lsle d'Antigoa, assemblez presentement au 
camp de la maison du Capitaine Vvintrop, quartier de 
Maerson : Entre les mains de Nous sieur de Clodore, 
Gouverneur pour le Roy de I'lsle de la Martinique, & com- 
mandant les troupes & vaisseaux de sa Majeste, pour la con- 
queste de I'lsle d'Antigoa. 

Nous Officiers, chefs de famille, & Habitans de I'lsle 
d'Antigoa, Jurons & promettons devant Dieu & sur les 
saintes Evangiles, de tenir & garder la foy, fidelite & 
obeissauce au Roy de France, lequel nous reconnoissons 
pour nostre Maistre & Seigneur, sous la seigneurie de 
Messieurs de la Compaguie des Indes Occidentales, & de ne 
rien attenter, & soutt'rir qu'il ne soit rien attente directe- 
ment, ou indirectement, ny prendre jamais les armes centre 

* In various articles of complaint presented in 16(59 against the 
Willouffhbys, it was stated that after Antigua was retaken from 
the French, the Lieut.-General (Henry Willoughby) commissioned 
one Colonel Fitz to fight the French there : yet, when they came, 
he charged the people, on pain of death, not to fight till he came to 
lead them, and then went to his own plantation, fired his own 
house, took his negroes into a sloop, and came to Nevis, which was 
the occasion of the loss of that island and the persons there. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' America and West Indies, p. 30.) 



XXXVl 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



son service, supplians tres-humblemeiit sa Majeste, de ne 
vouloir nous obliger a prendre les armes contre le Roy 
d'Angleterre, pendant le cours de cette guerre seulement. 

Et en consequence du present acte, nous avons approuve 
& consenty, approuvons & consentons unaniment, que les 
soussignez par nous deputez, ausquels, avons donne pouvoir 
verbal de signer ledit acte pour nous, qui validera tout ainsi 
que si nous I'avions signe. 

Et nous sieur de Clodore declarons au nom de sa 
Majeste, que sous son bon plaisir avons accorde ausdits 
OfRciers, chefs de fiimilles & habitans, qu'ils ne seront point 
co'traints pendant le cours de cette guerre, seulemeot de 
porter les armes contre le Roy d'Angleterre. Fait & 
aiTeste double entre nous au camp susdit, ledit jour & au 
que dessus. 

(Signe) De Clodor£, & quatorze des principeaux 
de ladite Isle. 

After taking the oatlis to the French the colo- 
nists, being defenceless, demanded a garrison and 
governor, but De Clodor§ being unable to comply 
with their request left them 100 guns and the 
following :— 

Sauve-garde de Monsieur de Clodore aux habitans 
d'Antigoa. 

Le sieur de Clodore Gouverneur pour le Roy en I'lsle de 
la Martinique, sous I'autorite de la Royale Compagnie des 
Indes Occidentales, Commandant les troupes & de la flotte 
pour la conqueste d'Antigoa. 

Nous mettons sous la protection & sauvegarde de sa 
Majeste, tons les biens, personnes & families de tous les 
Officiers & habitans de I'lsle d'Antigoa, les ayant conquis & 
fait prester serment d'estre fidels sujets de sa Majeste tres- 
Chrestienne ; & en cette consideration, leur permettons 
d'avoir cent armes a feu pour leur defense contre les 
Careibes ; defandant a tous cenx sur qui nostre pouvoir 
s'estand, & prions tous les alliez de sa Majeste, de ne leur 
faire aucun tort: voulant que la presente ordonuauce soit 
enregistree au Greffe de cette Isle, pour y avoir recours, 
& que foy soit ajoustee aux copies collationnees d'icelle, 
pour tous cenx qui les desirerous. En foy de quoy, avons 
fait apposer le sceau de nos armes, & signe de nostre main, 
contre signe par nostre Secretaire, a ce qu'elle soit plus 
authentique. 

(Signe) De Clodor^. Et par mondit sieur, 
GoNTiER, avec sceau. 

The rreuch took away with them all the soldiers, 
prisoners of war ; also 500 negi'os, which were all 
that the inhabitants could furnish ; all the arms and 
cannon, sugar mills, and coppers; and the chattels 
and cattle on the confiscated plantations. The 100 
soldiers stationed at Colonel Winthrop's pillaged his 
house, as did another party that of Colonel Carden ; 
and the Island having been well ransacked, as only 
French know best how to do, De Clodore set sail for 
St. Christopher's. 

Another letter, written circa April 1667 by 
Captain Samuel WinthrojD, a planter of Antigua, to 
his brother John Winthrop, junr., gives the English 
version of the French invasion : — 

Dears Brother — The diflfereuces in Europa between C 
countrymen & y" Dutch gaue y<' French oppertunity of 
molesting us here in j'^ Cariba Islands ; & being a people 
verry watchfull tooke hold of y* aduantage (wee haueing no 
shipping in theis parts) to inuade j^ Island Antigua, w'='' 
they beganne vpon y 2.5"' dale of October last, at Fiue 
Island harbor. After some small dispute w"' o'' fortes, they 



landed their soldiers, & possessed themselues of that place, 
burning first Go", & after y* all y* houses in y' diuision. 
Next morning they aduanced to Johns Harbor by land, 
where y^ Go' w"' a party eucountred them, but were 
presently put to flight, & y' Gc w'" some others taken 
prisoners in Capt. Mugs house, w"^'' they plundered & burnt 
& so retreated. One shallop belonging to y^ London mar- 
chants plantac'on bound for Nevis, called at my landing 
place, in w''" I sent my wife & children to Neuis, where 
they haue remayned euer since. Y'= 27'" daie the French 
aduanced agaiue to L' Coll. Bastiaen Bayers, upon Johns 
Harbor, being about 600 men. C islanders, not 200, rec* 
them. T<^ contention was verry smart for about 4 an hour, 
& 0' men w'^stood them verry resoluedly, but, being ouer- 
powered w*'' men, were put to flight, many slayne on both 
sides, but most on o", tooke many prisoners, plundered y* 
house, fired all y' was combustable, & retreated againe. 
This was their 3'^ dales woi-ke. 0'' soldiers repayered to my 
house, haueing now no other place left for defence, expecting 
y enemy y^ next morning. About noone came a trumpet 
w"' a summons importing y' if v/^Hn 2 dayes y^ island 
should not be surrendered to y'= obedience of y** French 
King they would destroy it by fire & sword, & giue no 
quarter. Subscribed by Antony Lefebure de la Barre, L* 
Generall to y most Christiaen King, both by sea & land, in 
y^ West India. When y* officers & cheife of j" island had 
deliberated vpon y' matter, they finding themselves not able 
to resist y"= French & y"^ cruell Indian who lay burning & 
massacaring vpon y* windward while y'' French were to 
leward, tooke into considerac'on y' after part of y'' sum'ons, 
w''*' promised hansom condic'ons if wee would treat w"' 
them. So that way seeming now y* w"^"" necessity compelled, 
they commissionated six persons to treat & articulate w"" 
them. Two dayes were spent in y'' treaty. Y" articles 
(though many) were in short but this, y* y^ inhabitants y' 
would take an oath of fealty should enjoy all their estates ; 
those y' would not should haue liberty for to sell in six 
monthes & depart, or to leaue their estates to an agent, y*^ 
would take y" s'' oath, to manage it for their use ; 200 
thousand pounds of sug' to be payed in six monthes, for w'='' 
y'^ islanders to be freed from guarding, building fortes, or 
takeing up armes against their country men. Whilst theis 
things were in action, a party of Barbadian souldiers, in- 
flamed w"' wine, impeded y'^ islanders complyance, where- 
upon y'= French departed vpon y" i"" of Nouemb'', & left 
word y', when they came againe, if j" islanders would stand 
to their articles they should have them : in the meantime 
they should take up their armes to defend themselves against 
y'' Indians. The 23'' daie of Nouemb' y" French fleet came 
againe ; vpon whoes appearance one Daniel Fitch, whom y" 
L* Generall Henery AVilloughby, had sent up from Neuis to 
be go', called y^ people in armes & drew them vp against y' 
French ; but seeing them to be stronger than he thought 
for, & seeing y' Indians fireing on y<= other side, he ran away 
from y^ companyes, gott into a little boat, & made his 
escape. When y" soldiers perceiued it, they faced about & 
fled also. The French forces, com'anded by Mon" de 
Clodore, Gouenno"' of Martinique, remayned still vpon y^ 
baye, & not knowing o' men were fled, came to some termes 
w"" L' Coll. Bayer & my selfe, to this effect, y' if y* islanders 
would submitt they should haue good quarter & faire 
treatm* ; whereupon wee went after them, & finding some 
scattered people lurkeing in y'' waye, not knowing to hide 
themselues, acquainted them w*'' what was proposed, & they 
to y'' rest, so y' y* next morning most of them layed their 
armes in y« path, for y^ French to receiue them. Clodore, 
vnderstanding o'' people were fled, marched throng y^ 
country to my house, where he sett vp his flag on y« top of 
my house & incamped round about it. He possest himselfe 
of 24 of my slaues (y= rest escaped) & most of y= slaues in 
y^ island, destroyed most of my stock, his soldiers plundering 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xxxvii 



y" country round about. My coppers & sug'' worke he 
medled not w"', nov lired any houses more in y= island except 
of those y' runue off y= island. Haueing encamped there 
seuen duyes, he imbarqued his soldiers, & vpon y^ 1 of 
Decemb'' sett sayle for Guardalupa. One memorable thing 
I omitted, w"=" was : when he had conueued most of y° 
inhabitants to my house, he told them y' o' liues & estates 
were at his mercy : neuertheless such as would take an oath 
of fealty to his master should enjoye tlieir estates ; y'' others 
he would carry away prisoners of warre to Fraunce. Where- 
upon all present, except 4 or 5 of those called Quakers tooke 
y'= oath. The Barbadian soldiers he carryed away prisoners 
w'l" him. Thus y" French left Antigua. In this sadd 
condic'on wee remained ; & y' w* added to C afflictions were 
y'= murthers & rapes w"'' y«^ Indians com'itted vpon yinliabi- 
tants after y" French departed, haueing, as they said, liberty 
80 to doe for fiue days. The G"' of y^ 11"' month came some 
Periaguas from Montseratt to my house, from whom I 
vnderstood y' y'' French had taken y' island ; w'='' proued 
true. Their next design being now ripe for Nenis, it pleased 
God to send 8 ships of warre, whereof two were frigotts 
vndcr y'' com'and of Cap' Jn" Berry, Admirall, who arriued 
at Neuis y" 2.5"' of y' first month, vpon nenes whereof their 
ships haue hid themselves among y'^ Windward Islands. 
The 5"' instand Cap' Juo. Tliomson & Cap'- Collier came to 
Antigua, desireing such as were able to come on board to be 
transported to Neuis for to doe y'= King seruice. So y' by 
that oppcrtunity I gott a passage to Neuis, where I arriued 
4 dales since, finding my wife & children in good health. 
A more full relac'on is extant, of w'^'' I haue not a copy, & 
therfore I haue giuen thee this bi'euiate, least none of them 
sliould come to thy hand & thou not be acquainted w"' Gods 
dealing w"' us in theis partes. What wilbe y'= issue wee 
know not. Here is great preparac'on against y'= enemy : y" 
successe is from y' Lord. If wee preuaile, I haue yet 
wherew"' to mainteyn my sonnes at schoole. If not, I hane 
desired my friend Wharcon, w"' thy aduise, to put them to 
some trade or imploym' as you shall think litt. All tlieis 
things are warnings to us to depart hence, for this is not o' 
rest ; to secke y* peace w'^'' is not of y"^ world nor can by y^ 
world be broaken, to line in y' lone w'''' knowes no enmity 
but to y'' Serpent, & to be guided by that liglit w"^'' leads 
men out of strife & contention into y'= union of y" Spiritt & 
y^ bond of true peace. My wife and children remember 
their loues to the & my sister, Jno. Gomes hath been verry 
friendly to them, & offered them transport, in my absence, 
for w* I desire thou wilt giue him thankes. 

Dear brother, I heartily salute thee & my kind sister, 
w"' all my nephews & neeces, & remayne 

Thy affectionate brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

Endorsed by John Winthrop, junr. : — " Capt. Sam. 
Winthrop, wherein the relation of taking Antigua by the 
French." ('Mass. llist. Colh,' vol. viii., fifth series, 

' Winthrop Papers,' pt. iv., p. 255.) 

Dec. 18. Car. II. William Lord Willoughby of Par- 
ham, brother of Francis Lord Willoughby of Parliam, to be 
Governor of the Caribbee Islands for 3 years. ('Signet 
Ollice Dockets,' p. 65.) 

lu 1677 was presented the Petition of Joan Hall, Widow 
& Eelict & Executrix of Coll" Chr. Keynell, late of Antigua 
deceased, reciting : that she possessed a plantation called 
Bettye's Hope, for 14 years, about the year 1067, & the 
French invading Antegoa, she went for safety to Nevis, 
leaving 60 negros behind her, all of whom were taken or 
killed, & her estate ruined. Later the neighbours made a 
garrison of her house & burnt down her sugar works, so 
that their security became her ruin. She returned to An- 
tegoa in 1668, & repaired her buildings, but it so happened, 
that W" L* Willoughby of Parham, then Capt. Gen', 



brought with liim one Coll" Codrington, to whom he gave 
her plantation, alleging that it was too great a quantity of 
land for her. Not yielding Coll" Codrington the anticipated 
profits it's now offered for sale. She begs His Maj'^' that 
the plantation may be restored to her, & that the rights of 
herself & her children may be confirmed. On 9 January 
1677-8 their Lordships send a letter to Col. W'" Stapleton 
ordering an enquiry. It does not appear how the affair was 
settled, probably by a compromise, for Betty's Hope is still 
the property of the Codrington family. 

Besse in his ' History of the Sufferings of the 
Quakers,' thus quaintly alludes to the foregoing 
events : — 

1666. While they were yet but few, being no more 
than four Masters of Families on the Island, namely, 
Samuel Winthrop, Justinian HoUyman, William Hill, and 
.Jonas Langford, the French came with a Fleet, and took 
Possession of the Island, and made one Clodore, a French- 
man, Governour of it. He summoning the English In- 
habitants together, made them a Speech (Col. Bunkly 
interpreting for him) and told them. They were now aU 
Prisoners of War, and at his Mercy, nevertheless, all that 
would take the Oath of Allegiance to his Master the King 
of France, might tarry there and enjoy their estates, but 
such as refused must go away Prisoners. This so terrified 
the Inhabitants, that considering if they were carried away,, 
they must leave their Wives and Children exposed to the 
Mercy of the Indians, who were then upon the Island, they 
generally submitted, and took an Oath, Not to fight against 
the King of France during the then present War, and to 
live in Obedience to the French Government. But the 
above-mentioned four Quakers boldly refused to take the 
said Oath, which the French Governour strongly insisted 
on ; but they answered. They could not Swear at all. 
Colonel Bunkly was sent to them by the French Governour, 
to persuade them to consider the Matter, and represent t& 
them the Danger of being carried away from their Families, 
which were at that Time none of the least, but they stood 
firm, saying, Tiiey could not Swear, what Sufi'ering soever 
might follow. At length the French Governour himself 
came to them, and said, I believe you are honest Men, and 
if you will promise not to fight against the King my Master 
during this War, I will take your words. To which one of 
them answered. We desire to be rightly understood in this 
our Promise, for we can freely promise not to fight against 
the King of France, nor for him ; nor indeed against the 
King of England, nor for him ; for we can act no more for 
the one than the other in Matter of War ; only as the King 
of England is our natural Prince, we must own Allegiance 
to him. The French Governour being informed what they 
said, bade them Hold up their Hands in Testimony of the 
Truth of what they said, and so dismist them. But Col. 
Bunkly, who had formerly accused the Quakers as disaffected 
Persons, proved not himself so faithful as they did ; for he 
took the oath to the French King, and yet went afterward 
with others to retake Christophers from the French, where 
he was sore wounded, and afterwards died in Prison of his 
Wounds. It was also observed, that the other Governour,. 
Robert Garden, was taken by the Indians, and had his Head 
and Hand cut off. 

Another letter from Samuel "Winthrop to his 
brother, which has been preserved by that family, is 
here given : — 

Antigua y<^ 27"' daye of Sep"'''-, 1607. 
My last vnto thee was in Aprill last, in w'=" I gaue thee 
a hint of God's dealings w"' us in this island. Since W^'' y' 
L' Generall w'^ about 3000 men made an attempt vpou 

/ 



XXXVIU 



THE HISTORY OE A^'TIGUA. 



Christo]ihers ; but y'^ Lord fought against them, so y* 300 
were slayne & about 400 taken prisoners, whereupon he 
desisted from landing any more. Att his returne, he sent 
me up liither in Antigua, where I found a people much 
distressed by y^ Indians, who (as they themselves related) 
were sent by y<= French to destroy y« people, being unarmed, 
and they did accordingly kill & carry awaye 18. The 22 of 
Aug : wee had a cevere storme. My wife just then arrived 
fi'om Nevis w"' [blot] children, & what goods wee saued 
from y« French. Their Hues were saued, but y° vessell & 
goods lost. I sent by George Paris to Richard Wharton 
21 hog. of sug"^ to pay my sonnes debts in New England, of 
whoes arriuall I yett hear nothing. It is now all I have left 
besides my land & 12 workeing negros, w"' whoes bare 
labor I shall not be able to keep my sonnes in New Eng- 
land ; nor am I willing, vntill I see y' Lord's pleasure 
towards this ])lace, to bring them hither, for if wee haue 
neither peace nor victory wee can expect nothing lesse than 
destruction after this fleet is gone for England. S'' Jon" 
Harman w^'' 7 frigatts did great service in June last at 
Martinique, destroyed 23 of their ships & killed many of 
their men. Most part of o'' fleet are gone to Sarrenam. 
Their return is dayly expected. I haue written my desire 
to Richard Wharton y' my sonnes may stay in New England 
vntill y" spring, & learn to write & cypher & gaine some 
knowledge in accompts ; vnlesse newes of peace come, & 
then I care not how soone they come to mee. I meane y" 
two eldest ; foi' y" other two I shall strive hard to giuo them 
a little learning. I am much streytned, since Richard 
Whartons intention for England, whom to gett to take y'= 
trouble of my businesse, w'^'' as yett is like to be verry small. 
I desire thee to be assistant to mee in this exegent by ad- 
uiseing y^ need full, for I am at a great distance from them, 
& altogether ignorant what to doe. Great designes are on 
foot for y" resetlem' of this island. If y'= Lord blcssc them 
I may quickly recouer a possibility to supply my children 
well ; if not, they must take their portion w*'' mee in want 
as well as in plenty. I shall not trouble thee farther at 
present. He is faithfuU y' hath promised : I snbmitt to his 
will in all things. Dear brother, I wish thee well, & my 
loueing sister, w"" all y"^ children. God in his mercy make 
us all obedient to y" trueth, y' liueing in y= lone of it wee 
may find a resting place in y" daye of trouble. Farewell. 
Thy euer loueing brother, 

Samuel "Wixthrop. 

1667, June 19. Derrick Peters said that the French 
told him tliey had taken Montserrat,* since they took S' 
Christophers & Antigua & that young Willoughby with 4 
frigots & 10 great merchantmen was before S' Christophers 
■& had burnt a Dutch & a French ship there. 

('Calendar of Domestic Papers,' p. 211.) 

June 29. A Hamburger from Madeira brought letters 
from Sir John Harman who had sailed for the Western 
Isles with a squadron of 7 ships. The French have 
plundered Antigua & other small isles but left no men 
there. (//'/(/., p. 244.) 

On 21 July the Treaty of Breda was signed 
between the English, French, and Dutch, by which it 
•was agreed that the Enghsh parts of St. Christopher's, 
Antigua, and Montserrat, were to be restored to the 
English, with all servants and slaves, and the Eng- 
lish were in like manner to give up all islands, etc., 
captured by them. 

In Egerton MS. 2395, which is so rich in West 
Indian papers, is a document endorsed, " Copie of 
M'' Marcher's Proposalls to his Ma"'^ p' separac'on of 

* De la Barre captured it the preceding 10 February, the Irish, 
as usual, proving traitors. 



y= Goverm* of the Leeward Islands 1667. To be heard 
at y"* Comm*" Ocf 29"'." It is now given verbatim, 
together with the answer : — 

1667. Proposalls most humbly offered to his Ma"<= by the 
Planters and Merchants concerned in the Island of 
Nevis & the other Leward Islands. First : — 

That yo'' Ma'"= will be graciously pleased to send over 
some Person, as yo'' Ma'^ Leiutenant for the Islands of 
Nevis, S' Christophers, Antego, & Mounserat, and that they 
may be no longer under the Government of yo"' Ma'' Lieu- 
tenant of the Barbathos. 

Eeasons. 

For that these Islands being in sight of each other, are 
able to give speedy Ayd and Assistance to each other upon 
all occasions ; And the Barbathos being a hundred Leagues 
distant, and many times five or Six Weeks before a Ship can 
gaine the Barbathos from the Leward Islands, is rendered 
incapable of giveing any sudain reliefe. As allsoe for that 
the Councell & Assembly of yo'' Ma*' Lieutenant in the 
Barbathos, being Barbatliiaus, their Interest is that these 
Islands be no more setled ; for now these Islands are lost, 
one pound of their Sugar will be as much worth as two were 
before (but yo' Ma*' Customes but halfe as much). And Wee 
can prove that severall of the Barbathians have wished these 
Islands suuck, declareing it would be the better for them, 
for now there was so mnch Sugar made, that it was a micre 
drugg. 

They have also taken to their own use Tenn Barells of 
Powder, and Two Cannon, procured of yo'' Ma'''= for the 
Island of Nevis. Yo'' Ma"' was graciously pleased to 
Command the Lord AVilloughby to send a good proportion 
of the Ammunition to Nevis, that yo'' Ma'y gave him, and 
my Lord Willoughby promised Fifty Barells for that Island, 
But as appears by the last Letters, kept it all for the use of 
the Barbathos, which sufficiently proves the iufluence they 
have upon liini. 

For Encouragment of Trade. 

That yC Ma'? will be pleased to Commissionate Persons 
that have Estates in those parts, and not like those late 
Governo''' men of no Fortunes, who would take what 
Goods they pleased from the Merchants and Factors and 
never pay for them & if they refused to let them have their 
Goods Imprison them. 

And that yC Ma'-^ will declare that you will tnrne out of 
Commission any Governour that shall take or suffer any to 
take any Merchants Goods without their good likeing. 

For Encouragment of Planters. 

That yo'" Ma'J will be graciously pleased, That no 
Governo'' for the future shall exact auy more allowance from 
the People, than what hath been formerly paid to former 
Governo'''. And that they shall Rayse no Tax upon the 
People but by the usuall ■^vay of Assemblies. 

And that yo'' Ma*y will be graciously pleased to send over 
a Thousand Souldiers at present with Armes and Amunition 
in some of his owne Ships or Prize vessells, the said Ships 
being freighted home with sugars will pay their Charge. 

The Reason. 

For that unless there be soldijers to Plant and keep 
Guards, the Indians will perpetually annoy and destroy them, 
as they have done formerly, besides the English will appeare 
Contemptible to the French who have a firench Regiment 
to Countenance them. 

And for Encourage of such Souldiers or Servants. 
Fourthly. That the Command''' in Cheife have power 
to dispose of y* Lands of such as shall not come or send 
some Attorney to lay Clayme to their lands, in two years, or 
having laid their Clayme, doe not come & settle some reason- 
able proportion of Servants upon their Lands in Three 
years time. 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xxxix 



Reasons. 
For that otherwise some men will never settle their 
Land, but keep it till land be gvowne scarce, that they may 
make advantage by sellin": of it, which hath been the reason 
that Antego (though a more Considerable Island than the 
Barbathos) hath never been well setled, their haveing been 
great propoi'tions of Land taken up by severall Persons & 
never setled, so the People liveing at groat distance have 
been made a Prey to any that would invade them. The 
Indians haveing before the Warr carryed away severall 
familyes of Christians into Captivity. 

All which is humbly submitted to your Ma''', 

Richard Browne. 
Concordat cum originali. 

Answer from M' Champante, Agent for the Ifi "Willughby, 

Governo'' of the Charibee Islands to the Proposalls of 

the Planters, Merchants, etc., in Xevis & the Leeward 

Islands. To be heard at the Com*'^'' on Tuesday the 

29"' of October 1667. 

Whereas y' Lor'pps have lieene pleased to Order a Paper 

to be delivered unto me. Intituled Proposalls most humbly 

offered to his Ma''= by the Planters & Mercli'^ concearned in 

the Iseland of Nevis & the other Leeward Iselands 

com'anding my attendance this day, I doe here humbly 

present what comes within my knowledge & what in soe 

shorte a time I could informe niyselfe of in answei' to the 

said Proposalls. 

1. ffirst, As to the matter of their Eequest, his Ma''« 
hath been graciously pleased already to constitute "William 
I/' TVillughby of Parham Cap* Gen" & clicife Governor by 
Land & vice-Admirall by Sea over all the Iselands, Colonies, 
and Plantac'ons in America called the Charibee Iselands — 
Of W^i" Nevis, S* Christophers, Antcgoa, & Montserrat are 
four, AYith power to appoint a Deputy Governor or Govern'' 
over all or any of the said Iselands, & them to remove & 
chainge at pleasure, Soe that the granting of perticular & 
distinct Comission or Com'issions to any Governor or 
Govern''* of the Leeward Iselands, otherwise than by the 
hand of the said Cap' Gen" will be an infringement or 
Diminution of his Lor'ps power, by vertue of his Ma''<'» 
Patent, which tis hoped his Ma"' will not consent unto, his 
Lor'pp haveing noe way forfeited his Ma''" favour. And 
I doe humbly conceive it to be a great mistake in their 
apprehending, that these Iselands are under the L'' 
Willughby as Leiuteu' of Barbados his said Lor'p being 
Capt. Gen" of all the said Iselands, & may reside in any of 
them at his pleasure ; And whereas it was verbally alloadged, 
That Barbados & the said Leeward Iselands, were never 
under one Government, it is soe far from a trneth, as that 
they were never otherwise since they were owned by the 
Crowne of England, The first Patent being granted to the 
Earle of Carlisle as Cap' Gen" over all those Iselands, w'^'' 
power was derived to ffrancis L* Willughby about the year 
1646 and confirmed to him by his late Ma"' of blessed 
memory. And for the other verball assertion. That the 
said Iselands would never owne the said 1/ Willughby as 
Cap' Gen". It will easily be made appeare ; That Antegoa 
& Montserratt did receive Commissions for their Govern- 
ment from his Lor'pp although Nevis & S' Christophers 
(complying with the powers of England then in being) 
rejected not only his Lor'pp but his Ma"'' Leters sent from 
the Isle of Wight. 

2. To the first Reason, its humbly offered, That it is noe 
way to be doubted, but that the L'' Willughby hath given 
sufficient Instructions to the Governors of those Iselands, to 
be mutually aiding & assisting to each other ; And it may 
occasion much inconveniency, That the said Iselands should 
become soe far independent from the Barbados, by causing 
perticular animosities betweene them, & a neglect of that 
helpe, w"-'' of all the rest is most considerable, & would be 



cheerefully affoarded them, if under their care ; And had it 
not beene for the extraordinary indeavours & reliefe from 
Barbados, wherein they expended at least SOjOOO"" sterling, 
besides the severall M'''' shipps, w''' were imprest for that 
service, Nevis could in noe wise have withstood the late 
force of the ffrench, but had utterly perished & beene lost ; 
And should the Government of the said Leeward Iselands 
be distinct from Barbados, It would give oportunity to 
persons indebted to indeavour. their escape from Iseland to 
Iseland, in hopes to meete with shelter & protection, to the 
prejudice of Trade & discouragement of the Merchants. In 
like manner also will servants & slaves be ready upon every 
slight discontent to fly from place to place for their freedome, 
to the great distraction of the Planter & disturbance of the 
Peace & tranquillity of those Colonies. And as for the 
distance of Barbados from the said Iselands, It is well 
knowne That advice may be at any time sent from the said 
Leeward Iselands to Barbados by Sloopes & other Vessells 
in lesse then ten days time, severall having come in four 
days, the Norwich fi'iggott in eight, & the late fleete before- 
menc'oned from Nevis in eleaven days. 

3. As for the second Reason, It is altogether grounded 
upon a false foundation, ffor that the Lord Willughby hath 
a distinct Councill & Assembly in every one of the Leeward 
Iselands, by whom his Lor'p doth governe & make all Lawes 
concearning each place. And the Councill and Assembly in 
Barbados have neyther jurisdiction over, nor any such 
influence upon the said Iselands as they have rashly suggested. 

4. As to those two perticulars, viz' The deteiniug of 
Powder & two Cannon, 1 humbly conceive it rashness like- 
wise in theni upon noe good grounds to misiuforme his 
Ma'''^ & your Lor'pps flbr that it will appeare by diverse 
Leters to severall considerable Merch'' here. That both 
before & since the now L'' Willughby's arrivall at Barbados, 
far greater quantities of powder, with store of men, Amies, 
& other Ammunition, as also large supplies of Provision have 
beene sent from Barliados to Nevis, then is pretended to 
have been kept from them, as fir instance the L'' ffrancis 
Willughby went thither with a fleete consisting of seaven 
sayle in .July l(')6(i some of w'"" were cast away, & the rest 
remayned at Xevis for their defence about four months. 
In January after. Coll' Willughby sent from Barbados three 
considerable shippes wiih provisions & other supplies to 
Nevis, when they were in a perishing condic'on for want of 
foode. Upon the sixth of March following Coll' Henry 
Willughby, being Deputy-Governor of Barbados with the 
advice of his Councill there, sent another fleete consisting 
of four of his Ma"" Shippes, & six Merchants shippes 
whereof the French having some advice, presently fled to 
Martinico, & Nevis was thereby releived. Afterwards upon 
their returne in April following with 23 sayle of con- 
siderable shippes & store of men for the taking of Nevis 
(who of themselves were unable to make any resistance) 
the said fleete from Barbados ingaged them upon the said 
Coast & beat them off ; And the next day after the now 
Ifi Willughby's arrival at Barbados, his Lor'p sent a sloope 
to Nevis, assuring them that they should suddenly receive 
further supplies, w''' hath beene very considerably from time 
to time performed accordingly. 

5. As to what is proposed for the incouragem' of Trade, 
What new Instructions y"' Lor'pps shall please to advise his 
Ma"' to send unto the L"" Willughby (if the former do not 
reach it) his Lor'ps obedience & compliance thereunto is 
not to be doubted, Nor his strict examination of the offences 
complained of, neither his inflicting a due punishm' on the 
persons for offending upon a just Informac'on & proofe ; 
the matter being brought legally before him. 

6. And for the incouragem' of Planters his Lor.'p hath 
declared, that noe Tax shall be imposed upon them, but what 
shall be established by Law & their owne consents. 

7. As for the souldiers desiered, If his Ma"' shall think 



xl 



THE HISTORY OP ANTIGUA. 



fitt to send them his Lor'p will take care that they be fitly 
disposed uf for the preservac'ou of the said Islands, i\nd 
observe such orders therein as his Ma''^ shall be pleased to 
direct. 

I humbly pray, That yo'' Lor'ps will please to examine 
whether these Proposalls come from the Body of the 
Leeward Iselands, or from particular persons here, who may 
seeke some advantage to themselves by occasioning an 
alteration of what his Ma"= hath already settled upon 
mature deliberation under the Great Scale, ffor it is well 
knowne That Coll' Everard (who is now a Pef for the 
Government of S' Christophers) did joyne with the 
Governor of Nevis in sending men, Armes, etc. from those 
Iselands, for the reducing of Antegoa & Montserratt from 
their obedience to his late Ma"% utterly rejecting his Ma'"" 
Leter w"^'' required their allegiences. 

Oof 20"' 10 07. Jo. Champante. 

In February 1667-8 William, Lord Willoughby, 
with a great number of settlers, sailed from Bar- 
bados to re-establish the colonies of Antigua and 

Montserrat. 

TuE Past and Present State of the Leeward 
CiiARRiBEB Islands [1668]. 

When iu y<= year 1066 His Ma*" Declarac'on of Warr ag' 
the ffrench came to the said Islands before they had any 
knowledge of theirs, Watts Gov'' of S' Christophers more 
generous than prudent gave forthwith notice thereof to the 
ifrench Inhabiting the said Island, and three dayes time for 
submission to him on some hard tearms, which they (being 
far inferiour in strength) not able to gett moderate, resolved 
to try their fortune by Arms, and at the end of the three 
dales fell on with all their force upon the English on the 
Windward part of the Island, beat them out of it, & after- 
wards forced those of the Leeward to submitt to what they 
would grant them whereby becoming Master of the whole 
Island sent away most of the English and strengthened 
themselves so that during all that Warr it could not be 
recovered again, ifrancis L'' Willoughby Cap' Gen" of all 
the Charibbee Islands coming down from Barbados w"" a 
fleet and force to repair the loss unhappily perisht in a 
Hurricane neare Guardaloupa wherein most of y' fleet & men 
were lost. 

Mons' De la Bard arriving not long after w"" Ships & a 
Regim' of Soldiers from ifrance attackt the Island of An- 
tigua and three daies assault beating and fireiiig them out 
three I )ivisions, forced them to a Capitulac'on on favourable 
tearms but not well observed went away and returned again 
not long after w"" greater force di-awn from all their Islauds, 
made themselves absolute Masters of all the said Islands, 
disarming all the Inhabitants taking and carrying away all 
their Negros & Horses, and what was of any worth, destroy- 
ing their Sugar Works & Cattle left them a naked people, 
as they did in the same manner the Island of M'surratt, 
some Weeks after, exposing the Inhabitants to the mercy & 
cruelty of the barbarous Indians, who accompanied them in 
ye taking of both Islands com'itting many Murthers and 
Rapes & carrying away some Women and Children into 
captivity. The like being designed for Nevis the only 
Island then left untaken, for j" Dutch coming fi-om y« 
taking of Sur'inam joyn'd w"' ye ffrench all the forces they 
could make from all their Windward Islands came before it, 
but Sir .John Berry being happily there w"' some ships not 
only prevented their design but engaged them so smartly 
that they were forced to retreat under S' Christophers. 
And though Antigua & M'Surratt soon after S' John 
Berries coming into those parts returned again to their 
duty and obedience to his Ma"=, yet being disarmed & no 
Armes there to supply them with they were but little 



serviceable for attempting anything upon the ffrench 
Islands for after the fight under Nevis the ffrench never 
appeared more in those Seas, during that Warr but flying 
to Martinico some were afterwards burnt by S'' John Har- 
man y^ rest saved in the huylsak there untill the Peace and 
Treaty of Breda whereby che ffrench were to restore S' 
Christophers and all the Negroes taken from the English in 
those Islands, but to this day not one Negroe hath been 
restored .... Antigua & M'Siirratt haveing in some 
measure recovered their Losses of the last Warr are now iu 
a fine thriving way again .... And for what Strength of 
men may be upon the English Islands by the most exact 
Computac'on the Numbers may supposed to be As on An- 
tigua the most Wiudward & largest of them about 13 or 
1400 men being settled somewhat farr asunder about tiie 
Islands. M'Sarratt some 1200 men Nevis some 16 or 1700 
men S* Christophers some 400 men besides His Ma'''=^ 2 
Compi''' of Soldiers. (Egerton MS. 2395.) 

At the recovery of Antigua from the French, 
William, Lord Willoughby, met the Council and 
Assembly* on 11 April 1668 when they proceeded to 
pass the earliest Act on record, viz. : — 

1668. "An Act for Indemnity, and declaring all old 
Titles to Land void and lost, by Reason of the French 
King's Conquest, Dated 10"» April 1668." Ou the following 
day was passed an "Act for the settling the present Inhabi- 
tants in their Lands ;" also one for " Suspending all penal 
laws against law abiding dissenters, papists, etc." 

On the 13"' April a Register's Office was established for 
compulsorily recording every kind of deed connected with 
land-tenure. 

On I'J May the Colonists passed another law which 
caused a great deal of subsequent dissatisfaction viz. " An 
Act for the Settlement of the Custom or Duty of Four and 
a Half per Cent. :" 

Whereas by reason of the late unhappy War which 
arose betwixt His Koyal Majesty Charles the Second, King 
of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, etc. and the Most 
Christian Kiug in France, as well as the States General of 
the United Netherlands, several of His JIajesty of Great 
Britain his Territories on this side the Tropick, became 
subject (through Conquest) unto the said French King and 
his Subjects, aud amongst others this Island of Antigua 
also was so subdued by Monsieur de Labarr Lieutenant 
General by Sea and Land to the said French King, being 
assisted by the Cannibal Indians, by means whereof all the 
Lands within this Island became forfeited unto His Majesty, 
etc., as by an Act of this Country, bearing Date the tenth 
Day of April last past (reference being thereunto had) may 
more at large appear. II. Know j" that for and in Con- 
sideration of new Grants and Confirmation of our said 
Lands under the Great Seal appointed for Barbadoes, and 
the rest of the Caribbee Islands, by liis Excellency William 
liord Willoughby of Parham, etc. We do give and grant 
to His said Majesty, His Heirs, and Successors for ever, 
and most humbly desire Your Excellency to accept these 
our Grants, and we do humbly pray Your Excellency that 
it may be enacted, and be it enacted by His Excellency 
William Lord Willoughby of Parham, Captain General, and 
Chief Governor of Barbadoes, and the I'cst of the Caribbee 
Islands, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Council and Gentlemen of the Assembly, Representatives of 
this Island, and by the Authority of the same. That an Im- 
post or Custom be, from and after the Publication hereof, 
raised upon the Native Commodities of this Island, after 
the Proportion, and iu Manner and Form as is hereafter 

* This is the first time that the House of Assembly has been 
mentioned, and it is probable that it was established by his Lord- 
ship about this period. 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xli 



set down and appointed (that is to say) upon all Commodi- 
ties (if the Growth or Production of this Island that shall 
be sliippcd oft" the same, shall be paid to our Sovereign 
Lord the King, His Heirs, and Successors for ever, Four 
and a Half in Specie for every Five-Score, etc. 

1G68. Tlie causes which led to the imposition of 
the 4i per cent, duty seem to have differed slightly 
in each island. Lord Willoughby, the prim.e mover 
in the affair, was anxious to secure a revenue for the 
King-, and by using force where necessary, to stamp 
out opposition, succeeded in inducing the different 
colonies to pass the various Acts of Settlement. The 
first island to submit was Barbados on 13 September 
1663, when they were told that the new duty was to 
be in lieu of " 40 lbs. of cotton per head and other 
taxes formerly raised to the Earl which was held 
very heavy." 

A similar Act passed in Nevis on 28 April 1664, 
which recited that the King having purchased all the 
proprietary rights of the Earl of Carlisle, the ancient 
tax of 20 lbs. of tobacco per pole, considered very 
heavy, was to be abolished, and in return for the 
grant of the new duty the planters were confirmed 
in their holdings. 

At Montserrat the Act was passed on 13 April 
1668. 

On 19 May it was enacted that persons convicted 
of swearing should pay 10 lbs. for each oath, and in 
defaiilt of payment might be set in the stocks for 
three hours ; for drunkenness the fine was to be 
50 lbs., and in default four hours in the stocks. 

On 15 September a Public Treasury was estab- 
lished. 

July 0. W™ L"" Willoughby writes to His Majesty's 
Council that " The inhabitants earnestly solicited me to 
make my sonne Henry their Governor, whom I com- 
missioned accordingly." (' Rwindheads and Cavaliers in 
Barbados,' p. 180.) 

In the Antiguan Records of 1668 and 1669 this 
Colonel Henry Willoughby is styled Governor of An- 
tega and Berbuda.* 

Nevis. 

An Account of such Debts as was contracted & paid for His 
Ma'y^ service by the Command of y<= R' Hon''''= Henry 
Willoughby, L' General, viz' : — 

Sag--. 
Paid M'' Fran. Sampson for Provisions for the 
Ships, Soldiers, S' Xtophers, Antegua, Mont- 
serrat & Anguilla people also wounded men, 
etc. ...... 112,849 

F'^ more for Beefe, Porke, Fish & Mackrel . -4:1,504 

* Barbuda is a low coral island, about 15 miles in length, 
distant 30 miles N. of Kt. John's. It is so surrounded by reefs and 
shoals that most ships approaching it in former days were wrecked. 
The island has never been surveyed, but is supposed to be larger 
than Antigua, with an area of perhaps 70,000 acres. Great num- 
bers of cattle are raised, but no suijar grown. H. N. Coleridge gives 
an interesting description of his visit to it in 18'J5, when its popula- 
tion consisted of 2 white overseers and 400 slaves. In Oldmixon's 
time there were from 1000 to 1200 inhabitants. The Codringtons 
held long leases of it from the Crown, but they are no longer in- 
terested in it. 



Sug'. 

P'' ditto per ditto to Sundries . . . 92,390 

P'' for Powder, Lead, Firelocks, Shovels, etc. . 35,513 

P"" for ditto with Bills & Axes, Beefe, etc. . 38,818 

P* for ditto more to sundry persons . . 17,057 

P*^ more for Pike heads & fixing Armes . 2,110 

P'^ more for Bread, Beere, chese, shovels & lead 18,520 

P* towards the hire of the Ships . ' . 72,744 
P"* for the Hospital with Medecines & charges 

for the sick & wounded men . . 36,900 
P'' the Chyrurgions for Wages . . . 42,300 
P"! for erecting & mainteineing Fortifications, 
Guards & Ammunition for this Island from 
the 28"' of April 1664 to the 30"' of Decem- 
ber 1667 ..... 310,503 
P'^ for bread, butter, beefe, pease & drink more 

as by sundry Accompts appeares . . 36,781 

857,989 
Besides y above Ace' we have been at vast 
charges for billating of Soldiers for house- 
rent, hospital-charges, boathire, shipping, 
& many other things too tedious to insert 
here which we canmake appeare amounts to 
above sixteene hundred thousand pounds of 
(Muscovado) Sugar . . . 1,600,000 



2,457,989 



In Nevis June 
y'' ig'h 1668 @ 



Ant. Peterson. 
Jn» Smith. 
Tho. Nicolson. 
Sam. Windall. 



Waltr. Stmonds, 

Speak'. 
Jn" Netheway. 
W" Howard. 



Fran. Franklin. Jn° Cade. 
ROB'^ Overton. 

At the Court at Whitehall the 4"' of November 1668. 

By the Kings most Excellent Ma^"' & the R' hono'''« the 

Lords of his Ma'^'^ most llono''''' Privy Councill. 

Upon reading this day at the Boord a L're from the 
Lord Willoughby of Parham his Ma'y' Governor of the 
Charibee Islands of the 11"' of August last, and also two 
other L'res from his Lop sent hither by his Son It was 
Ordered by his Ma''' in Councill, That it be & it is hereby 
referred to the R' hono'''" the Lords Committee of this 
Boord for Trade & Plantations to consider of the said L'res, 
& make Report thereof with their Opinion upon them to his 
Ma'y in Councill. (Egerton MS. 2395, fo. 461.) 

1669. Of the Acts passed this year were the 
following : — 

28 October. " For Public Recompense to the 
Masters of Slaves put to Death by Law," a very neces- 
sary precaution, for were it not for this, many masters 
would have shielded their negros when guilty of 
crimes, on this account, that if the law took its 
course and their slave were hanged, they would lose 
his value. 

28 October. " An Act stating Servants Time, 
Wages, Provisions, Apparel, etc.," a very salutary 
measure to prevent ill-usage and overwork. By 
another Act all Masters of Vessels were strictly 
required to enter into a bond for £2000 sterling 
in the Secretary's Oifice not to carry off a person 
without a ticket from the Governor. This was to 
prevent persons defrauding their creditors and for 
the ends of Justice. These Acts were signed by 
Jeremiah Watkins, Speaker, and Francis St. Johns, 
Secretary. 



xlii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Nov. W" Lord Willoughby of Parham to be continued 
as Gov'' of the Caribby Islands. (' Signet Office Dockets,' 
p. 278.) 

Henry Willougiiby, Lieut.-General and Governor 
of Antigua and Barbuda, died this year. 

? 1670. Letter from William Byam,* Governor of An- 
tigua, to William Lord Willoughby, Governor of Barbadoes. 
Sent his Excellency the sad news of the death of the Lieu- 
tenant-General, & of the manner of the death of James 
Willoughby in this island, together with an account of the 
state of affairs, & would have written as conveyances pre- 
sented, but for advice that his Excelleucy was daily ex- 
pected in Barbadoes. Renders humble thanks for his Ex- 
cellency's commission for the government of this island & 
Barbuda, received 2P* May last ; & that this honour may 
not consume his estate, which is low, as the gout does his 
body, hopes his Excellency will mind his Majesty that there 
may be an establishment for its support, & if not speedily 
done the favour intended may prove his ruin. 

Tiie French are rampant among these islands, having 
two men-of-war of 70 & 40 guns at S' Kitts, & a fi'igate of 
14 guns at S'" Cruce, commanded by M. la Barett, & all 
these to secure their trade fi'om the Dutch, whom they 
handle with severity. Cannot omit one ignoble passage of 
the Governor of the Grenadoes. A Dutchman from Guinea 
falling in with the island with 200 negi-oes, was invited by 
the Governor to trade, & security assured him, but no 
sooner were the negroes landed, but the Governor dispatched 
a shallop to La Barett, who sent up his Vice-Admiral & 
immediately seized poor Hans, suspecting no danger, being 
of 24 guns, carried him to S' Kitts, & keeps liim as a prize 
till the business be decided in France. Hears iiis Lordship's 
choleric enemy, JI. S* Lawrence, is to go iiome, & a new 
Governor expected. The proprietor of Guadaloupc, who 
sold his right to the Royal Company of France, but are 
unable to pay his 20(>,()00 crowns, is returning over. 
M. S' Leon continues Governor there ; & M. la Biere of 
Martinique. M. De Baas, their general, continues rigid to 
them all. Has a friendly correspondence unless in two 
passages. One occasioned by a privateer taking a French, 
or rather a Spanish, shallop on the main, bringing her to 
Nevis ; the French demanded the shallop & justice on him 
that took her ; upon which the captain of the privateer was 
imprisoned & the French desired to come & prosecute, but 
after long imprisonment & none appearing the captain was 
enlarged ; on this, or before, an English ship, bound from 
Virginia, was seized at Martinique, & thinks is still de- 
tained there. The other passage savoured of hostility ; a 
French man-of-war sloop, coming off from S* Kitts with a 
trading sloop of ours, commanded the English sloop to 
strike, which the master refusing to do to any but his own 
sovereign's flag, the French fired, wounding the master, who 
shortly after died. But though they thus huff it for the 
present at sea, on shore the planter lives miserable through 
the tyrannical taxations of the R. C. The Dutch are more 
fortunate in their trade than in their colonies : if not weary 
of Surinam they shortly will be ; they are no planters, sad 
souls for suffering any hardship. They have called off their 
small colonies at Banrooma and other places to reinforce 
Surinam ; but fever & ague, belly-achre & yawes, disable or 
destroy them, especially their new comers ; so that many 
are returned & more will follow. The Jews seem now 
highly dissatisfied with the country ; if those & the 
English withdraw it will be but a sad colony. Heard 
very lately thence ; Major Bannister was not then arrived ; 
most of the English would gladly withdraw could they dis- 
entangle themselves of the debts, which the policy of the 

* The codicil to his will bears date 7 June 1C70, and was 
proved on 3rd January following. 



Dutch has noosed them withall. They are still sickly ; 
great supplies of negroes & no whites, so that if once the 
blacks get a head they will make the colony theirs ; really 
believes that will be the end of it. . They expect a new 
Governor, the present one, Capt. Lichtenberg, being very 
ill ; & 'tis thought will hardly go alive out of the country. 
Their colony of Tobago has lately received a great blow by 
the invasion of the Island Indians. But they thrive in 
their trade, for at Curafoa they vend a vast quantity of 
negroes to the Spaniard, & of late 4 ships from Jamaica for 
ready pieces of eight carried thence great store. They 
intend to settle a mart for negroes at Tortola to engross the 
trade of Porto Rico. This advice Finsly brought, who by 
his Excellency's order was employed thither to bring off the 
English, most of whom were gone, & of the few there none 
would come off. The natives of the islands still punctually 
observe the articles agreed with his Excellency, often en- 
quiring when he will give them a visit. Nevis lately pre- 
sented the Governor of Dominica with the liquor they love 
to be distributed amongst them, & other acceptable gifts, & 
several Indians went witli the sloop to Nevis. Has now 
brought his Lordship to Antigua, the island of greatest 
consequence, though least spoken of & regarded unless by 
his Excellency ; did his Majesty understand its invaluable 
convenience for situation & unparalleled harbours, whereby 
lying to windward it might be a curb to the French & 
Dutch on any breach. Their present condition is sadly de- 
plorable, all his Majesty's islands supplied with negroes 
except poor Antigua, not but tliat they can have them if 
they act as some do, the Dutch would supply them, but they 
dare not embrace it ; they languish and decline for want of 
hands, & it is his Majesty will feel it in the end ; the 
strength of the planters consists in single men, who have 
neitl)er servant nor slave. A great drought has rendered the 
crops backward & bad, & brought the planters in debt, & if 
the rigour of the law be used, they fear a general desertion 
of the land, & nothing will stay the planters or increase the 
settlement but a free trade or supply of slaves, which, if his 
Majesty would connive at for a time, the island were made, 
otherwise utterly ruined. Barbuda is thriving, is now 
despatching a commission to Captain Campbell, Governor 
there. All at Parham are well ; the windmill does ex- 
ceedingly well. The canes are very old & bad : 40,000 lb. 
has been made of them : none of the new yet ground : Tom 
Garret has been overseer there 4 or 5 months : he is careful 
& just, & is past his trial & now recovered. The Amity, of 
Bristol, bound for Nevis with wines, was taken accidentally 
by a Spaniard, near Deseada, which landed the men at 
Curasoa. They had positive orders to heave all privateers 
overboard. (' Colonial Calendar,' p. 205.) 

July. A special Committee of the Privy Council for 
the concerns of Trade and the Plantations was formed. 

(' Signet Office Dockets,' p. 336.) 

Aug. 23. At a meeting of the Council at Parham. 
Present : — Capt. Sam' Winthrop, L' Col. Sebastian Bayer, 
& Serg* Major Nath' Gierke. — Ordered that Jno. Vernon, 
clerk in the Secretary's office, deliver up all the records to 
Jno. Parry & Geo. Gowes, appointed clerks to the Council, 
on the decease of Capt. Francis S' John, late secretary ; & 
that seeing there is no ordained minister on this island, 
each justice of the peace may join in matrimony any 
persons whose names 3 several weeks have been set to 
public view in the secretary's office. 

(' Colonial Papers,' vol. xxv., No. 55.) 

The following original letter from William, Lord 
Willoughby of Parham, is bound up in Egerton MS. 
2395 :— 



EROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OE JAMES 11. xliii 



Noted. To M'' Povey* conceniing S' X'phers & the 
Leew'^ Islands. 

S^' — By y'= favor I received from you of yo''= y' 20'" in- 
stant w'^" found me last night at S'' John Harpurs at 
Swarkston, I shall by this reply make a dubble advantage, 
first by retur'ing you my coixliall thankes, & then by giveing 
the troble of makeing my apologie to y" president & 
councell for my absence & w"' that if you think fit when 
you have perus'd these enclosed w'^ my letter to y^ president 
first taking Ooppyes of them you may please to acquaint 
the Councell w^'' tliem this may be a meanes to enform them 
how necessary it is to have correspondence w"" a person soe 
fitt for business as yo'self. But if my L'' Arlington be in 
towne I desier you will fii-st enform him of the whole matter 
& y" passing through yo'' hand may excuse my giveing his 
Lp. the troble of a letter w'''' w"> y«^ presentm' of my service 
_to his Lp. you know better how to menage than I to direct. 
As to y« answer of yo"' letf what concerns my L'^ Carlile I 
suppose you judg better then his Lp. at first sight well can. 
I tliink Coll. Lynch a very fitt person for w' he is designed 
both as to the receiving S' Kitts & y'' other, But as to S' 
Kitts w* is yet under my Goverm* it can doe noe harm to 
heare w' I can say as to that point if not by way of advise 
I have spent my time much amiss if I cannot a little 
enforme And when it is delivered there must be a governo'' 
to take the charge of it & if his Ma"' doth thinke those 
Islands worth his care and protection, better encouragem' 
then yet those governo" ever had must be established & 
then I am confident I can name a person for that Island 
very agreeable to the King & Councell & y'is Maior Andrew 
Mai or to 8' Tobyas Bridges Kegitn' this you may impart to 
my h'^ Arlington if there be occasion, but if it will keep 
cold till I come up you may forbeare. 

as to y^ Independent resolution they can noe way more 
obleige Barbados then by it but out of my duty to his 
Ma''<^' service w"' out any regard to any self interest more 
then as a planter of Antigua I shall declare my opinion & 
give w' reason occurs ag" it but I must allsoe tell that if 
his Ma''« will countenance support & supply y^ Leeward 
Islands like a prince y' will be the way to becalme Mons' & 
then Antigua must of consequence flourish & He make the 
Indian princes my neighbours his Ma''<^^ Loyall subjects 
despite of Mons"^ & their godly ff"athers. As for Barbados 
I doe tell you that they are not well understood at Court by 
reason of y" predjudice contracted ag*' them upon some 
complaints of y'' Eoyall company for to my knowledge they 
are both will and best able to serve his ma""^* interest of any 
he hath in y' part of y'' world & this is easily made out if 
rightly understood. 

w*'' his Ma''''=^ leave & the Councells I tooke this vacation 
to looke after my owne disordered afl'aires all waies intending 
to return by y'' first of October when I expected to finde his 
Mat"'' at Newmarket if Hee or y'' Councell command mee 
sooner I shall attend. But S'' John Harpur not being well I 
doe rather encline to stay here till Munday sennitt when if 
you will give you self the troble & me the favor of yo'' 
further advise by y'' next post yo' letf will finde me directed 
for me at his house at Swarkston to be left at y'= post house 
at Darby by w"='' you will oblige. 

Yo'' affectionate friend to serve you 
Swarkston, Sept' 24"' '70. W. Willoughbt. 

I desier you will to M'' Champantee who lives in upper 
moore to attend you and confer w"' him before you deliver 
my letter to y'' Councell he hath a Scale w"' my amies to 
close them. 

* Thomas Povey, a former owner of tlie large volume of West 
Indian State Papers (Egertou MS. 2395. British Museum), was a 
member of the Committee of the Privy Council for Trade and the 
Plantations. His brother 'William was Provost Marshal of Bar- 
bados, and Richard (perhaps another brother) was Secretary of 
Jamaica, 



On 22 Sept. the planters & others of S^ Christophers, 
Nevis, Antego, & Montserrat petition the King, and state : 
that these islands are 100 leagues to the Leeward of Bar- 
bados & they wish to have a separate governor. They also 
express the hope that the English with the negros, who are 
to be removed from Surynam, may be sent to S' Christo- 
phers. 

This paper bears the signatures of : • 

Geo : Gamiei.l. Wm : Sewster. Hen : Bale. 

AYm : BuiiT. IL Laurence. Val : Austin. 

Geo: Hill. Wm: Baxtar. 

On 17 Nov' the Committee for Trade & the Plantations 
report favourably thereon to the King (Lord Willoughby 
being present), & among other reasons, give this most im- 
portant one, viz : — that S' Christophers being 100 leagues 
N.W. of Barbados, ships cannot beat up against the preva- 
lent trade wind to that Island, in less time than 7 or 8 
weeks, so that in war, the Leeward Islands might be lost, 
Ijefore help could be forthcoming from Barbados. 

It was accordingly decided to erect a separate and dis- 
tinct government for the Leeward Islands. This prudent 
course would doubtless have been adopted ere this, had it 
not been for the opposition displayed by the Lords Wil- 
loughby who naturally demurred, on account of the loss of 
revenue and prestige to themselves, entailed by the appoint- 
ment of another Capt. General in the West Indies. 

1670, Feb. 17, (? 1670-1.) The colony of the Soiners Is- 
lands was so over peopled & the land all taken up that many 
of its inhabitants had gone to S' Lucia, Trinidad, Antigua, 
& Jamaica, but the most part of them died. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' America and the West 
Indies, p. 153.) 

Jan. 10. The Great Seal of the Caribbee Islands, 
which had been left by Lord Willoughby in the custody of 
L' Gen' Henry Willoughby, Governor of Antigua, was 
forwarded to Barbados on account of the iatter's death. 
('Colonial Entry Book,' No. 11, p. 184.) 

In a letter of 1670-1 the writer states that Sir Tho. 
Warner when Governor lived on a sweet plantation in the 
Middle of S' Christophers, which was set out for the 
Governorship. Lord AVilloughby purchased it of M'' Philip 
Warner who had taken possession of it as heire to S"^ 
Thomas, but had no right to sell it to his Lordship. 

Ordnance stores to the value of £2600 st, were to be 
despatched with Sir Chai-les. He also received an order 
from the Privy Sealc for £700 st. per annum as salary, 
together with a free gift of £400 st. payable out of the 
Queens dower & £2778 st. as 1 years pay of 2 foot-com- 
panies. Sir Tobias Bridge's Regiment then stationed in 
the Charibliee Islands was to be disbanded & sent home, but 
those who preferred to stay & settle were to be allotted 
lands as follows : — a private 35 acres, a corporal or drummer 
50, a serjaut 79, an Ensign 160, a Lieut. 200 & a Capt, 
400. 

Arrears of the Charibee Islands to .laraaica, for the estates 
confiscated & applicable to the benefitt of y' Island. 
In the tyme of y" late Warr w"" Holland, such Dutch- 
men as resided or traded in y" English Plantations in y^ 
West India, had their Estates confiscated to y^ use of y= 
usurped Power then in England. 

These Estates were since ordered by y' Power, to bee 
applyed to y" use & releeff'e of Jamaica. In pui-snaiice 
whereof, the Prize-Commissioners for y« respective Islands, 
remitted y" Accompts (y' are herewith tendred) unto L* 
Gen" Brayne then com'anding in chieffe in Jamaica. 



xliv 



THE HISTOEY OF ANTIGUA. 



The s'' Accompts containe y'^ particulers & totalis of j^ 
seized Goods, what disburst npou severall occasions & what 
remaining in y'^ handes of y<= Commissioners & other p'sons 
in those Islands W'^'' though often demanded by y^ s'' Brayne 
& his Successor yet had noe other complyance but excuses 
& delayes. 

The Sumes remaineing due from ye severall Islands are 
these viz' : — 

lb. Suger. lb. tobacco, lb. Indico. lb. Ginger. 
S* Christophers 2,444 89,3G8 550 1286 

Nevis 39,064 27,516 

Mountserrat 00,000 38,362 
Antigua 00,000 119,240 



Totall 41,408 = 274,486 



550 = 1286 



W'' by estimation is sterl. money : 

41,408"'' Suger rated at 2'' per lb. is 0345 : 01 : 04 

274,486"" tobacco at 2'^ per lb. is . 2287 : 07 : 08 

550"" Indico at 18'! per lb. is . 0041 : 05 : 00 

1,286"'' Ginger at 1« per lb. is . 0005 : 07 : 00 

Besides : 82'" 2' 6'' due in Antigua 



in money 



02 : 06 



2761 : 03 : 06 



(No date. ? 1670. Egerton MS. 2395, fo. 468.) 

For the details of the Antiguan accotiuts, see 
under the year 1G55. In that year lib. of sugar 
■was worth 3 lbs. of tobacco, whereas now they are 
both quoted at 2d. per lb. 

1671, Jan. 17. (? 1670-1.) Minutes of Council. On 
demand of Capt. Abraliam Langford, empowered from Lord 
Willoughby, for an account of the excise of wines & strong 
liquors in the island, & all escheat & prize goods, & of the 
fines & mulcts due to the King ; it was answered tljat, the 
King never had any excise, nor they any escheated or prize 
goods or strong drink on the island. That the return of 
the inhabitants was in much poverty, & many must have 
perished for want if not relieved, tliat they fined tliose that 
deserved fine to the reUef of tiie poor, & can give no account 
thereof, but though a small thing it belongs to his Majesty, 
& for the future an exact account shall be kept. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' America and the 
West Indies, p. 157.) 

1671, Jan. 25. (? IG70-1.) Commission to Sir Chas. 
Wheeler, Bart., Captain of a company of foot in our regi- 
ment of guards under the command of Col. John Russell, 
appointing him Governour-in-Ghief over S' Christopliers, 
Nevis, Montserrat, Antego, Barbudo, Anguilla & other the 
Leeward Islands, which his Majesty has thought fit to 
separate from the Government of Barbadoes. With power 
to choose a council of 12 of the principal inhabitants in each 
of the said islands, & with the advice of not less than 7 of 
them to summon general assemblies & make laws which 
shall be in force for 2 years & no longer unless approved by 
his Majesty ; to exercise a negative voice, dissolve general 
assemblies & use a public seal. To erect courts of judica- 
ture, constitute judges, justices & sheriffs, & administer 
oaths, provided all establishments be submitted to his 
Majesty, to pardon offenders, treason & wilful murder ex- 
cepted, in which cases he may grant reprieves for a year till 
his Majesty's pleasure be knowu, present to churches, levy 
& arm persons, take & kill pyrates, pursue enemies & treat 
them according to the law of arms. To prepare articles of 
war, agreeable to those in England, for soldiers in pay only, 
to erect forts, cities, towns, etc., or demolish them. To erect 
Courts of Admii'alty, exercise the office of Vice-Admiral, 
grant his Majesty lands under moderate quit rents, also 



charters to towns for holding fairs and markets. To 
appoint ports & harbours & erect Custom houses. If a 
Deputy-Governor die, immediately to certify his ]\Iajesty 
thereof & appoint one in his place till his Majesty's pleasure 
be known ; & in case he die, the Deputy-Governor of Nevis 
shall take on him the Government till his Majesty's pleasure 
be known. And his Majesty's commission or letters patent 
of 6"" Dec. 1669 to Lord Willoughby as to what concerns 
the government of the aforesaid islands are hereby deter- 
mined & revoked, but remain in full force as to the Govern- 
ment of Barbadoes & the other Caribbee Islands not above 
mentioned. ('Calendar of Colonial Papers,' p. 158.) 

1671, Jan. 31. (? 1670-1.) Instructions to Sir Clias. 
Wheeler, Bart., Governor of the Leeward Islands, in 
21 articles. 

To repair to Nevis, call together the Council, cause his 
commission to be read, administer the oaths, & supply' 
vacancies in the Council, taking care they be men of estate 
& ability & "not much in debt." Not to augment nor 
diminish the number of councillors, nor suspend any mem- 
ber without good cause, to be forthwith transmitted to his 
Majesty. To send a list of the respective councils, also 
copies of laws. Not to displace any judges or other officers 
without good cause, or execute by himself or by deputy any 
of said offices, or suffer any person to execute more offices 
than one by deputy. To regulate salaries, fees, etc. No 
man's life, member or freehold to be taken away or harmed, 
but by laws agreeable to those of England. The oaths of 
allegiance & supremacy to be dispensed with, except to 
members & officers of the council, some other way being 
found of securing allegiance ; and no man to be molested in 
the exercise of his I'eligion, but lie is enjoined to the pro- 
fession of the Protestant religion as practised in England. 

Drunkenness, debauchery, swearing, & blasphemy to be 
discouraged & punished, & none to be admitted to public 
trust whose ill-fame may bring scandal thereon. All 
planters & Christian servants to be well armed & trained, & 
an inventory of arms, ammunition & stores sent to his 
Majesty. Also an account of the numbers of masters, 
servants & slaves in each of the islands, a yearly account of 
the increase or decrease of goods imported or exported, & of 
the rates & duties payable in the respective islands, what 
profits or revenues arise to his Alajesty & how accounted 
for. To give encouragement to merchants, and in par- 
ticular to the Royal African Compauy. To give account 
from time to time of the wants, defects, products & im- 
provements of the respective islands ; and to cause the late 
treaty concluded at Madrid y^th July 1670, to be published 
within 8 months from the 4§th Oct. 1670, or sooner if he 
can agree with the Spanish governors there, & at the same 
time to revoke all commissions & letters of reprisal to the 
prejudice of the King of Spain or his subjects, & to observe 
all articles of the said treaty. To take present order for the 
advantage of the islands not herein provided for, provided 
he do not declare war without his Majesty's particular com- 
mands. In regard S' Christopher's is best seated for 
Government, he is recommended to remove thither, as soon 
as that part which the English possessed on tlie 1'' Jan. 
1665-6, before the late war with France, shall be dehvered 
up to him. (' Calender of Colonial Pajjers,' p. 159.) 

1671, Feb. 14. (? 1670-1.) Report of the Council for 
Plantations to the King, concerning the government of the 
Leeward Islands. In pursuance of his Majesty's commands 
have prepared a commission & instructions for Sir Chas. 
Wheler, Governor of the Ijeeward Island, & transmitted 
copies the 2P' Jan. last to Lord Arlington for his Majesty's 
approbation. That Sir Chas. may have power to appoint 
Deputy Governors in the islands under his command, & for 
his better maintenance the £700 per annum arising by the 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xlv 



farm of the -tj fier cent, of said islands, together with all 
profits heretofore enjoyed by the Governor of Nevis, pro- 
vided that when S' Christopher's can contribute towards 
maintaining a governor there, the £700 per annum cease ; 
that the Master of the Ordnance deliver to Sir Chas. 22 
cannon, 1,000 muskets with swords, ammunition, etc., & 2 
drawbridges ready framed, the muskets swords and bando- 
liers to be paid for by the planters in 2 years, & the cannon 
to be returned in case the French restore the 30 pieces they 
formerly took from the English there, & that he may also 
have a ketch ; that the Treasury, by virtue of some Privy 
Seal dormant, may pay him £400 for extraordinary ex- 
penses, but not to be drawn into a precedent ; & that Sir 
Tobias Bridge's 4 companies of foot now in Nevis, Mont- 
serrat, & Antigua be reduced to 2 companies of 80 men 
each, besides officers, & settled in S' Christopher's for 1 
year, in his Majesty's pay under Sir Chas. Wheeler's com- 
mand. ('Colonial Entry Book,' No. xciv., p. 86 ; 
see ' Colonial Calendar,' p. 188.) 

Feb. 24. Sir Chas. Wheeler instructed to retain Col. 
Stapleton the Dep. Gov'' of Montserrat. 

March 27. Minutes of Council of Antigua. Resolved, 
on receipt of his Excellency's letter from London of the 26"" 
Nov. 1670, importing his approbation of the way of govern- 
ment of the Council after the decease of Col. Byam ; that 
the monthly courts be kept by the Justices, & execution 
granted as formerly ; that no jury court be held till further 
order from his Excellency, but that the Judges issue out 
attachments on all judgments ; that in case any person 
refuse to pay the levies per acre for the public treasury, the 
act be put in execution, & that payments out of the public 
treasury be ordered by the President, one of the Council, & 
one of the Assembly. (' Colonial Papers,' vol. xxv., No. 55 ; 
see ' Colonial Calendar,' p. 188.) 

1671. Nevis. William Edmundson* and Thomas 
Briggs accompanied with some others from Barbadoes and 
Antigua, where they had been labouring in the Ministry of 
the Gospel, found themselves inclined to visit also this 
Island, came thither in a small Vessel), and cast Anchor 
near the Shore ; but a Mai'shal soon came on board with 
orders from the Govcrnoiir, that none should come on shore 
till he knew whence the Vessel came, and who were in her : 
So they were all staid on board till the Governour had In- 
formation who they were ; upon which he presently sent an 
OflBcer and Soldiers on board, with strict Charge, that none 
of them should go on shore, nor any come from shore to 
speak with them, on Penalty of a great Fine. But several 
of their Friends nevertheless, who dwelt there, went on 
Board, where they held a Meeting by Consent of the owner 
of the Vessel, Colonel Wenthrop, one of their Persuasion, 
who had been Governour of Antigua, and came with them 
from thence. The Governour sent for the Master of the 
Vessel, who was not a Quaker, and bound him in a Bond of 
£1000 Sterling to carry them back to Antigua. While they 
lay at Anchor one Colonel Stapleton, who was Governour of 
MontseiTat, came on Board, and William Edmundson com- 
plained to him, saying. It was very hard Usage, that they 
being Englishmen, and coming so far as they had done to 
visit their Countrymen, could not be admitted to come 
on shore, and refresh themselves, within King Charles' 
Dominions, after so long a Voyage. To which the Colonel 
answered, that It was true ; but said he, we hear that since 
your Coming to the Caribbee-Islands, there are seven Hun- 
dred of our Militia turned Quakers and the Quakers will 
not fight, and we have Need of Men to fight, being sur- 
rounded with Enemies, and that is the very Reason why 

* He was a noted Quaker preacher at Barbados in 1675. 



Governour Wheeler will not suffer you to come on shore. 
Accordingly by Order of the Governour they were carried 
back to Antigua, where they were received with Gladness, 
and their Testimony accepted by many. (Besse.) 

1671. The earliest book containing the Minutes 
of the Council of Antigua commences this year, but 
no co^Dy of it exists at the Hecord Office in London. 
The oi-iginal is kept in the Court House at St. John's. 

On .3 April at a meeting of the Council at the house of 
Capt. Sam' Winthrope a letter was read from Col. Jas. 
Russell the Dep. Gov of Nevis " importing y' y<^ Capt. of 
the pleasure boate had at Dominica entertained on board 
his Shipp severall Indians of y' Island & at their departure 
shott a Gunn at y'^ Periagua, by which means he killed 
seaven of y'' s'' Indians, as he himselfe reported. Nor for 
y' if the report be true it may proove a breatch of y" pease 
a mischiefe to y'= King's subjects in y" Leeward Islands and 
a dishonour to our Nation." " It is ordered that a sloope 
be forthwith hired, y' shee be victualled to entertain six 
soldiers and a Commander, y' foure barrells of Rum & Two 
hundred pounds of Tobacco l)e sent in her for a pres' and y' 
shee be with all speede despatched to the Island Dominica 
to renewe our ft-iendship with them." There had been a 
previous meeting of the Council at Major Nath' Clarke's 
house, at which were present Cap. Sam' Winthrope, Col. 
Phil. Warner, L' Col. Bastian Baijer & Serj* Major Nath' 
Gierke when a letter was read from the Gov^ dated at 
London 26 Nov. 1670 after the death of Col. Byam. On 3 
Ap. Serj' Major Nath' Clarke & Lieut. Paul Lee were paid 
3000 lbs. of tobacco for mending & fixing y Court House 
at Falmouth & L' Col. Bastian Bayer 1500 lbs for the 
Court House at S' Johns. Jonas Lankford was also paid 
245 lbs. for attending to Jacob Tearne (?) & family. 

Two persons for each Division were also chosen to take 
care for the relief of the poor viz. : — 

For 
Maj'' Rich. Burraston & L' 

AVm. Proctor . . . Falmouth & Rendesvouz Bay. 
Jn° Parry & Ensign Fra. 

Gifford .... Willoughby Bay. 
Cap. Leavens & Serj*- Dan' 

Pello .... South part of Nonsuch. 
Cap. Eyres & Wm. Fullam . North side of Nonsuch. 
Maj'' Gierke & M'' Jn" Vernon North Sound. 
Cap. Rowl<i Williams & Cap. 

Jn° Cade .... Road & Leeward. 
Cap. Harvy Keynell & Ed- 
mund Hull . . . S' Johns. 
L' Jn" Fry & M' Geo. 

Hawkins .... Barmudian Valley & New. 
M'' Rise Morgon & Wm. 

Hemmings . . . Five Islands & 
Wm. Hill & Jn" Skelton . Dickinsons Bay. 
L' Wm. Thomas & Ensign 

Pet. AVillcock . . . Popeshead Landing place. 
L' Tho. Parker & Ensign 

Roger Seldon . . . New North Sound. 

On 12 April the Hon. Cap. Sam' Winthrope is mentioned 
as the President of the Council, who that day met at Madam 
Byam's house. 

On 18 April Rich. Belcher & L* Paul Lee were chosen 
joint Treasurers. 

May 15. Sir Chas. Wheeler the new Gov'' is shortly 
expected, but he appears not to have arrived till later, as he 
wrote home from Nevis ^\ July to their lordships & pre- 
sided for the first time at Antigua on 18 July, when he ad- 



xlvi 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



ministered the oatlis of allegiance to all the members of the 
Council viz. : — 

Col. Pliilip Warner, President. 

L'-Col. Nathi Clerk. Serj'-Maj-- Rowld Williams. 

Cap. Rich. Eyres. L* W"' Thomas. 

Cap. Jn" Cade. Ju" Parry. 

June 7. Barbadoes. Sir Tho. Lynch L' Gov of Jamaica 
to Sec. Lord Arlington. 
Wrote from Madeira, whence they sailed about 1^' May, 
& arrived here but on Wednesday last. Sir Ch. Wheeler & 
the Welcome sailing heavily. Found 40 or .50 great ships 
in port to load home sugar, & a small ketch of the King's, 
the Eaglet, that was to wait on Lord Willoughby's planta- 
tion at Antigua, but since those islands have been lopped 
from his government, she is ordered hither .... Nobody 
here thinks of S' Kitts or the Leeward Isles, but judges it 
oleum et opera perdere to endeavour their settlement; 
yesterday had an address from some principals of Antigua 
about their coming to Jamaica .... Col. Christopher Cod- 
rington, my Lord's deputy, being of a debonaire, liberal 
humour, a native, & a planter, they have been kind to, 
giving him, in the 2J years he has commanded, 3 or 
400,000 lbs. of sugar. 

('Colonial Papers,' vol. xxvi.. No. 71 ; see 
' Colonial Calendar,' p. 223.) 

June 1 .5. Nevis. Sir Tho. Lynch L' Gov'' of Jamaica, to 
Sec. Lord Arlington. 
Stood in with Dominica on their way to caress the chief 
Lidian Governor, Warner, that he might continue his 
friendship to the English, but he was not on the coast, & 
they passed on to Montserrat, where were 7 or 8 vessels. 
Governor Stapleton was gone to Nevis to marry Lt.-Col. 
Russell's daughter. The masters told them most of the 
produce of that island & Antigua was carried to Statia by 
the Dutch, & that last year they fetched thence in sloops 
near 400,000 lbs. tobacco.. Montserrat better peopled tinxn 
ever, having 3 or 400 that belong to S- Christopher's. An- 
tigua has some, but most intend thence for .Jamaica, finding 
it impossible to settle that island. Hears there are near 
3,500 men in all these islands. Arrived at Nevis on Sunday 
last, & ne.xt day Sir Chas. (Wheeler) & his lady were lodged 
at a house Gov. Russell prepared for them .... 

(' Colonial Papers,' vol. xxvi., No. 73 ; see ' Colonial 
Calendar,' America and West Indies, p. 227.) 

Sept. 13. Minutes of Council of Antigua. Present — 
Col. Philip Warner GoV^. L' Col. Nath. Gierke, Maj^ 
Row. Williams, Capts. Rich* Ayres, Paul Lee, Jno. Cade, 
& W™ Thomas & Jno. Parry. The Governor's Com- 
mission from his Excellency Sir Chas. Wheeler read ; Jno. 
Parry & Capt. Renatus Ennis, sworn Sec. & Prov. Marshall ; 
commissions for gentlemen of the Council to be .Justices of 
the Peace. Ordered, that the churches of Falmouth & S' 
John's be speedily set forward ; that the Monthly Courts, 
a Court of Chancery, the General Sessions of the Peace, & 
the Courts of Common Pleas, be held as formerly ; that a 
special Court be held & a jury empannelled in behalf of the 
King on the first Tuesday in Jan. next at the town of Fal- 
mouth, to try the titles & forfeitures of land not settled, 
according to the Act, & that a strong prison be built at 
Falmouth at the public charge. 

(' Colonial Papers,' vol. xxv.. No. 55 ; see ' Colonial 
Calendar,' America and West Indies, p. 257.) 

Dec. 9. Answer of Sir Chas. Wheler, Gov'' of the Leeward 
Islands, to the inquiries of the Council for Foreign 
Plantations. 
In every island under his Government there is a Council, 

which he will complete to 12. Assemblies are called as the 



Governor sees occa.sion. The courts of judicature are- 
monthly courts or quarterly sessions, the former held by the 
justice of the peace of the division (always one of the 
Council) ; with 2 of the Assembly assistants, for all suits 
under the value of 1000 lbs. of sugar ; if they exceed that, 
appeal is to the sessions, where are heard all criminal causes 
& matters touching the Crown ; the Governor (or next in 
rank) is Judge, Chancellor & Bishop, with all the Council 
on the Bench, & the Assembly beneath. Council & Assembly 
sit bare ; the Council speak, the Assembly when the 
Governor calls on any of them, as is usual in merchants 
business, most of them having been merchants ; but judg- 
ment is given only by the . Governor. The manner of 
proceeding is cheap & short ; 2 days are appointed for en- 
tering actions, of which all men take notice, & plaintiff & 
defendant are asked whether they will abide the judgment 
of the court or have a jury empannelled. After judgment 
follows an execution, mentioning first the person's ready 
sugar, next his grindable canes, then his person, & if after 
6 months' imprisonment the debt be not satisfied, his estate 
to be sold at an outcry. The Office of High Sheriff in 
England bears the name of the Provost Marshal. 

The executive power is wholly in himself & his L* 
Governors & subordinate oftiuurs in ecclesiastical, civil & 
military affairs. Antigua has a regiment of 900 Eoglish in 
8 companies, under Col. Philip Warner, L' Gov'', son to Sir 
Tho. Warner, who settled all those islands for the King & 
sent out a colony for Barbadoes ; there is no troop of horse, 
but a very good & numerous breed of horses ; the English 
male children under 12 are lod. 

One or two platforms in Antigua, 6 or 8 pieces of bad 
cannon there & at Montserrat. The commodities are sugar 
chiefly ; tobacco in great quantity in Antigua, so much 
indigo & cotton that he hopes his Majesty will favour them 
in the prohibition of Cyprus cotton & East Inula Indigo. 
Saltpetre might be made in abundance in Autlgua & possibly 
elsewhere. No river or harbour in all his Government but 
in Antigua & therefore he is abandoned by all shipping 
about the hurricane season. There may be 40 parishes in 
his Government, to supply which he found one drunken 
orthodox priest, one drunken sectary priest, & one drunken 
parson who had no orders. About 40 ships come yearly 
chiefly from Bristol. Nevis is the most considerable of 
these islands, Antigua & Montserrat sending their freight 
there in shallops. Hopes the King will think of Antigua ; 
'tis as large as Barbadoes & the best land in the West 
Indies ; Falmouth & English Harbours, divided only by a 
neck of land, which may be cut through with inconsiderable 
charge, & are so land locked as to be out of danger of 
hurricanes. The Dover Castle which Col. Strode lets to the 
King for the use of Sir Chas. Wheler's Government, suffered 
no harm, tho' the hurricane was as violent as ever was 
known which should persuade the improvement of English 
Harbour & settling that quarter of the island. Has already 
moved that the Royal Company may bring negroes ; at 
least 4000 are wanted, for by negroes only can that island 
be planted till it be cleared of wood for more health for the 
English. 

(' Colonial Papers,' vol. xxvli., No. 52 ; see ' Colonial 
Calendar,' America and West Indies, p. 287.) 

On 10 Februaiy 1671-2 was issued a commission 
to Lieut.-Colouel William Stapleton as Captain- 
General, vice Sir Charles Wheeler recalled. 

Cap' Samuel Winthrop writing from Antigua 23 2^ mo. 
1672 to his brother says: "I suppose thou hast heard y' 
last yeare one S'' Charles Wheeler by some meanes procured 
a com'ission for to be generall over theis leward Cariba 
Islands. His actions here have so displeased y^ King that 
they are disowned by pulilique proclamac'on, to his great 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. xlvii 



dishonor. Y'^ Lord Willoughby is comeing againe, a man of 
a much better temper. By his last letter to me I suppose 
he may now be at sea." 

1672. Lord Willoughby was still in England the 
early part of 1672, making j^reparations for going 
out to his government at Barbados, which had now 
been severed from the Leeward Islands. He sends 
his — 

Proposalls concerning the "West Indies Apr. 8, 1672. 

That 10 great Gunns 1000 firelocks 1000 swords be sent 
with Amunition, and other apparel suitable for the use of 
Antego and Moiitserratt. 

"The Englisli & French ships are to sail out together 
on account of the Dutch AVar. A 5"' rate frigate should be 
stationed at the Leeward Islands & another at Barbados." 

He wrote again on 3 Jnly from Portsmouth about 
his new commission, and arrived, after a voyage of 
11 weeks, at Barbados on 13 October 1672. Petitions 
for £3000 a year for necessaries, and states that his 
late son Henry, whom he made Lieut. -General for 
life of the Leeward Islands, served four or five years 
and spent £5000 st. in His Majesty's service but 
never received a penny. 

Sir Charles Wheeler, the superseded Governor, 
having returned home, was present at their Lord- 
ships' meeting on 29 November 1672, when he pro- 
ceeded to give his account of affairs on the 7th and 
10th November previous, and stated : — 

That at S' Christophers there were 2 Companies of Foot 
& 200 of English, Irish & Dutch as also 120 Frenchmen 
mean fellows wlio had taken the oath to our King. At 
Mevis was the whole strength of the Leeward Islands, 1200 
musketeers & GO horse. At Montserrat 800, all Irish & 
" men of no great courage & discipline." " That in Antego 
though there might bee, 6 or 800 English yett they are 
generally very meaue and live much scattered there being 
no security at all for tb.em upon the arrival of any Enemy. 
That the Land & Harbours are good but no part thereof 
fortified." The French have at S' Christophers 1500 
musketteers & 200 horse. 

It appears that Sir Charles Wheeler had been 
unsuccessful in obtaining the rendition of St. 
Christopher's, and it may have been on this account 
that he incurred the king's displeasure. By the 
Treaty of Breda, dated 21-31 July 1667, that part of 
St. Christopher's which the English possessed on 
1 January 1665, before the late war, was to be 
restored to them. Accordingly on 13 February 
1667-8 His Majesty commissioned William, Lord 
Willoughby of Parham (his Captain-General), 
Colonel Lewis Morrice, Colonel Robert Hooper, 
Lieut. -Colonel Symon Lambert, his deputies to 
receive back the island. His lordship i-eceived the 
dispatch at Montserrat on 26 April 1668 and at once 
returned to Nevis, and sent Colonel Drake and 
Lieut. -Colon el Stapleton on the following day to the 
Chevalier de St. Laurence the French Governor of 
St. Christopher's. The Chevalier, fencing the 
question, rephed that he could do nothing in the 
absence of De la Barre, the Lieut. -General, who was 
then at Guadaloupe. The French kept on promising. 



shifting, and delaying the carrying out of the Treaty, 
so much so that Lord Willoughby's patience being 
exhausted, he, on 2 May 1668, made his public pro- 
test, in the presence of Lieut. -Colonel Stapleton 
and Captain Philip Payne, by Francis Sampson his 
Secretary. The French were in the meanwhile 
spoiling the houses and lands, and carrying off 
timber, mills, and negros. On 3-13 May 1668 Lord 
Willoughby sent to Monsieur de la Barre, and 
received his answer dated 8-18 May 1668 from 
Guadaloupe. On 15-25 May the latter also made 
his protest to Colonel Russell, Deputy-Governor of 
Nevis, and claimed 600,000 lbs. for the dyet of 
prisoners, also large sums for various improvements 
effected on the English plantations. It was finally 
evident that the two Chief Governors could not come 
to terms, the French absolutely refusing to give up 
the island. Sir Charles Wheeler seems to have been 
as unsuccessful in the negotiations as his lordship 
had been, so he and De la Barre referi-ed their 
articles, dated 23 November and 3 December 1671, 
to their respective kings for their decision. After 
a good deal of diplomatic correspondence between 
St. James and Versailles, Louis XIV. sent out 
peremptory orders to his Governor to carry out the 
Treaty. 

By a printed Proclamation, issued from the 
African House in Throgmorton Street on 28 
December, the African Company* offered to deliver 
slaves at Nevis, for the Leeward Islands, at the price 
of £16 st. per head ; for which they would accept 
payment at the rate of 4s. for a piece of eight, and 
£17 St. for 2400 lbs. 

Acts, signed by Philip Warner, Deputy-Governor, 
and Samuel Irish, Sjjeaker, were passed on 14 
August for recompensing masters for the value of 
all slaves killed or maimed in the service of the 
country, and for confirming all marriages solemnized 
by any J. P. 

Persons going a crabbing by torchlight or smoking 
pipes near sugar canes were to be fined 1000 lbs. 

Land crabbs were considered a delicacy by some 
people. 

In March Charles 11. declared war against the 
United Provinces. One of the clauses in the declara- 
tion recites that the Dutch had violated the Treaty 
of Breda, by preventing the withdrawal of the Eng- 
lish colonists from Surinam, and imprisoning one of 
them, Major Banister. This was perfectly true, the 
Dutch certainly opposed the departure of the settlers, 
on the plea that many of them were in debt ; but 
they no doubt cast a covetous eye on the goods and 
possessions of the English, whose estates had to be 
sold at any price they would fetch. On 6 April 
Louis also declared war against Holland. William, 
Lord Willoughby, was at this time in England pre- 
paring for his departure to Barbados. 

* The African Company having surrendered their Charter to the 
Crown, a fourth Company was incorporated, with the title of Royal 
African Company; their capital, £110,0011, was raised by subscrip- 
tion in nine months. The King and the Duke of York were among 
the subscribera. 



xlviii 



THE HISTOEY OF ANTIGUA. 





Men able to 






bear arms. 


Negroe 


There were ia : 






S' Christophers . 


49G 


352 


Nevis 


1411 


1739 


Montserat . 


1175 


523 


Antigua 


— 


570 


AnguilJa . 


500 


— 



(Southey.) 

Jan. 11. (? 1671-2.) Minutes of the Council of An- 
tigua. Ordered, that no complaint be tried at the monthly 
courts for any sum exceeding 500 lbs. of sugar or tobacco. 
That the firing of 2 guns at night & 3 in the day be an 
alarum, ujion which all persons from 12 to GO years of age 
are, on a penalty of a grievous fine, to repair with their 
arms well fixed, & at least a dozen shot of powder & ball to 
the places appointed, & there remain till dismissed by a field 
officer of the regiment. No persons to remove out of his 
company, without certificate from their Captain, on penalty 
of forfeiting 100 lb. of tobacco. Rules and orders to be 
observed for the despatch of suits in the Court of Chancery. 
(' Colonial Calendar,' America and West 
Indies, p. 315.) 

May 25. W" Stapleton's commission as Cap' Gen' was 
read at Nevis, also Sir Chas. Wheeler's revocation, which 
were both issued on 20 Dec. 1071. 

May 27. Col. W. Staplecon, Gov'' to the Council for 
Plantations. 

The Cai-ibbee Indians have lately broken the peace made 
with Lord Willoughby, having killed 2 & left for dead 2 
more of his Majesty's subjects in Antigua, where .SO of them 
are in the woods. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' America and West 
Indies, p. 3C4.) 

July 17. Gov. Stapleton to the Council for Trade & 
Foreign Plantations : 
Antigua & Montserrat lost 1300 negros taken away by 
the French in 1660. In Antigua there is a regiment of foot 
& 2 troops of horse militia. The commodities are sugar, 
indigo, tobacco, cotton, wool & ginger ; most of the islands 
destitute of timber, Antigua only excepted. No salt- 
petre but in the Savanna of Antigua & that hardly worth 
the carriage home. Two rivulets. 4 harbours. No slaves 
from the Royal Company have been ))rought these 7 years ; 
to Montserrat & Antigua have been brought 300 by licensed 
ships. No ministers nor schoolmasters except at Nevis. 
Encloses Account of the Island of Antigua. 

Col. Philip Warner, Dep. Governor. 
Council. 
Naty Clarke, L'-Col. to a regiment of foot. 
Rowland Williams, Serjeant- Major. 
Rich'i Ayers, .John Cade & W"" Thomas, 

Captains of companies of foot. 
Capt. Paul Lee, " L' to my own company." 
John Parry, Secretary. 

40,000 acres of land by estimation, 10.52 armed men, 
570 slaves, 10 barrels of gunpowder, 8 guns & loO horse. 

July 30. Minutes of the Council. 
Ordered, that one fort be built in Falmouth Harbour, 
if leasable, & the other in S' John's Harbour ; that 1 negro 
out of every 8 throughout the island be appointed to work 
thereon ; & that all said negroes be ready at the said forts 
on the first Monday in Sept. nest, each with an axe & a 
bill ; that an under overseer be hired for each of the forts, 
& that any person refusing or neglecting to send his propor- 



tion of slaves be committed to gaol till he give security to 
answer such contempt at the next general sessions. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' America and West Indies, p. 397.) 

Dec. 10. Gov' Stapleton to the Council for Plantations. 
Came yesterday from Antigua. Has caused 2 small 
forts to be erected on little islands in S' John's & Falmouth 
Harbours, tho' they want great guns & ammunition, which 
places, if well fortified, will be of great consequence & 
safety to English ships. 

All the rest of the islands have but open roads. 

Dec. 14. Sir Chas. Wheler's account of the present state 
of the Leeward Islands. 
On Antigua are about 800 English ; found a Quaker 
President of the Council, who refusing the oaths of allegiance 
& supremacy, he commissioned Col. Warner, Governor, a 
worthy gentleman, son to Sir Thos. Warner, to whose in- 
dustry is owing all the Plantations of Barbadoes & the Lee- 
ward Islands. Cannot see how this island can be defended, 
even from incursions of the savages, by reason of its great- 
ness & many places of easy landing, till it be more peopled, 
foi', by the extent & richness of the soil it may contain 
20,000 planters besides their slaves. Has been made to 
believe there are 2 harbours, Falmouth & English, so land- 
locked as to be out of danger of the hurricanes, and that 
his Majesty's third rate ships may ride well ; yet there is no 
trusting the King's fleet there, for the Dover Castle yacht 
went ashore in a storm in Sei)t. 1071, but the two harbours, 
separated only by a neck of land, may be cut through with 
inconsiderable charge, & very probably a harbour made there. 



Anteffua. 



State of the Leeward Islands 1672. 
Two files of men in pay — a file in Falmouth fort 

& another in S' Johns. 
A troope of 33 men. 

A Reg' of 770 men divided into Ten Companies. 
Three Platforms called Forts one at S' .Johns 
Harb"', Falmouth Harb'', Carlisle Road. Guns 
sixteen. 

20,000 not manurable. 
70,000 land in part manured. 
50,000 land lying waste. 
3,000 Akers in it little 
Islands Adjunct. 
Five Townes. S' Johns & 



28 miles in length. 
20 in breadth. 
120,000 Akers. 
10,000 manurable. 



Blacks. 
Estates. 



Ships 

Sloops. 
Duties 

Export. 

Import. 



Six places of Trade. 

Falmouth. 
Six Precincts, One Church, Ten divisions. 
Two Rivulets, four Harb" S' Johns, five Islands, 

Falmouth & English Harb'^ 13 good Bayes, 

Creekes & Inletts. 
They give from 3500 to 40o0i'» sugar or 20''' & 

22"' sterl. per Bills of Exchange. 
The Planters Personall Estates consist in Negroes, 

Horses, Cattle, Coppers, Stills, Cases, Mills and 

other Utensils. 
The Reall Estates in lands etc. and what ever is 

affixed to y'' freehold. 
Value of Estates £07,000. 
Trading to & from The Leeward Islands are 100 

from 15 to 200 tons. 
24. 
of 4-|- p'' cent, upon goods of the growth of the 

Country. 
And the duty imposed upon Ships not bound for 

England. 
200"^^ Sug'' per pipe upon Madera Wines, Spanish 

& Portugall and 50"'' Sug"' per HHd. on french 

Wines, which is applyed to y'= maintaining of 

Forts, etc. 
The 4i per cent, applyed to y^ Excheq''. 



EEOM RESTOPtATION OF CHAELES II. TO ABDICATION OE JAMES II. xlix 



Religion. The Protestant is piibliquely professed and em- 
braced by y*' Maj' part. In Nevis & Antigua 
ab' 60 Qualiers. Tlie Protestant Relig. is as 8 
to one in Gen''. 
Mem''"' The Ministers do not take care to catechize. 
Churches. 2. 

(Egerton MS. 239.5, fo. 525.) 

The State of the Leeward Islands by S'' Chas. Wheeler. 
Antego. Had (! or 800 Eng. meane people & scattered. 
The laud unfortified though It & y"^ Harl/ be 
very good. 
A Reg' of foot & two troops of horse Militia. 
40,000 Acres of Land. 1052 armed men. 100 
horse. 570 Negroes. 

An Extract of Points relating to the Defence Trade & 
Security of the Leew'' Islands. 

Harlour. S'' C. Wheeler, in his account of the Leew'' Islands 
14 Dec. 72 does represent that Antego has 
Falmouth Haven and the English Haven so 

Antego. contiguous that the Neck of laud between them 

may be cutt through and make a Good Harb' 
against Hurricanes. As the King of france has 
done at Martinico at GO, 000 livres E.\pence. 
Coll. Byam to the L-i Willoughby B. F. p. & 
does declare Autigoa to be of the greatest con- 
sequence of any for its situation & harbors 
wliereby lying to Windward it may be a Curb 
to the french & Dutch if care be taken for its 
subsistence. 

Leeivi S"" C. Wheeler for y'= safety of y^ L'' Isl. desired a 

Islands. Power to call a Generall Assembly of all y^ 
Islands into one. 
M'' Gorge in his Paper read in Councill 17 March 
1G72 does propose for the snpply of sugar 
Plantac'ons that the Scotch may be permitted 
a free Trade thither. And to goe & settle on 
those Plantac'ons. 

Gunns And of Great Guns for y'' Forts C'olJ. Stapleton 

Antego. has erected at S' Johns Harb'' & Falmouth 

Harb'' w<^'' will secure all y'^ Shipping of y'= 
Leew'' Islands. 

{Ibid, fo. 531.) 

1673. The following- Memorial was recorded in 
1673 in the Council Book at St. Johns : — 

To the Kings Most Excellent Majesty. 
The Humble Petition of the Representatives of his Ma'ties 

Islands S' Christophers, Nevis, Mouutserrat & Antigua 

Most humbly Sheweth 
How that we yo'^ Ma'ties Petisouers together w"" the 
rest of yC Ma'ties faithfull and Loyall Subjects Residing in 
these Remote Terretories of y'' Ma'ties Dominions, and 
newly breathing from under y'' many hard and grinding 
pressures of "^^ late warr, and by Gods Speciall blessing upon 
our Second endeavours and the freedom of trade w"" our 
native Country have obtained to some reasonable competency 
of a comfortable Subsistance, and some probable hopes of 
being Serviceable to yo' Ma'tie in Sending some good 
quantity of loaden Shipps to our native Country w*^'" by 
Gods blessing we did y° last yeare to -^^ number of one 
hundred Sayle w'^'' blooming hopes of the like Continuance 
■was soon blasted this present yeare for wante of Shippes to 
transport Comodities as formerly w'' we cannot reasonably 
impute to any other cause but to y'= timourness of the Mer- 
chants to adventure their Ships in these dangerous times of 
warr w"' out Some provision made for theire safety and 
defence, many of them haveing been this yeare Surprized by 
y"^ Dutch Privateers which l)y reason of yo'' Ma'ties Ships 



lying at y= Barbados dare not to lye there, but were driven 
down hither where they may accomplish theire ends w"i 
more freedome and safety ; for the prevension whereof if 
it may please yo'' gracious Ma'tie for these Eusueiug yeares 
to Spare us a small frigott or two to convoy y^ Merchantmen 
Safe to us, and to Secure the Coast from such picking men 
of warr as (Jommonly lies in waite of Surprise them, it 
would not raise our heartes to an high pitcl) of thaukfullness 
to yo"' Ma'tie but we doubt not alsoe but that yo'' Ma'tie will 
receive y' fruites of our industrious endeavours in yo'' Juste 
and due revenue. May it farther please yo'' Gracious Ma'tie 
to accept our Humble request for yo'' Gracious assistance for 
the future populas'on of these Islands, w"^" doe consist of 
more unsettled land by many degress than is yet settled, w'^'' 
is that yo'' Ma'tie would Graciously please to give all due 
encouragement to all Merchants for bringing over what 
white people may be well spared from yo'' Ma'ties more im- 
portant Service whereby we may be more enabled to Stand 
in the ballance w"' our powerfull neighbours who are yearely 
supplyed w"' four or five good Ships of warr to their greate 
Safety and encouragement. And Especially that yo'' Ma'tie 
haveing Comissionated many noble and worthy p'sons for y<= 
sujDply of these partes w"' Negroes from Affrica whose 
assistance hitherto hath been but little in y respect of y« 
great quantity of unselled land, That yo'' Ma'tie would 
graciously pleased to lay your injunction of them to sende 
some considerable quantity thereof to these Islands, for 
whose good paym': and honest entertainm' : wee are ready 
to engage our Estates and foi'tunes, and doubt not thereby 
to be in such a Capacity to render ourselves as serviceable 
and bonefidee to yo'' JIa'ties Service & Revenue as any otiier 
of these fruitfull Islands. 

May it further yo'' Most gracious Ma'tie to accept our 
humble & harty thanks for yo'' Gracious acceptance of us 
into yo' Ma'ties protection by y" act of y"^ Lord Francis 
Willoughby, intituled y" act of foure and a halfe p'' Cent y\"=^ 
we humbly request to be continued in the full and due tenor 
thereof and that y'= Seale in y^ Said act mens'oued being loste 
by our former Generall may be reneued to his Ex'cie our 
present Generall W'" Stapleton whose worth and good in yo'' 
Ma'ties alFayres here com'ands our .... humbly to Suppli- 
cate for his continuance ; But that high and signal clemency 
of yo'' Laited Ma'tie w'''' raiseth our harts to an altitude is 
that yo'' Ma'tie hath left yo'' Gracious profer of farmeing 
that impost w'^*' we cannot but acknowledge to proceed from 
yo'' Ma'ties superlative Grace. 

Wee humbly Supplicate yo'' Ma'tie to lend a favourable 
eare to our agant who hath received full and plenory 
Instructions from us to attend yo'' Ma'ties Comissioners on 
that behalfe whose actings therein in our behalfes Shall 
inviolably lye upon us, for the just and due p'formance 
thereof. 

Nath. Clerke. Sam. Irish. 

John Estridge. Theod. Loyerawne. 

Walter Symonds. Jn° Nbthway. 

Anth° Hodges. Jn" Bramley. 

In December, John Atkins, Thomas Darlow, Henry 
Graydon, and Edward Martin (Quakers), were commanded 
by Capt. Jeremiah Watkins to the Place appointed for 
Alarms, but because they refused to bear Arms, he caused 
them to be sent to Prison, and detained there nine Days. 
(Besse's ' Sufferings of the Quakers.') 

On 11 April Sir W'" Stapleton drew the attention of the 
merchants to the fact, that he required bond to be taken 
from all vessels trading with England. 

By Stat. 25 Car. II. c. 7. " If any ship or vessel shall 
come to any of his Majesty's plantations to ship any sugars, 
tobacco, etc., and bond shall not be first given to bring the 



1 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



•same to England, there shall be answered to the King 
several duties before lading thereof, and under such penalties 
as for nonpayment or defrauding the King of his customs in 
England." (Southey.) 

April 26. Sir James Russell wrote : that Capt. Ashton, 
in his government of Antigua, for reasons known to himself, 
did make a law that all lands & negroes should be inheri- 
tance. It happened after that some ships came & put off 
their negroes at days prefixed, the time was expired & the 
merchants expected payment, but the planters failed, they 
sued for their goods or to have their negroes again, which 
■would not be granted, being an Act for inheritance, but they 
should be extended & put to hire for so much a year, so that 
the merchant in 7 years could not get his principal, which 
brought such an odium on that island that none during his 
time would trade there any more, & proved the ruin of that 
island. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' America and West 
Indies, p. 484.) 

1674, March 30. 
The Humble adress of the Governor and Councill of Antigua 
to his Excellency William Stapleton Capt" Generall 
and Governor in Chiefe in and over all his Ma'ties 
Leeward Carriby Islands. 
May it please yo'' Excellency 

Wee have this day Consulted and Considered of his 
Mat'ies Gratious order and declaration dated at White Hall 
the tenth day of May 1672, by which certaine Clauses and 
provision in Several! acts of Parli'ment made ag' the 
tradeing with forreigners and imploying of foreign Shipps 
and wholely Suspended, and doe humbly conceive that it 
may be Lawfull for and will be benificiall to the people of 
this Island that Paulus Jolinson a Subject of the Kingdome 
of Sweden be admitted to come hither with his Siiipp and 
the Same to load giving Security to unload in this King- 
dome of England or Wales, and that He so doing can be 
noe way prejudiciall to his Ma'tie nor any his Ma'ties leige 
people but rather of advantage in regard the goods that will 
be loadcn on the s'd Ship will otherwise in all likely hood 
perish for that our English Shipps that trade here cannot 
well carry the production of what they bring. Wherefore we 
humbly Offer the premises to yo"' Excellencys consideration 
to do therein, as to yo'' better Judgem' shall Seeme meete, 
and Siiall not attempt the doeing anything in the premises 
untill we shall receive yo'' Excellencyes comand or per- 
■mission but waite your Excellencies pleasure. Antigua 30'" 
March 1G74. 

Phillip Warner. Paul Lee. John Cade. 

Eow. Williams. Nath. Clerke. John Parry. 

Jere. Watkins. Richard Ayres. 

(Minute Book, St. John's.) 

Colonel Philip Warner, who succeeded Captain 
Samuel Winthrop as Deputy-Governor of the island, 
■was about to depart for England on his private 
affairs, as the following letter shews : — 

Nevis the 16th of July 1674. 
S' — T have yours — the within Subscriptions of y^ 
Counsill concerning Coll. Fits his Estate to which I have 
not mucli to Say but what you have, I judge, received 
before, along with a permitt, y« 15"" of this instant for feare 
of Miscarriage, I send the inclosed, dated y|= le'" altho the 
permitt bee but for 8 Months, yet my Letter allows of 
twelve Months if need bee, if that does not come to your 
hand because the Vessell wherein Cap*- Fitcli and others are 
gone up in hath touched at Montserratt I doe by this Letter 
permitt you a twelve months absence & M' Towes but 8 



months it is better thus for me & you than to allow more in 
the Lettpasse. 

I doe authorize you to nominate & appoint Major Row- 
land Williams my deputy in your absence as President of 
y^ Counsil their & Commander of the Militia, I would not 
be the occasion of your Stay in y" Stopping the Boate no 
Longer than I write these Lines, I am now from Hog 
Valley so I can say nothing fro' thence. You are to give 
Major Williams a Coppie of those Instructions I formerly 
gave you, there are 30 od Dutchmen of Warr at Martinico, 
it is said they have Landed at j'^ Cul de Sac, if so negroes 
may be cheap. 

I am S'' your verie affectionate kinsman & Serv* 
W" Stapleton. 

His intended departure must have been post- 
poned, as he did not sail till after 30 April 1675. 

1674-5. Col. Stapleton wrote from Nevis 8 Feb. 167| 
that the Indians attacked Antigua last X'mas so he em- 
powered his Dep. Gov'' Col. Philip Warner with 6 small 
companies of foot to proceed to Dominico to punish the 
savages. Warner was successful, killed 80 Indians & 
carried off their Periagoes & canons : his reputed brother 
Indian Warner, the reputed natural son of Sir Tho. Warner 
fell amongst his fellow Heathens, who tho he had an English 
Com" yet was a great villain & took a French Com". He 
further writes on 17 Mar. 1674-5 & asks for the soldiers pay. 

On the 19th Feb. a treaty of peace was signed at 
Westminster between Chai'les II. and the Low 
Countries, and Surinam was ceded to the Dutch in 
exchange for the province of New York. 

Among some papers of 1686 is a list of the 
" Council & Assembly 7 May 1674 when Henderson 
was banished," viz. : — 



Maj"^ Tho. Mallett, Speaker. 

Cap' Roger Jones. 

SP Hen. Meyer. 

M'- Jac. Hill. 

M>- Rich. Abrahall. 

L' Jn" Campbell. 

Ensigne Jn" Brittaine. 

M'' Nath. Monk. 

M"" Jonas Watts. 

L' Wm. Proctor. 

(Colonial 



M' Rob' Hughes. 
Cap' OI)ed. Bradshaw. 
M' W"' Wainwright. 
M'' Jn" Moone. 
M' Jn° Bacon. 
M"- Jn» Ward. 
M^ Tho. Beck. 
M'' Wm. Pines. 
IP Arch. Cochran. 

Leeward Islands, No. 50.) 



All the above are evidently members of the 
Assembly, so that the list of the Council is not given. 

June 3. Petition of Ferdinando Gorges, agent for Col. 
Wm. Stapleton, Governor of the Leeward Islands. That 
his Majesty has allowed Col. Stapleton £700 per annum as 
Governor, & established 2 companies of foot in S' Christo- 
pher's, & that their pay should be £2,778 per annum, none 
of which has been paid since the 10th June 1671, by means 
whereof the soldiers are in great want of clothes & all other 
necessaries. (' Colonial Calendar,' America and West 

Indies, p. 589.) 

Nov. 23. Robert Jones at Guadaloupe to [J/rtwA-] 
M. Bovine, of S' Christophers : told him yesterday of a 
design the Indians have against Antigua, " this full of the 
moon." They told him that what they did last at Antigua 
was only to make an inspection, & they were resolved to do 
more mischief there yet. Fourteen days since M. Bovine 
had occasion to hire a periago of Indians on Grandterre, 
but they said they could not stay because they must go with 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. 



the rest of tho periagoes, to the number of 20, to war 
against Antigua, & desired him to spare them some arms & 
ammunition, & what purchase they took he should share ; 
which he denied them ; he also not long since saw them at 
their houses at Grandterre making ready & poisoning their 
arrows, & says they are Warner's Indians, as M. de Baas 
has 20 of the other side of the Island Indians in prison in i 
Martinico for abuse offered to that Island. The rogue that 1 
does all this has been a slave on Antigua, & will never give 
over till he has them in keeping that kept him. He speaks 
good English, & has at Dominica an English boy taken 
when they were last at Antigua. 

(' Colonial Calendar,' America and 
West Indies, p. 624.) 

1675. Early in this year the Council of Trade 
for Foreign Plantations was abolished and their 
duties were for the future perfoi'med by a Committee 
of the Privy Council.* 

Captain Ferdinando Gorges, agent for Colonel 
William Stapleton, petitioned that neither the 
Governor's salary of £700 nor the £2778 for the two 
companies of foot had been paid since June 1671. 
This memorial was read on 17 June, and the Com- 
mittee shortly after repiorted to his Majesty "that 
the two companies ai-e reduced from 80 each to 49 
& 54 respectively, that they have received no pay 
for 3 years, & that £4556 st. is now due to them." 
The Committee evidently lacked funds, for even the 
proceeds of Sir Charles Wheeler's estate in St. 
Christopher's, which had been sequestered and sold, 
was stated to have been devoted some time back to 
the wants of the half-starved and ragged troops. 

Another of Stapleton's letters, bearing date 30 
April 1675, was read, in which he stated, " Two of 
my Dep. Gov" are going home the one Col. Philij) 
Warner of Antigua for his own occasions & my 
brother Dep. Gov'' of Montserrat for his health." 
It was agreed by their lordships that the inscription 
of the seal to be made for the Leeward Islands be as 
followeth : — 

On the one side : 

CAROLVS SECVNDVS 

DEI GRATIA MAGN^ BRITANIiE 

FRANCIS HIBERNI^ &c. REX. 

On the other side : 

SIGILLVM INSVLARVM 

SANCTI CHRISTOPHORI, MONTSERRAT, 

ANTEGOA, NEVIS ETC : 

Daniel Greatbach sent in his petition for pay for 
himself and the officers and soldiers stationed at St. 
Christopher's. Such reminders were usually shelved 
during the reigns of Charles 11. and James II., and 
it was not until the arrival of William III. that 
colonial finances were put on a proper footing. 

From a statement made this year, it seems that 
Antigua had 40,000 acres, 1052 armed men, 100 
horse, and 570 negros ; and the total for all the Lee- 
ward Islands was 96,988 acres, 3583 men able to 
bear arms, 3679 anned men, 230 horse, and 3184 

* Colonial affairs at this time were grossly mismanaged. The 
king pocketed the proceeds of the 4 J per cent, duty, and allowed 
the troops and various Government officials to starve, though this 
revenue was ample for the purpose. 



negros. Nevis alone had a few ministers and 
schools, the other islands none. The ships from 
England and JN^ew England amounted to about 100 
sail yearly, all under 200 tons burthen. Sugar, 
indigo, cotton, wool, tobacco, and ginger formed the 
staple products. 

On 16 Sep. it was ordered by public Act that in 
addition to Falmouth and St. John's, which hitherto 
had been the only towns allowed for the landing and 
sale of merchandise, four other places were appointed 
to erect towns in and for trade and traffick, viz.. 
Bridge Town in Willoughby Bay, Carlile Road, Par- 
ham landing place in North Sound, and Bermudian 
Valley. 

In October the said John Atkins, Henry Graydou, And 
Thomas Darlow, were forced from their own Houses by one 
John Brittain (an Ensign to the aforesaid Capt. Watkins) 
with a File of Soldiers, and Committed Prisoners to the 
Guard four Days. (Besse's ' Sufferings of the Quakers.') 

William, Lord Willoughby died at Barbados in 
1674, and. was succeeded by Sir Jonathan Atkins, 
who, prompted perhaps by jealousy and sour temper, 
wrote home to Mr. Secretary Coventry, and stated 
positively that Colonel Warner (then on leave in 
England) had taken an expedition to Dominica 
(which was included in the writer's government) 
without asking his leave, and there invited his (the 
said Warner's) brother and party on board to a treat, 
made them drunk with rum, and then massacred 
them all. He enclosed the sworn deposition of 
William Hamlin, who stated that he was commander 
of the sloop " Bettie " of Antigua, aged 23, and that 
last December (1674) he was pressed by a warrant 
from Colonel Philip Warner to go to Nevis with 
letters, and later on his return took 34 men to 
Dominica in company with two ships ; 300 men in 
all went, and met there Thomas* alia>< Indian Warner, 
who with 30 Indians offered to help them against 
the Indians living to Windward, so eight periaguas 
with 30 more Indians accompanied them thither, 
where four of the said Windward savages were slain 
and 30 killed besides. Colonel Warner afterwards 
invited the said Indian Warner and 60 or 70 Indians, 
men, women, and children, to a treat, and having 
made them all drunk, killed them nearly all. 
" That this Deponent did hear the said Coll" Warner 
give order to Coll" Sam^i Winthorpe to kiU the said 
Thomas Warner who refused so to doe and did not 
doe it." 

The Governor of Barbados, with much credulity, 
accepted this man's statement without any further 
testimony or enquiry into his antecedents, and on 
the strength of his above-mentioned letter Colonel 
Warner was much to his surprise committed to the 
Tower. 

Colonel Stapleton wrote from Nevis on 20 De- 
cember indignantly denying Hamlin's statements, 
strongly urged Colonel Warner's immediate release, 

* Captain Thomas Warner or Indian Warner had been ap- 
pointed Governor of Dominica by Francis, Lord Willoughby on 16 
April 1664. A copy of his commission is given by Du Tertre, vol. 
iii., p. S5. 



Hi 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



and enclosed the following depositions, proving 
Indian Warner not even to have been Sir Thomas 
Warner's natural son : — 

Walter Carwardine, aged 60 this 18 Dec. 1G75. About 
46 years since came over with Sir Thos. Warner to the Indias, 
in the ship vcith him, & waited on him 4 years, & states that 
there was a child among his Indian slaves, a heathen never 
baptised, called Indian Warner & not reputed his child. 

Lieut. Robert Choppin, aged 58. About 46 years ago, 
was servant to Sir Thos. Warner & came out of England in 
a ship with him. Remembers that Sir Thomas called all 
his slaves before him on his plantation ; they were 24 and 
all Indians, & the said child called Warner (who was not 
baptised and not his son) was among them. His Mother & 
24 other slaves run off, but were brought back from Antegoa 
by a Capt. Fletcher, Commander of a vessel from Scotland. 
The said child was a slave & served Sir Thos. AVarner till 
his death ; " after whose death the said Indian Warner as 
a slave served S^ Thomas Warner's Lady (al's March) & was 
a slave to the now Lady March." 

Col. Randall Russell Dep. Gov' of Nevis, this 20 Dec. 
1675, swears that in July 1637, he arrived out of Europe 
into S' Christophers, & was received into the house of S'' 
Thos. Warner, & there lived in his employ scverall years, 
etc. ; corroborates preceding affidavits, & further says that 
the said slave lived afterwards some years with his Lady 
Ann Warner, till he run away again. 

Sarah, wife of Lieut. Robert Choppin, aged 48 this 18 
Dec. 1675, was a servant to S' Thos. Warner, when Capt. 
Fletcher gave up the said slave, who was a slave also to the 
Lady March. 

1675-6. On 10 .Jany a petition was presented on 
Warner's behalf signed by 13 of the Leeward Islands Mer- 
chants in London ; Bastian Bayer & Alex"' Pollington head 
the list. (' Colonial,' No. 47.) 

1676, Mar. 25. Col. Warner writes fr. the Tower, that 
he has heard that he is to be sent out to Barbados for trial, 
& hopes he may go out at once in the Phenix. 

3 April. Sir Robert Southwell reported to the 
Privy Council that according to request, he had con- 
versed with Colonel Philip Warner in the Tower, 
from whom he obtained certain information relating 
to the Charibbee Islands as follows : — 

At S' Christophers there are 800 armed English & 200 
French, who have taken the oath of allegiance to the 
English King, & 1400 French besides 300 soldiers ; there 
were 3 or 4000 English formerly there ; there is no wood 
on that island. Sir Thos. Warner possessed ilarigalante & 
placed Thos. Williams as Gov^ there, but the Indians cut 
them off 23 years ago ; then the French settled it. S' 
Lucia also had Major Indys for GoV ; the English deserted 
it however, & in 1664-5 Lord Willoughby sent there 1100 
men who were all cut off & since then the French have 
lately taken it. M'' Carroll is now Gov' of Montserrat, etc. 
Antego has 70,000 Acres of manureable Land and 
30,000 that are not soe. It is 32 miles long, and in the 
narrowest place 18 Miles broad, and in the broadest 25 : It 
is accomodated with severall good Harbours. The Place of 
Trade are only two and soe ordered by Law viz' : — Falmouth 
and S' Johns, in each being a Fort for the security of shipp- 
ing, maintained and furnished att the Countries charge, 
v?ith men Ordnance and Am'unition. 

The number of Inhabitants white & black 3500 and 
1100 men disciplined Horse and Foot. The other Harbours 
are English Harbour, only separated by a Promontary from 
Falmouth Harbour 200 paces narrow, which 100 men might 



digg through in Six weekes, being soft ground. The 
mouthes of the two Harbours are one league assunder, the 
next is Nonsuch which lyes due East, the other ffive Islands 
Harbour. On the North side are severall Islands of manur- 
able and pasture ground, the biggest containes 1400 acres 
called Long Island, another the Goat Island of 300 acres, 
besides many others. 

In Antigoa are kept every night 14 files of men on 
Guard against the Indians, and three nights before, and so 
many after the full moon, they are doubled, besides W^"" they 
make continual Rounds and Patrouls of Horse. All which 
receive pay of the Island, the foot eight pence a day, and 
the Horse proportionably. There is here a Minister. 

Berbuda, next adjacent, lyes North of Antigoa, distant 
about 10 Miles, which was twice settled by the English, and 
both times the Inhabitants were cutt off by the Indians, 
now it is only made use of as a Farme, having been by 
Lease granted to Foure persons by the Lord William Wil- 
loughby, who doe continue 18 or 20 lusty men att a strong 
house to secure the Stock, itt being their only end to make 
it a Markett of Provisions for the other Islands. 

Colonel Stapleton writes to the P. C. that WiUiam 
Hamlin is a rogue. He asks for his pay as Lieut. - 
Colonel in Sir Tobias Bridge's Regiment, and 
forwards this further batch of depositions on Colonel 
Warner's behalf : — 

Col. John Cormick a Member of H. M. Council, taken 
before John Carroll Esq., Dep. Gov' of Montserrat, Serj' 
Major David Gahvey, Cap. Anth" Hodges, & Cap. Peter 
Cove all of y^ Council, 25 Mar. 1675-6 ; is now aged 68, 
has lived at Montserrat these 50 years past, & remembers 
when M' Thomas Russell was killed by the Indians, as also 
John Bodkin. They also burned Cap. AVade's plantation at 
a loss to him of £600 st. 

Ensign John Cormick of Montserrat aged 45 (?sonof 
above). 

L' Col. John Sutton also of Montserrat, is now aged 45, 
& says that soon after the conquest of the island in 1666 by 
the French, he escaped to the woods & found Henry Ashton 
Esq., son of — Ashton formerly Gov' of Antigoa, & then a 
dweller here, lying desperately wounded, so he carried him 
into the house of M' Angus, but had to make his escape on 
account of the Indians, whom he afterwards saw burn down 
the house, & the said Henry Ashton was burnt alive. 

John Sharpe, Lieut, of a foot company, also of Mont- 
serrat, aged 62, states Col. Nath' Reade was Gov' there in 
1666. 

Daniel Daly, aged 69, Dermott Sullivan aged 70, & John 
Dowdy aged 60, also depose. 

Mr. Gilbert Loxtey, aged 78, remembers S' Thos. 
Warners slaves 45 or 46 years ago. 

Capt. Moyell Johnson, aged 25, corroborates Lieut. 
Sutton re Ashton. 

Daniel Miskoll aged 80. Dermott Duell aged 101. 

Capt. Andrew Booth, aged 50, remembers 20 Years 
back, & Ensign John Ryan aged 40, 18 years back. 

Serj' V¥'" Vaughan, aged 64, deposes re Hen. Ashton, 
Esq. 

Philip Meagher Gent., aged 28. 

Major Henry Crooke J.P. & a Member of H.M. Council, 
was aged 69 when he was sworn on 18 Mar. 1675-6, before 
the Hon. Abednego Mathew Dep. Gov of S' Christophers. 

Marg* Stratton of S' Christophers, aged 50. 

John Chambers, aged 56, came to S* Christophers in the 
"Reliefe" of Kingsaile from Bristol), being taken prisoner 
under General Garrard in the Royall interest, at the town 
of Beachly, was forcibly sent hither in 1645, & sold as a 
servant to S' Thos. Warner K', for 4 years. 

By a certificate, dated 4 Mar. 1675-6, re Col. Warner's 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. 



liii 



Expedition to Dominico, it is authoritatively declared by eye- 
witnesses, that the reports of his having killed Indian 
Warner are utterly false, as he was slaine in the throng in 
fair & open war but by what hand none knows. Signed by : 

Kow. Williams. .Jonas Watts. 

Jn° Cade. Obed. Bradshaw. 

Dan'' Heuish (?). .Jn^ Prye. 

Rich. Ayres. 

The letter was put in which Rob' .Jones wrote from 
Guadaloup, on 23 Mar. 167-t, saying he had heard the 
Indians were ])reparing a great expedition against Antigua. 

The various Dep. Gov''* & Members of Council & 
Assembly all unanimously send home addresses in Warner's 
favour. I'he one from Antigua is signed bv 



Assembly. 



Rich. Boruaston, 
Speaker. 
Jn° Vernon. 
.Jonas Watts. 
Jacob Hill. 

FFRA. CaRLILE. 



Roger Jones. 
Dan. Pellor. 
Tho. Beck. 
Jn° Brittain. 
Sam^"- Irish. 
Tho. Turner. 



Council. 
Row. Williams. 
Jer. Watkins. 
Rich. Ayres. 
Jn° Parris. 
Jn° Cade. 
Paul Lee. 
Sam'-'' Jones. 



Dated 4 Mar. 1675-6. 



1676. On 22 November Stapletou sends home 
a great deal of information about the various islands 
of his government : — • 

At Antigua there are 2 files of men in the pay of the 
Country ; a troop of 33 horse ; & a Reg* of fodt under Col. 
Philip Warner, L' Col. Row. Williams, Maj'' Tho. Mallett, 
etc., amounting to 770 privates in 10 companies. There 
are Three Forts : " one att S' Johns Harbour, one at Fal- 
mouth Harbour and the third att Carlisle Road. Guns 
Sixteen, halfe whereof, Twelve Pounders, the other halfe 
eight Pounders. The Fort is very well scituated in the 
mouth of the Harbour. Two upon Two small islands. To 
which from the Land one may Wade over. The Third on 
a poynt att Carlile Road, noe Store or Provision but what 
Indian Provision the Inhabitants doe Plant for their own 
Subsistence." He further states that the island is 28 miles 
by 20, has 120,000 acres whereof 100,000. are manurable & 
20,000 not so ; 70,000 are taken up & 50,000 lying waste ; 
& the small islands contain 3000 acres. Barbouda is of vast 
extent computed as large as Nevis, but has never been sur- 
veyed. There is but 1 church & that at Falmouth, which 
serves also for a Court House. There are 2 rivuletts, one 
in Carlile Road, the other at Blubber Valley, & 4 good 
harbours S' Johns, Five Islands, Falmouth & English with 
depth of water varying from 5 to 18 feet. 7 bayes & 6 
creekes are also named. The Imports from England to the 
Leeward Islands amount to £50,000 st. ; £20,000 is spent 
for provisions from Scotland, Ireland, England & New 
England. 1000 blacks are yearly imported worth £20,000. 
Saltpetre is found in Col. Philip Warner's cave at the 
Savannah. No Registers of births, deaths & marriages are 
kept, there being no Ministers & no Churches. " In Nevis 
there are some few Quakers and in Antigua to the number 
of 60 in both Islands." 

The Dep. Gov doe always sign Marriage Licences. 
There are 8 Protestants to 1 Roman Catholic, who live 
happily together. There is the same diversity of religion 
as in England. Quakers are a great trouble & will not 
keep watch & ward, not even against the Indians ; they 
once disturbed a Minister & tried to expel him from the 
pulpit, for which they were imprisoned. 

He reports that " Coll. Warner is after his greate 
sufferings come of with creditt by a learned Ignoramus of 
the grand Jury and was cleered, by proclamation which 
could not bee otherwise onelesse they would hang him right 



or wrong. The fellow who falsly deposed against him is 
sent to Holland in Irons." 

In the Remonstrance drawn up by the Assembly 
of Antigua in Warner's defence, they state that in 
1656 an expedition from Antigua and Montserrat 
went against Indian Warner, and that* in 1660 peace 
was made with him by Colonel Christopher Keynell 
then Governor of Antigoa. 

Letter from Coll. Warner. 

Most Hono'' S'' — Sence the recipt of you' letter yesterday 
for which I give you mygratfull acknowligment my brother 
has brought me yo' command tucliingtwo questions wherein 
you desier to be resolved by me : — 

the first is to know how or by what means the Island of S' 
X])liers may be secured from the french : sence it is granted 
that it is not fitt to be the generall Rendevous and strong Hold 
for securing his majesties interest in those parts of the world : 

secondly what are the reasons to ground an oppinion in 
his magestie that the Island of Antegua is fittest for that 
purpose and not any of the other English Islands : 

To both which I shall according to my best skill and 
knowlige give you satisfaction : and to the first viz. : 

S' Xphers being of it selfe but a small spott of ground : 
I mean so much of it as is in the English Posseshon : 
cannot Coiitaine a sufficient p'portion of men to secure its 
owne sall'ty much lesse so great a number as will be necessary 
to mentaine the right of the Crowne to all the rest : and 
that for these Reasons : — 

1. The french have much the larger proportion and the 
better part of the land whose interests are well establisht 
and inriched greatly by the ruins and plunder of thar 
naighbors in the late war. 

2. The English (which were before that war) much the 
greater number of Peopell were disperst and sent to severall 
parts of tiie world some selling thar interest to the french 
others leaving it without any Consideration aboundance of 
which are dead others of them being in dispair of the 
Rendytion of that Island became settlers in other parts and 
were unwilling to leave a florishing hopful plantation for a 
woren out peie (?peice) of land holly distroyed and layed 
waist by the french : and would never returne ; but if tiiay 
did it was only to make a benefitt by selling thar rights and 
so leaving tlie same againe some of these came with resolu- 
tion to plant upon thar old interest but were so wasted by 
thar long delays and waiting that they were far unable to- 
pay back the purchase mony which they received from the 
french (in these I mean such as had sold upon thar removall 
to the french) and much more the emeliorations and im- 
provements the french were by articles to reserve before 
they surrendered the same so that by this means thar is 
really one third Part of that small proportion of that Island 
invested in the right of the french and thar airs for ever i 
which lessens its abilities of receiving a sufficient number of the 
Kings subjects either foritsoune saffty or the saftly of the rest. 

The last and main reason is that really the land is so 
worn out and so void of advantages and Conveniences to 
resettell it as wood timber, etc., that noe person will venture 
upon it because thar can be no prospect of gaining or 
making an estate but spending one : before they can arrive 
to a Comfortable living were the french dispossest of so 
much as formerly did belong to the English. Now for 
securing its selfe from thar neighbors in case of an Eruption 
betvveene the two Crownes the best way in my oppinion is- 
to build a strong fort upon Cleverlys point of that large 
extent that it might be able to nerve and secure the retreat 
of the whole if once forst to fly : and in this and for this 
purpose thar ought to be seven or eight months stores 
beforehand to mentaine them : and noe more soldiers in this 
Garisou Constantly then the two p'sent Companies fitted up 

h 



Uv 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



and well payed & incoriged for the future this being done 
thar is uoe doubt but the soveraighaity of the Place may be 
mentained against all the force the french can bring to 
atempt them. I have said nothing tuching the securitie 
of shiping in this Island because thar is uoe thing but open 
wild roads which noe forts can possibly make safe nor the 
invention of man secure from Hurricanes. 

.... To you'' second proposall I doe alllrme that Antigua 
is really the fittest place to make a generall garrisson or 
strong hold not only to secure itsselfe but all the rest and I 
make it out upon these reasons : — 

1. its largnesse being able to containe many thousands 
of peopele. 

S'y. its firtilitie abell to afford a plenty of Provistions 
in its produce besides it is naturally stored with wild Game 
as Hogs goats cattell, etc., what none of the Islands have 
and great Plenty of fish Turkell, etc., an augmentation to 
these benefitts thar is barbuda and severall other small 
agasent Islands that arc only kept to breed stock which 
makes it a far more Plentifull place than all the other 
Caribe Islands. 

3'-^. It is accomodated with severall navigable and 
secure harbors able to receeve and secure many hundred of 
shiping both from the enemy and stormes and whar the said 
shiping may Crene refitt or otherwise; and thar is store of 
timber in the Place to effect it and such timber as the 
■worme never will tuch : Called whit seader : 

4'y. its situation being to windward (to the eastward) of 
the other Island and more out of the road way of men of war 
so that thar importation as well as thar exportation is 
thereby the better secured it lies also in the way that all the 
french ships must passe and repas home for Europ so that 
very few or none of thar shipps can passe but thay must goe 
near the westward shore of this Island whar thar lies a very 
good harbor to secure men of war to ly in to interpose thar 
passage if occasion. 

And besides all this thar are an great plenty of neces- 
saries and Conveniences to build any strong holds as timber 
lime and as good building stone as any iu the world and 
noe want of watter or any thing else. 

Hono'' S'' — I have now rudly given you the narative and 
my oppinion of and upon you' questions I humbly beg you' 
pardon for all the imperfections you shall meet with therin 
it may happely be a question why Antigua thus furnisht 
with advantages beyond its neighbor Island be not as well 
settled. I answer that the reasons of its Continuing an ill 
nurst and a slow thriving Colony are these the first & 
greatest is the Continuall incurshins of the Indians of 
Dominico which frightens all peopell from Comming to 
Plant upon it secondly the monopolising the affrican trade 
which hinders all peopell that would supply the Place with 
blackes to adventure and the Company themselves never 
yett afforded that Island as much as the least help or suply : 

you' letter gives me the ill newse of my expected doome 
from new markett. I apprehend upon the Cap' most Idell 
inquiren as to my usage abord will make the King order me 
all the way in the billbowes or a prisoner between deck (quod 
fiat voluntas Dei). I am resolved to suffer it and with an 
invinsibell patience to bear all. I pray God in mercy turne 
his hart and send me a deliverance of these oppressions. 

I am, Honoi'i S'', 

Yo' most obleged and most humble servant, 

Aprill y^ 7'i' 1676. Phill. Warner. 

Honoured S'' — Since y" hand of providence & the Kings 
pleasure ordered my transmitting hither and am now arrived 
I thought it an obligation upon mee as early as I could to 
present you with this scribble, it comes accompanied with 
my Brother S'' Thomas "Warner, who has been an eye 
wittness of my 7 months imprisonment in England, and 



what may be left unexprest in this hee can personally inform 
you of : Att my first going to Whitehall I was very much 
surprized to meet with the Kings displeasure against mee, 
being conscious that neither my ffiithers former Services, 
nor my own (being alwaies from 16 yeares of Age employed 
in his Ma"'* Millitary and Civill affaires) could undeserve 
his favour, but the disappointment was great, and a com- 
plaint sent home from you did soone pervert my expectation. 

gr — The designe of this paper is not to give you more 
trouble, then what I ho])e you will pardon, when you con- 
sider the necessity I have to present you with it. The 
Complaint comprehended in Hamlins oath though desperately 
penned and sworn too yet had little influence upon the 
Councell, for indeed the great incoherences of it tho' many 
improbabilities and down right untruths in it found its just 
success little faith among sober minded men though 
generally beleived among the ordinary multitude even to 
the making mee a monster ; but yo'' letter which went with 
it to M'' Secretary Coventry mett with better Credit, and 
was the consequence of all my misfortune, for you were 
pleased to informe M'' Secretary in yo'' Letter, that the 
killing of the Indians in Dominico was very ruinous to our 
Trade and absolutely destructive to all the Leeward Islands 
which Information made so great impression upon the King 
and Cuuncill, that indeed I should not have dared to stand 
a Justification but that my own experience and the many 
depositions from all the Leeward Islands do manifest the 
contrary, and I hope by this time Yo' Excellency is con- 
vinced likewise and that instead of proving ruinous to the 
Leeward Islands that action is realy good service to the 
King and all his Subjects in these Collonies, and chiefly in 
Antigua, who for many yeares were a languisliing people 
and were forced to make the Island a Garrison instead of a 
plantation. But now since the Destruction of those Savages, 
the Island begins to revive, and can with safety employ 
their labour upon their planting, which befoi'e were exercised 
in their Arms, watching and warding day and night to 
defend their families and their Interests from the bloody 
stratagems of those murdering natives. The action whereof 
I am suspected and by all people controverted was done by 
virtue of my Gen"' Com" which is full and authentick and 
was not sought for or desired but was wholly unexpected by 
mee when it came to my hands, but was procured by often 
repeated addresses of the Island to the Generall who took 
their sufferings into his consideration and accordingly sent 
this Com" as the best expedient to give them releife. And 
as I was his Deputy Governor there and his inferiour Officer 
I did not dare to refuse obedience to it without hazard of 
my life. And I protest I went upon the expedition with all 
the unwillingness in the world, untill the Councill and 
Assembly of Antigua by their daily Addresses and importu- 
nities prevailed with mee, and then I went being accom- 
pauyed with the best gentelemen in the Island. 

S'' — Though I have not y^ honour of a personall know- 
ledge w"' you, yet the Generall Character Fame speaks of 
you, assures mee I shall meet with notJiing from you but 
honesty and Generositie, which has incourag'd mee to send 
this short narrative in hopes of a speedy opportunity to give 
you a fuller satisfaction. I am now on board the Phoenix. 
My Brother and the Cap' are come to know yo'' pleasure. 
For my own part the law and my own conscience tells mee 
I am inocent of the Commission of any Capitall Criminall 
ffact, and therefore do hope that I may come aslioar to pay 
you my respects in that dresse that becomes innocence and 
a mau of honor, and not as a nocent or mallifactor ; And if 
any |x;rson shall be so p'fidiously divelish to prosecute me 
without a just ground, I will upon mine honor be ready 
and stand their accusation for I have an inward Guard to 
fortifye mee as well as a Just God above to defend mee from 
suffering wrong. And my request to Yo'' Excellency is, 
that if there appeares no person to accuse mee before the 



PROM RESTORATION OE CHARLES 11. TO ABDICATION OE JAMES II. 



Iv 



Judges tLut then I may have a speedy opportunity to 
Justifye niyselfe, and clear that ignominious I'l^proch that 
has ruined mee and my familly, to the end it may be trans- 
mitted to my freinds at Whitehall & in England, and also 
that I may hasten to my languishing family and Interests. 

S'' — Your forgiveness of mee in this interruption will 
bee an unspeakable obligation upon 

Honoured Sir, 
Yo"" Exc'ys most humble Servant, 

P. W. 

My Brother likewise presents you with a letter from yo'' 
Brother the Hon''''= Earl of Carlisle, which was sent to mee 
in the Tower. 

Endorsed : — " Coll. Warner's Letter to S'' J. Atkins upon 
his arrival at Barbados." Circa l(i76. 

Anno 1G76. On the 22d of the Second Month, the said 
Ensign Brittain, with a Guard, came and drew Thomas 
Darlow down to the Bay, where the Guard was, and keiit 
him there three days. 

Among the Olficers of the Militia was Major Thomas 
Mallet, a Man of a bad Life and Conversation, who exercised 
his Power to the Oppression of his peaceable Neighbours, 
as appears by the following histances, viz. : — 

On the '1?>A. of October, Edward ILirtin, William Boon, 
and William Chamberlain, were committed to Prison by the 
said Mallet, for refusing to go to the Guard, but upon 
Application on their Behalf to the Governour, he gave Order 
for their Release. 

About the same Time, the said Mallet had also im- 
prisoned twelve others, namely, Thomas Darlow, Samuel 
Sizemore, Eichard Buckley, Henry Graydon, Job Langford, 
Thomas Smith, John Heydon, Timothy Drake, William Mans- 
field, Thomas Dash wood, Peter Dash wood, and Juhn Loftee. 

On the 6th Day of the Eleventh Month, the aforesaid 
Major Mallet ordered his Companies belonging to North- 
Sound and Popes-head, to meet at the Training-place, at 
the House of George Turny and Francis Carlisle, where the 
innocent Quakers were made the Marks of his Malice ; tor 
after many reviling Words, lie caused two of iheni, viz.: 
Thomas Darlow and John Heydon, to be put into one of the 
Files, but they standing still, and not acting according to 
his Will (which for Conscience-sake they could not) he, the 
said Mallet, in a violent Rage and Passion fell upon them, 
and with a Wythe which he had in his Hand, gave them 
many sore and grievous Stripes over their Faces, Backs and 
Heads, to the shedding of their Blood, and bruising the 
Flesh upon their Bones. He also beat Phillip Snelliug and 
William Boon and called to his Lieutenant Jacob Hill, to 
take them into the File ; but the Lieutenant answered, 
They are Men who pretend to Tenderness of Conscience, 
and I cannot judge of a Man's Conscience, therefore am not 
willing to meddle with them. The Major's Behaviour was 
indeed such, that several of iiis own Captains reproved him, 
when he called the Quakers Lifidels, and said, It was no 
Harm to kill them. After he had beaten several of them 
with many cruel Stripes, he fined them 500 lb. of Tobacco 
each. On the ICth of the same Month John Haydon being 
commanded liy the aforesaid Major Mallet to make his 
Appearance at their Exercisiug-place, he came, accordingly, 
but because he could not for Conscience-sake submit to per- 
form their Military Exercise, the said Mallet gave him near 
fifty Stripes with an Horsewhip and a blue Wythe, the Marks 
of which Cruelty he carried about for severall Days after. 

Thomas Smith, for not appearing in Arms, was fined by 
the said Major Mallet 500 lb. of Tobacco. On the 18th of 
the Eleventh Month 1076, came Richard Allen, the Marshal's 
Man, and with him two others armed, having an Order 
under the said Mallet's Hand to take away his Goods for the 
aforesaid Fine, for which they seized his Bedding, a Parcel 



of Y'arn, and other Things. On the same Day the aforesaid 
Richard Allen, with the said Soldiers, came to the House of 
Thomas Darlow, with an Order from the aforesaid Mallet, 
and took away one She-Ass big with Foal, which he judged 
worth 1200 lb. of Tobacco. 

On the same Day he also came with the same Soldiers 
to the House of John Haydon, with an Order from the said 
Major, and seized an He-Ass, a Chest, and an Hammock, 
for the aforesaid Fine. 

The same Day also, the said Allen with his Companions, 
came to the Plantation of Jonas Langford, with an Order 
from the said Mallet, and took an Horse worth 3500 lb. of 
Sugar, for not providing Arms for himself and his Servants. 

On the 23d came Daniel Hensley, who was Marshal to 
the Regiment, and with him Thomas Brooks, who was 
appointed to look over their Arms, to the House of William 
Boon, with an Order from the said Mallet, and took one 
Servant Woman with 2000 lb. of Tobacco, which they said 
was for not finding Arms for himself and Servants. 

On the 2-lth came the said Daniel Hensley, and Thomas 
Bi'ooks to the House of William Chamberlain, with the said 
Major's Order, and took one He-Ass worth 1000 lb. of 
Tobacco, for not appearing at their Exercising-place with 
Arms. The said Asses and Horses were kept several Days 
and offered to Sale, but no Man would buy them. These 
Proceedings being laid before the Governour a few days 
after, he seemed to be troubled, that such Cruelties should 
be exercised, reproved Mallet for what he had done, and 
ordered the Redelivery of what was taken away, and that 
the Fines should be levied upon their Tobacco and Sugar ; 
he also ordered the said 'Mallet not to strike them any more ; 
But the Goveruour's Command was not sufficient to subdue 
the malicious and violent Spirit by which the said Major 
was push'd into Acts of Cruelty, as may apjiear by his 
farther Procedure. (Besse's ' Sufferings of the Quakers.') 

On 9 January 1676-7 was passed an Act signed by 
Philip Warner, Governor, and Richard Borrastou, 
Speaker, by which, for the better security of the 
Island, a duty of 1 lb. of powder per ton was in 
future to be strictly levied on all shipping arriving 
at the ports. This custom had been in force ever 
since the first settling of the Caribbees, but for the 
moi-e careful supervision of it in the future, a collector 
was now appointed who would receive for salary 10 
per cent, of the amount he collected. 

On 9 Februai-y 1676-7 it was ordained that, on 
account of the numerous deaths which had resulted 
from unqualified persons pretending to beChirm-geons 
and Apothecaries, no one would be allowed to practise 
till he had produced before the Governor and Council 
a certificate from the Surgeons' Hall in London, any 
University " or able Physician of any of His Majesty's 
kingdoms, for his being admitted and allowed of that 
Society and Company, and approved by them as 
capable of such Practice." A fine of 5000 lbs. was. 
to be paid for the first offence against this Act. 

April 1676. Letter from Coll. Warner to S"' Rob' Southwell. 
Most Hono'' S'— You"'^ with the enclosed coppy of my 
Generalls letter is newly Come to my hand and being in- 
capable to make any other returne am foi-ced only to repeat 
my usuall offering of a hart full of gratitude a sacrifice very 
unproportionat to satisfie all those favors you have to this 
very bower nudltiplyed upon me. You' advice that I should 
rather stand my tryall then endevor or hope for delivei'ance 
by any other Cource I resolve to follow : for it will suit 
better both with my owne disposition as well as the righting 



Ivi 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



my inwoi'd innocency : in order to restore my honor that 
has lanji'uisht under a seavear Calumny for 7 months last 
in a base and seavear imprisonment. As for M'' Chappman 
S' Jonathans agent to whom he wrott favorable of me : is 
to be found everyday upon the Change and the Person to 
whom he did communicate so much of S' Jonathans miud 
(as I told you) is Coll. Bayer a merchant at the black bull a 
pewterers in Fenchurch street who is my very good frend & 
will redely attend you' commands on my score whenever you 
think fitt to imploy him. 

As to you' favorable thoughts Concerning a turne of my 
fortunes aflfter the cessation of my p'sent afBictions I am so 
Conscious my slender abilities are infinitly unfitt for any 
publique undertaking ether Civill or military and my un- 
paralleled trebles have so habituated my resolutions to 
designe a retired privat life that nothing in this world Can 
possible invite me from it. 

Now to answer those two nice objections : first cf the 
Island of Antiguas want of waiter : secondly of its being 
more subject to feavors & agues I say : That the first is 
only a vullgar Error for none of the English Islands are 
better furnisht with watter then that ; that is within y'' land 
but it is true that not above two small rivors run to the sea 
out of which thar is forty saile of shiping watters for thar 
voadges home annually and those inland streamos might 
with small charge and industry be Vjrought downe into the 
very townes if it were Countenced with those incorigeraent 
I formerly advised : Barbadoes that splendid Island my 
father at his first settling those parts rejected for the great 
want of watter that was then upon it naturally yet art and 
industry has suplyed those defects by wells sesternes, etc., 
fio that miriads of peopell are furnished the like is by An- 
tegua which in some parts near the sea was heartofore very 
ill pro\'ided yett now by the same means well furnisht the 
list of entrys and ships bonds that I brought himie to the 
■Commishioners of the Customes will nwke out the number 
that laded and watered thar for these two last years past, 
As to the second I answer in like mauer that at its first 
settling it was ether by the malignitis of the earth or air 
subject to feavors and agues but since it becomes more 
■oppened that the sun has power to exhall those vapors it is 
•otherwise and I will and doe avouch that it is now as 
healthy as any other Island espechally to temporat men 
that doe not by exses of Colds or Heats in deboching begett 
sickness which all mortalls are subject to all over the world : 
and those that doe gett those accidentall distempers seJdome 
•or never dye but for want of good atendance and Carfnll 
lucking aflfter. I have with trubell come to my papers but 
find such a Confusion made amounghst them with my Cay- 
tiffe servants that many of them are lust and of them at 
least seven or eight of the laws and acts sent home by me 
for his majesties gratious assent and Confirmation as many 
as I found I send which are but three and one of allso is 
noe way materiall in regard it relates to me therfore you 
may putt it aside if you see fitt those that are wanting I 
will god willing order home by the first & now Honore"! S' 
I take my leave of you for wee only wait hear for a fair 
wind to prossed to the downes from thence to Porchmuth 
which will be our last port in this Kingdome ; I repeat you 
my harty thanks for you' Care tuching the reception of my 
two sones one bord wee are now all together where I have 
more roume to breath out my melencoly Contemplaytions 
then in the tower : I humbly beg you'' pardon for my 
prolixity and that you will read me as really I am 
most Hono'' S"', 

Yo'' most humble and obleged 
fifrom one bord the Pf 'nix fathfnll servant 

in the Hope (?) Aprill Phill. AVarnee. 

ye 17th 1676. My bro- 
ther P'sents you with 
his humble servis. 



S'' Robert Southwell — I beg the favor of you to 
P'eseut my humble servis to S'' Charles Wheeler and M' 
Grarthwart. 

Endorsed :— " To the Hono^'i S' Robert Southwell. 
From Coll. Warner." (Egerton MS. 2395, fo. 537.) 

On 10 May 1677 v?as read the petition of Colonel 
Warner asking to be restored to his Majesty's favour, 
to vyhich the following answer was given : — 

Report of the Comm"« concerning Coll. Warner. Read at 
y= Comm«« 17 May 1677. Disallowed. 

May it please Yo"' Ma'i«, 

Wee have lately received a Petic'on from Coll. Phihp 
Warner, setting forth that there coming to Your Ma"" in- 
formation, from Barbados the tidings of a iiorrid and 
malicious Murther committed by the Pef against the 
Indians of S' Dominico, such credit was given thereto, and 
so just a detestac'on had of y= thing supposed all to be true, 
as that beiug examin'd, with two other persons, whom hee 
casualy met hee and they did (to the suddain questions 
which were made unto them) own toe many parts of the 
fact as provoked Your Ma'-^ to indignation, but withall had 
not opportunity to open the manner of proceedings, the 
accidents that happened, and the time intervening, which 
would have made soe much of the fact as was own'd to bee 
true, not only sutable to the Rules of Warr, but absolutely 
necessary for the preservation of Your ]\Ia''*^ subjects, 
who had otherwise been lyable to a general Massacre. 
And that, for the better evidence of the truth hereof, the 
Pet', after eight months close Imprisonment in the Tower, 
expos'd to all the Enemies he had in the World, transported 
to the Island most concern'd and exasperated, and tryed by 
a Jury thereof alone, nndei'going thereby all the Rigor of 
the Law, has been nevertheless declar'd Not Guilty ; And 
therefore humbly praying that, if wee had any sence of his 
condition, wee would bee instrumental to restore him to 
your Ma''" Grace. In considerac'ou wee must needs pre- 
sume to acquaint Your Ma'y that whatever wee have heard 
of Coll. Warner, before this action, hath been to his advan- 
tage, and sutable to y^ behavior of a deserving subject, and 
the son of that Father who, besides many other signal ser- 
vices, first brought the Caribee Islands to a dependence to 
this Crowne. As for the fact whereof hee was accused wee 
have been inform'd by S'' Jonathan Atkins that hee was 
clear'd by Proclamation. And from Coll. Stapleton wee are 
by many letters, told that Hamlyne who was the sole 
accuser was an inftimous fellow, and since that time ran 
away with a Sloop from the Leeward Islands to the Dutch, 
from whom hee has got a Commission, Under which hee has 
stolen away severall negroes off S' Christophers chaceing 
and firing upon the Boats of Your Ma'''== subjects, and com- 
njitting several other acts of open Piracy. And besides wee 
are sensible that j'' Merchants of the Exchange of London, 
and other parts of this Kingdome, have all along bore 
hono''''^ testimony for the Petitioner, even before his Tryal. 
Soe that wee think it high time, and for Your Ma"'== honor 
and service to put an end to y^ pef^ misery. And that 
Your Ma'y would com'and some signification to bee made of 
the ceasing of Yoi" Ma'''=* displeasure, and that hee stands 
in Yo'' opinion as before this accident, which may not only 
revive his drooping spirits, but ingage him in a vigorous 
care for the preservac'on and defence of those Islands, 
wherein hee hath formerly acted a very good part for Your 
Ma'''=' service. 

Council Chamber. All w'='' is most humbly submitted 
to Yo^ Ma'y. (Egerton MS. 2395, fo. 568.) 

On the 18th the King ordered that Warner 
should be put out of his government of Antigua, and 
not hold any office of trust under the Crown. 



PROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OE JAMES II. Ivii 



On 8 June the Bishop of London was requested 
to licence and despatch six Ministers to Stapleton. 

On 17 July 57 recruits go out in the pinke 
" Hopewell" of 120 tons, whose commander, Michael 
Russell, is paid £5 per head for their passage. Their 
names are given in full in the list. 

On 10 September the King ordered 300 male- 
factors to be consigned to St. Christopher's, the 
Sheriflfs of London being allowed for the prisoners. 
A small fifth-rate frigate was this autumn appointed 
to the station. 

On 1 November the Bishop acquaints Stapleton 
that he has selected Messrs. Foster, Jones, Molineux, 
Davis, and Milward, who embark in the " Olive 
Branch," Captain Giles Laiirence commander, and 
one other, Mr. Grief, will follow later. 

Anno 1677. On the 28th of the Third Month, John 
Haydon and Thomas Cox being at the Town called S' 
John's, on their lawfnl Occasions, were taken up by Order 
of the aforesaid Mallet, and the said John Haydon being 
unwilling to go with those that took hira, was dragged down 
the Street to the Sea-side, and sorely beaten by the said 
Mallet, and also by one of the persons who dragged him 
along : Being come to the Sea-side, by which Time their 
cruel Usage had almost deprived the said John Haydon of 
his Senses, they put them both into a Ship-boat, and having 
so done, told the Seamen, They were a Couple of Rogues 
who had a Design to run away with their Boat : Where- 
upon the Seamen went down, and finding the Men abused 
and belied, desired them to come out of the Boat, which 
when they had done, they were kept all Night under a 
Guard in the open Field, and next Morning Mallet came 
and asked them, Whether they would bear Arms ? They 
answered, They conld not. So he went away, and soon 
after returning, beat John Haydon with many cruel Stripes, 
and sent them in a boat to the Fort, which was on a Rocky 
Island, remote from the Place they dwelt at, where they re- 
mained about three Months, Mallet giving Orders that none 
of their Friends should come to visit them, nor bring them 
any Provisions, and that they should have only what he 
had laid in, viz., a parcel of very bad stinking Beef, not fit 
for Men to eat. 

It happened on the first Day of the First Month this 
Year, that Samuel Sizemore being on his lawful Occasions 
at the Town called S* John's, where the Militia of the 
Division he lived in were then in Arms, Major Mallet sent 
two Soldiers for him, and asked him, Why he was not exer- 
cising ? He answered, I have no business there. Upon 
which Mallet gave him thirty Blows or more with a blue 
Wythe, and then sent him Prisoner to the Fort, where he 
was detained about six weeks. One Edmund Hull, then at 
S' John's Town, so called, hearing of this, went and ac- 
quainted the Governonr thereof, who said, that He had 
ordered Major Mallet not to commit any of them who had 
any visible Estate. The said Edmund Hull went and told 
Mallet what the Governour had said, for which Mallet struck 
the said Hull several blows. This Major was so habituated 
to Cruelty, that even the Governour's Order could hardly 
restrain him ; to evade which he had sent the said Samuel 
Sizemore to Prison by a verbal Command, probably not 
being willing that any Mittimus in Writing should be seen 
on that Occasion. 

After the aforesaid John Haydon and Thomas Cox had 
continued Prisoners in the Fort about three Months, the 



Governour sent an express Order to Mallet to release them, at 
which he was much displeased, for it was thought his 
principal Aim in solliciting the Governour to intrust him 
with the Power of the Militia was, that he might have an 
opportunity of venting the Spleen and Malice which he 
bore against the Quakers. 

1678. Colonel James Vaughan succeeded in the Govern- 
ment, being sent from Nevis by the General. He began 
with many Threats against the Quakers, ordered the Militia 
Act to be put in Force, and Fines to be levied on those who 
refused to bear Arms : But his Time was short, and he was 
removed before he had time to put his threats in Execution, 
for the People articled against him, and the General dis- 
placed him, and restored Paul Lee, who continued for some 
Time in his former Moderation, till prevailed upon by the 
Solicitations of one Lambert, a persecuting Priest, to Act 
otherwise. (Besse's ' Sufferings of the Quakers.') 

A letter from Stapleton was received by their 
Lordships on 1 April, wherein he acquaints them 
with the arrival of the 57 recruits. He says that 
the ketch " Quaker," Captain Haddocke commander, 
captured at Tobago 70 or 80 negros who were being 
carried off by the Indians, the island having been 
deserted by the Dutch, and he asks for the King's 
permission to retain them for himself. 

The Dutch officers and 250 souls were blown up 
by a shot from a mortar, they dining over the powder 
magazine. The 300 malefactors* sent out will be 
great benefactors. He has presented Mr. Davis and 
Mr. Milward to St. Christopher's, Mr. Foster to Nevis, 
Mr. Molineux to Montserrat, Mr. Jones and one Mr. 
Lambert to Antigua. Each Minister shall have 
1100 St. a year or 16,000 lbs. besides fees. 

On 5 April a memorial was received from the 
Ambassador of the States General about the Tobasro 
negros. 

On 2 May Stapleton renewed the treaty with the 
Comte de Blenac. 

A letter, dated 8 June, signed by James Vaughan, 
Deputy-Governor, and William Barnes, Speaker, in 
answer to certain complaints, was read at the Board. 

On 30 October the Seal which is now ready is 
despatched. It is thus described : — 

On the one side engraven with his Mas"^= Effegies 
crown'd in Royall Vestments holding a Trident in one hand 
placed sitting in a Charriott drawn by two Sea horses with 
this inscription round the said figure Sigillum Insularum S" 
Christopheri, Nevis, Antegoa, Montserrat, etc. On the 
other side : — His Ma*''^' Armes with the Garter Crowne 
Supporters and Motto and round about this inscription : 
Carolus secundus dei gratia magnje Britannise fFrancise et 
Hiberniffi Rex fidei Defensor. 

* These malefactors, mostly drawn from the prisons of London 
and Middlesex, pleaded their pardons on condition of their trans- 
portation to the West Indies, and usually served seven years as 
white slaves before attaining their freedom. There was keen com- 
petition between the colonies for their acquisition, but for further 
details the reader may consult the papers of Christopher Jeaffreson, 
Agent for the Island of St. Christopher, embodied in "A Young 
Squire of the seaventeenth century by John Cordy Jeaffreson, 1878." 
In regard to their treatment and way of living, see Ligon's 
'Barbadoes,' 1673. 



Iviii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



ANTEGUA, 1678. 



White White White Negro Negro Negro 
Men. Woroen. Childn. Men. Women. Chudn, 



Heere FoUowes a List of all the men, 


Woemen, & 


W" Harris . 
Daniell Hayes 


. 2 
. 1 


1 








Children whites & blacks in the Severall 


Divisions in the 


Mathew Holmes 


. 1 


1 


1 






Island of Antegua viz' : — 






Howell Jones 
Phillip Bush . 
James Jolly . 


. 2 
. 1 
. 1 


1 
1 
1 


4 

1 


2 


2 4 


Falmouth Division. 






Edward Johnson 
Teige Mathews 


. 3 
. 2 


2 




1 




White White White 


Negro 


Negro Negro 
Women. Childn. 


John Knight . 


. 2 


1 


2 






Men. Women. Childn. 


Men. 


Patrick Long 


. 1 


1 


1- 






Coll. Phillip Warner's family 11 5 7 


40 


40 22 


John Liscombe 


. 1 


1 








Major Richard Btirraston .43 3 


4 


4 2 


John Marchant 


. 4 


1 


2 


1 




Benjamin Planchard 


. 2 1 1 


1 


3 2 


Sarah Jones . 




1 






1 


Ensine Robert Smith 


. 3 1 1 


2 


1 


Mathew Williams 


'. 2 










Henry Watson 


. 1 1 






John Merrett . 


. 2 










L' William Proctor 




. 2 1 2 


4 


3 4 


John Marshall 


. 1 


1 


3 


1 


1 1 


William Waynwrijjh 


t 


. .-1 1 


6 


7 5 


Christopher Nicolls . 


3 


1 








Nathauiell Muake 




. 6 2 3 


5 


4 3 


James Oleryan (.' O'bryan) 


1 


1 








Anthony White 




. 1 1 1 


1 




Symon Oberston 


. 1 


1 


2 






Symon Swan . 




. 1 1 3 






George Price . 


2 


1 


2 






Huffh Evans . 




. 1 1 1 






Thomas Prichard 


1 










James Ward . 




. 2 


1 


1 


Elkana Row . 


1 


1 








Roger Jones . 




. 2 1 1 




1 


Nathaniell Refford . 


1 










Robert Phillips 




. 2 1 1 






Geo. Richardson 


. 2 










Henry Pel ham 




1 1 






John Robinson 


1 


1 








John Hamilton 




. 2 2 6 






Alexander Rollo 


. 4 


1 








James Glasse 




2 






Henry Soper . 


. 3 


3 


2 






Lewelling Ryce 




3 1 






William Smith 


. 1 


1 


1 






Thomas Garett (/) 




4 




2 


Martyn Spycer 


2 










Margery Oxford 




1 


3 


1 


John Triplett 


'. 1 










John Thaley . 




6 






Hugh Trotter 


. 1 


1 








Thomas Middleton 




2 3 2 




1 


Jeremy Thistlewaite 


. 1 










M' Lewis Mayo 




3 






Phillip Upshott 


2 


1 




1 




M' John Guuthropp 




3 






Francis Veniola 


2 


1 








Lewis Garnish 




2 2 3 


3 


1 


Thomas ap Thomas . 


1 


1 


2 






John Kow 




1 1 1 






William Walton 


1 


1 








Robert Carpenter 




1 1 1 






Andrew Young 


1 










William Corby 




1 1 3 






Theodora Maoy 


1 










Cap" Paul Lee 




8 3 2 


16 


11 9 


David Macey . 


1 


1 








Major Thomas Malle 


.t 


9 1 


11 


12 7 


Christopher Smith . 


2 










M' Anthony Cade 




5 


3 


3 3 


Edward Thomas 


I 


1 




3 


2 1 


Ensine John Austin 




. 2 1 2 


2 


2 


John Berry . 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


William Brett 




. 2 1 






Jane Burrell . 




2 




1 




Margarett Thattbom 


e 


I 






William Allen 


3 






2 


2 


Francis Gifford 




3 1 






William Trappin 


1 


2 


3 


2 


2 


John ElUs . 




3 






Anthony Maynard . 


1 


1 


3 


2 


1 1 


John Atkinson 




5 1 1 






James Almond 


I 










Thomas Mechin 




1 2 1 


1 




EUinor Dorrington . 




1 


1 






John Partington 




2 1 






John Thome . 


2 










John Bush 




2 2 4 






Walter Duglasse 


1 










Robertt Tubb 




1 1 






William Ellis 


2 










Thomas Haynes 




1 1 2 




1 


Lawrence Murphy . 


1 










Roger Thomas 




1 






Obadiah Jones 


1 










Edward Cooper 




3 1 


3 


6 


John Deunet 


1 










Stephen Harper 




3 1 1 




























John Russell . 




2 1 








138 


68 


69 


34 2 


9 2U 


John Lumby . 
William Shaw 




3 3 




















1 I 1 








'"^~" 










John Jean 




1 1 2 


















John Masters 




2 2 2 


1 


1 


North Sid 


E, Nonsuch 


Division. 




Richard Mathew 




1 2 1 


















John Court . 




1 2 






Cap' Richard Eyres family 


1 




2 


5 


i 2 


Cap" John (sic) Wynthrop 


2 4 1 


8 


3 4 


L' Daniell Mitchell . 


1 






1 










Morris Dailies 


1 




1 






138 66 61 


115 


108 61 


John Hopson 


3 




2 


1 












Phillip Kenedy 
Ens. John Hall 


2 

2 






2 










1 1 








Henry Cooke 


2 




1 


2 2 2 


South Side, Nonsuch Division. 




Charles Hargeden 


1 
















Jane Nuttbeane 






3 




I 2 


L' Daniell Pes(blot) . .444 


2 


2 2 


John Ward 


3 






4 




William Bettley 




1 1 3 


1 


1 


Richard Sklyner 


7 






8 5 


Francis Bonner 




2 1 2 






Dermond Noon 


1 




2 


1 


1 


Robert Belgrove 




1 1 






Thomas England 


1 










Robert Clark . 




1 1 1 






John Barnard 


4 




2 






Curnelius Conner 




1 1 






Thomas Poole 


3 






3 




George Smith 




2 1 2 




1 2 


Owen M'Carty 


4 






1 




Darby Collins 




2 






Daniell Minchon 


2 




1 




1 


Randoll Jones 




2 






Symon Gubbius 


1 




1 






William Curtis 










James Rcbertson 


2 










Thomas Green 










Daniell Denning 


2 










Daniell Carty 










Nicholas Porter 


1 










Dennis Coaply 










Edward Williams 


2 




4 


2 




Richard Carter 




2 1 


1 


1 


James Noon . 


1 




1 






Edward Cooke 




1 2 1 




1 


Robert Toft . 


2 




1 






Joseph Daniell 




1 1 1 






Edmond Carrell 


1 






1 


Rowland Davies 




1 1 1 






Francis Ash well 


1 




1 






William Evans 










John Sharpe . 


1 




3 






John Uugan . 




4 1 2 


8 


7 6 


William Thompson . 


1 




1 






William Farrell 










John Blauden 


2 










Edward Pumpney 










Walter Lo^e . 


1 










Domingo Ferdinando 




1 1 1 






Timothy Cockly 


4 


2 




1 




Paull Mallard 




2 1 2 


1 


1 I 


Edward Rukett 


1 










John Xioholls 




4 1 2 






Thomas Grosswell 


4 










Dominick French 










Walter Phillips 


7 


1 


1 


4 : 




John Foster . . 










Benjamin Tuck 


2 


1 


1 


1 




Richard Gill , 




2 2 2 






John Yexly . 


2 


2 








Nathaniell Garrett 




2 3 2 


1 


1 


William Pixe 


3 


1 


1 


1 1 




Thomas Elmes 




2 1 2 


1 


1 


Thomas York 


2 


1 


2 






Evan Junes . 










Mathew Brjan 


2 










Christopher Rymes 




3 1 2 


1 


1 


John Pike . 


4 


2 




2 I 


1 


Robert HoUis 










John Wynter 


4 










William Hughes 




1 1 3 






Rob>-rt Sutton 


") 


1 


3 




1 


William Coomes 




4 2 3 


1 


1 


William Hunt 


6 


2 


1 






Robert Harris 




1 1 2 






John Morse . 


2 


1 


1 


] 





FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. lix 



White White White Negro Negro Negro 
Men. Women. Childn. Men. Women. Childn. 



Robert Oswell 
Joseph Hester 
Cliristopher Ramsey 
Joseph Parker 
John Cranwell 
John Gunter 
John Gratrix 
John Lachaisnay 
Roger Kennedy 
John Barloe . 
Jone Lory 



o 


1 




3 


1 


1 


2 






1 


1 


3 


3 






i 


1 




Q 


1 


2 


1 


1 




1 

3 


1 
2 


2 




1 


3 



1 2 



131 



46 



47 



41 



L' William Bultam' 
En.s. Thomas Gregory 
William Drowne 
M'* Martha Bradshaw 
Robert Standly 
Thomas Jug'well 
John Wills 
Thomas Heath 
John Smith . 
Samuell Hart 
Pharoah Larmore 
George Garnish 
Richard Mathews 
Cap' Purfrey . 
Thomas Burlyn 
David Clark . 
John Chilbury 
John Bath 
WiUiam Duglasse 
William Lockwood 
Thomas Lodge 
Oliver Oldwyn 
Coll. Meeres plant" 
William Card 
Daniell Davvly 
Joshua Leach 
Owen Sullavane 
John Cave 
Ens. John Hall plant' 
Robert Howard 
John Grymes 
Thurlo m'Shee 
Thomas Coninga 
Henry Edwards 
Edmond Coll . 
Thomas Symons 
James Farrell 
Garrett Browne 
James Connell 
William Backer 
John Lavicount 
William Shaw 
William Burk 
Darby Carty . 
Phylom m'Carty 
John French . 
Michaell m'Carty 
Morris Hurlo 
Charles Haneren 
Peter Ramsey 
John White . 



Old North Sound Division. 



41 



10 



White White White Negro _Negro 
Men. Women. Childn, 



Negro 
Men. Women. Childn. 



W"' Stiller . 

Teige Woolahan 

John Pearce . 

Coll. Chr. Codrington plant" 

Sam. Jefferson 

M' Tho. Eastohurch plant" . 



2 






1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


3 


2 






1 


2 






7 


3 


1 




1 


1 




1 






10 


12 



96 34 



16 



129 139 104 

_l 



Old Noeth Sound Division. 




Parham plant" 


. 11 


1 


4 21 


26 


27 




John Morris, negroa 






4 


5 






Cap" John Vernon . 


.' 6 


2 


3 18 


21 


14 


Cap" W" Thomas 


L' Cockram . 


. ."J 


2 


6 


6 


9 


Richard Hodge 


M' Luke Lucies plant 


. 3 




5 


11 


9 


Edward Foot 


M' William Thorp 


. 3 


1 


10 


16 


12 


Hen. Drake . 


Edward Leaver 


. 1 


1 


3 2 


2 


3 


W" Morgan . 


Ens" Willoughby Bya 


m . 4 




11 


11 


11 


Jone Abrihall 


Cap" W"' Thomas pla 


ut" . 1 




6 


4 




Arthur Everard 


John Stratton 


. 1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Phillip Chapman 


Mildred Freeman 




2 








Jonas Laugford 


Robert Smallecombe 


. 3 


1 








W" Boone 


John Ryder . 


. 3 


2 








Thomas Jones 


Joseph Richardson 


. 3 










Thomas Bartlet 


Peter Dutton . 


. 2 




1 






Thomas Wildgoose 


William Williams 


5 










Daniell Hensley 


Richard Kitchen 


. 3 










Mary Humphry 


Henry Newman 


. 3 




1 






W™ Furlove . 


Sam. Maun . 


1 




2 2 


1 




John Jenkins 


Samuell Mantle 


. 1 










Francis Allen 


M' John Parry 


i 




1 4 


3 




Richard Todman 


.John Brumley 


2 










James Barton 


W" Knightly 


2 




5 


3 


3 


Walter Scott . 


Thomas Lovell 


. 1 




1 3 


3 


3 


W- Lee 


Walter Buck . 


2 










Jonas Baker . 


Edw. Buck . 


3 




1 


1 




Martyn Payn 


Tho. Hawes . 


. 1 




4 


4 


2 


James Corage 


Edw. Thomas 


. 1 




1 


2 




Robert Poole . 


John Bowden 


. 12 


5 


1 1 






Thomas Hogan 



L' VVynthrops plant" 
Giles Blizard . 
Thomas Seagrave 
W" Tapster . 
John Short 
Simon Veynes 
W"' Mayer 
John Enis 
John Robenson 
James Robenson 
Jone Blashford 
John Cable . 
John Barry . 
Thomas Lidiott 
Teige SuUavan 
John Brock . 
James Jones . 
Edmond Easted 
John Heely . 
Tho. Gravener 
Humphry Freind 
Thomas Cox . 
Benjamin King 
Dennis Hicks 
Thomas Prin . 
Nicholas Fowler 
James Johnson 
John Nibs 
Nicholas Collins 
Tho. Dashwood 
W"' Adams 
Dennis M'Carty 
John Barry . 
John Moon 
Hen. Walden . 
Tho. Edwards 
Garrett Barry 
John Ellett . 
Christopher Marsh 
Ens. Fran. Carlile 
Henry Stodder 
William Barnes 
John Frankling 
William Ball . 
Thomas Ball . 
Thomas Roberts 
Thomas Smith 
John Cash 
Anthony Burgesse 
John Ellett . 
Cap" Samuell Jones 
Henry Hackney 
Roger Mosse . 
Dennis Maltalo 
Major Mussenden 
Edm. Paynter 
Geo. Digby 



4 


1 


1 


28 


27 


12 


5 












4 


2 




1 


3 


1 


1 




4 








1 












4 




1 








2 




1 








2 




1 








1 












2 




3 
1 








1 




2 








2 












3 




3 


1 


1 




1 




1 








1 




1 








2 


3 


7 








2 


2 


1 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


2 




3 




2 








1 


1 


1 








3 


1 




3 


1 




2 


1 


1 








1 


1 


1 








2 


2 


1 




1 




1 


1 










2 


2 


5 


5 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


2 


1 


2 












1 


1 


1 








1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


4 


2 






1 




3 


1 










1 


1 










2 


1 


3 




1 




1 


3 


2 


15 


24 


13 


1 


2 


1 








2 






4 


2 


1 


1 












2 








1 




2 




1 




2 


1 


1 












1 












2 












1 




4 








1 












4 




1 


9 


14 


12 


2 




2 


1 


3 




2 




1 








1 












2 




3 


7 


6 




1 




5 


1 


3 


5 


3 






1 


1 


1 



120 62 



74 



91 111 



Pope's Head Division. 



4 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
14 
4 
2 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
4 
2 
3 
4 
1 
1 
2 



58 



4 


11 


14 


12 






1 


1 


4 


1 


2 




2 


1 






1 




1 






2 


2 




2 




1 




3 


11 


14 


6 


3 


1 






2 




1 




3 








1 








4 


2 




1 


2 


6 


6 


1 


4 


2 






1 


2 


1 




2 








3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 




3 








3 




1 




3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 







THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Mary Lander 
John Sanders 
Adrian Rupert 
Elizabeth Elmore 
Rofrer Elmore 
Peter Allison 
W" Stephens 
W" Chamberlin 
G-eorg:e Grig-g-s 
Thomas Tichbourne , 
W"' Callander 
James Sparkes 
John Curtis . 
Arnold Thomas 
Curnelius Maroon 
John Beck 
Christopher Kaynell 
Thomas Packer 
Peter Garrett 
Robert Starkey 
W"" Mason 
Duncan Connell 
Dominicus Brackamont 
Abraham Cave 
L' Peter Willcox 
Elisha Rice . 
Thomas Garroway 
Teign Grin 
James Cook . 
W» Atwell . 
Derrick Brunkhurst . 
Thomas Gilliat 
Randoll Backer 
John Gethings 
W" RaynolU 



White White White Negro Negro Negro 
Men. Women. Childn. Men. Women. ChiJdn. 

1 1 



1 3 







4 




1 








1 








3 


1 










1 






















1 








1 








2 


1 








1 








2 


1 


1 


3 






2 


1 


1 


















1 


















3 












1 








2 






















1 




























2 










T 










6 




n 








4 


1 










1 






1 


1 


















1 










2 


2 


3 






3 


3 


4 






6 


1 


1 






1 


1 






2 


5 


3 


6 



131 67 100 



Dixon's Bay Division. 



Cap" Jeremy Wattkins 
Edmond Hull 
Thomas Gales 
Ensiue John Britten 
John Trotter 
William Garrett 
Josiah Webber 
Hup;h Jones . 
Richard Buckly 
Henry Granden 
John Ilayden 
Christopher Read 
Urion Cammell 
Jacob Thomas 
Andrew liaj-ne 
L' John Hambleton 
Thomas Oliver 
Roger Neaves 
Henry Bing . 
James Bayly . 
Teige Redmore 
Anthony Depree 
Robert Declary 
W" Boon 

Coll. Beyers plant" 
Lewis Bernell 
John Tyer 
William Tremills 
Richard Glandfeild 
Samuell Sizemore 
Geor^'e Polton 
Edw. Willshire 
John Bashan 
Thomas Darlow 
Christopher Knig'ht 
John Atkins . 
Edw. Green . 
Edw. Home . 
Edw. Pavley . 
Alexander Witheridge 
L' Mark Jackson 
Alexander Coote 
Andrew Hambleton 
Jane Mould . 
Ambrose York 
Thomas Turnor 
John Canter . 
Edw. Martyu 
John Morris . 
Tio. Kenestone 
Mary Woo,;jan 
Isaac Abraham 
John Polton . 
John Bervill . 



3 
3 

2 
3 
4 
4 
7 
3 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
18 
1 
4 
1 
1 



2 
2 

140 



69 



2.5 



56 56 



L' Coll. Boyers plant" 
Cap" Harvey Kaynell 



St. John's Division. 

9 
. 9 3 1 



74 



27 



1 




9 


4 






5 


2 

1 


I 


2 




1 


2 






3 


1 




1 


2 


2 


6 


2 


2 


3 


1 
2 




1 


2 


1 


1 




1 




3 


2 




7 


6 


1 


1 






2 


2 


2 




1 




4 


4 




1 


1 




1 




2 








5 


2 


3 


3 


2 



35 



16 
5 

2 



94 92 47 



White White White Negro Negro Negro 
Men. Women. Childn. Men. Women. Childn. 



M" Mary Hill 

Thomas Beck 

George Dewitt 

M' Thomas More 

W'" Hennis 

M' James Hurd 

M' Jonas Langford's plant" 

L' Sam. Holder 

M' Anthony Ryerson 

Geo. Robinson 

M' Henry Meyer 

M' I'liohard Hodden 

Ens. Benjamin Jefferies 

Francis Anthony 

Seth Marloe . 

Abell Rubsight 

Charles Ward 

Thomas Webb 

John Otto 

John Drew 

John Pope 

Garrett Thomson 

Richard Abrahall 

John Ennis . 

Robert Powell 

Th.>. Evins . 

W"' Taylor . 

David Belt . 

Stephen Dureing 

Simon Bulger 

Joseph Beng- 

Curnelius Lawson 

Edw. Dunn . 

James Belcher 

John Brumblecome 

John Lucas . 

Francis Watkins 

Stephen Lowler 

Robert Gouldiug 

John Morphew 

Edward Dendy 

Thomas Sevenill 

Mathew Hunter 

Tho. Robenson 

Abraham Bretton 

Thomas Pratt 

W'" Robenson 

Roger Trottman 

Evan Jones 

Francis Fallemert 

Geo. Phillips . 

Edm" Cand 

Thomas Foot . 

.fohn Seward . 

M' Tho. Dipford 

Roger Complain 

Ralph Pengelly 

Ann Jonts 

Samuell Martyu 

Robert Black 

Hugh Murr . 

Andrew Hewing 

John Hunter 

John Martyn 



2 
4 
1 
2 
1 
4 
li 
3 
2 
4 
10 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
5 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
4 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
I 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
3 



2 9 
1 

3 1 
2 
4 



4 
20 



12 
5 
2 
3 



7 
1 
2 
14 
3 
1 



145 



64 



36 



93 107 



Caelile Road Division. 



19 
6 



24 
9 



21 
6 



L' Coll. Rowland Williams 

Walter Williams 

Joseph Banbury 

George Sergant 

James Williams 

M' Ca>sar Rodeneys plant" 

Henry Sharpe 

Jone Steele . 

Mary Steele . 

Joan Granger 

M'" Joan Hall 

Thomas Compton 

Samuell Irish 

Ens. James Davenport 

M' Alexander PoUington' 

plant" 
Cap' John Cade 
]j' Mark Bruister 
Cap' Henry NichoUs . 
Owen Bromwell 
W"' Blackbourne 
Evan Griffin . 
Elizabeth Harris 
Robert Xoncon 
Thomas Endratt 
Thomas Gibson 
W- Walker . 
Edw. Norton . 
Hugh Hogan 
Tho. Lebar 
L' John Fry . 
M™ Katherme Watts 
Laurence Turton 
Peter Welch . 



15 

5 

1 
2 

5 
6 
1 

2 
3 

2 



77 



7 
. 1 


3 

1 




1 


26 


30 


18 


. 1 


1 


1 




1 




. 2 


1 










. 1 
. 1 


1 


2 


1 
4 


4 


2 


. 3 


1 
1 
1 




2 


1 
1 






2 






1 


1 


1 


1 




5 


6 


1 


. 1 


2 




2 


4 


3 


. 3 


2 




6 


4 


5 


. 1 


1 


2 


3 






. 3 


1 


3 


10 


15 


13 


. 4 


2 


4 


13 


16 


7 


o 










1 


. 3 


4 




3 


6 


4 


1 


I 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 










. 2 












. 1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


1 


. 2 






1 


1 




. 1 


1 


1 




1 




. 1 


1 










. 2 


1 


2 


3 


3 




. 2 


1 










. 1 


1 










. 1 












i> 


2 


1 


9 


13 


4 


. 6 


1 




11 


11 


8 


. 2 


1 


2 


3 


5 


2 


. 3 


1 




3 


1 





EROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OE JAMES II. Ixi 



White White White Negro Negro Negro 
Men. Women. Childu. Meu. Women. Childn. 



Phylom Obrynon 


2 1 


Robert Nicholls 




Henry Nicholls 




Thomas Moyses 




Zachary Seavenocks . 




Arthur Williams 




Robert Jackson 




Andrew Curteen 


5 3 


Cap" Moyle Johnson 


2 1 



84 49 



42 



115 133 



75 



The Severall Divisions in this Island, vizt — 



Falmouth Division 


. 138 


6fi 


61 


115 


103 


61 


South Side, Nonsuch 


. 138 


68 


69 


34 


29 


20 


North Side, Nonsuch 


. 131 


4(5 


47 


41 


41 


10 


Bellfast 


. 113 


33 


27 


24 


34 


12 


Old North Sound 


. 9(5 


34 


16 


129 


139 


104 


New North Sound 


. 120 


62 


74 


91 


111 


58 


Pope's head . 


. 131 


67 


100 


69 


74 


35 


Dixon's Bay . 


. 140 


56 


56 


94 


92 


47 


S' John's 


. 145 


64 


36 


93 


107 


77 


Carlile Road . 


. 84 


49 


42 


115 


133 


75 



1236 544 528 805 868 499 





Men. 


Women. 


Childn 


English 


800 


400 


400 


Irish . 


360 


130 


120 


Scotch 


76 


14 


8 



1236 



544 



528 



Totals foe the 4 Islands. 



White White White 
Men. Women. Childn. 



Nevis 

Montserrat 
S' Christopher's 
Antigua . 



1541 

1148 

695 

1236 



838 
591 
539 
544 



1216 
943 
663 

528 



Negro 
Men. 

1422 

992 

1436 



Negro 
Women. 



Negro 
Childn. 



1321 1106 

No return. No return. 

No return. No return. 

868 499 



Since The Writing of the aforegoeing Lists I have 
devided the Nevis Regiment into Two Regiments & the 
Antegoe Regiment also, into Two Regiments The Names 
of the Officers of each are hereafter Incerted viz : — 

Antegoa. 



James Vaughan, Collonel. 
Samnell TVynthrop, Cap" Lef. 
Francis Carlile, Ens". 
Thomas Mallett, Lief Coll. 
Daniell Hensley, Lief. 
Joseph Wattkins, Ens". 
Jeremiah Wattkins, Major. 
Marke Jackson, Lief. 
Edward Pawley, Ens". 
W" Thomas, Cap". 
Peter Willcox, Lef. 
Giles Blizard, Ens". 
Samuell Jones, Cap". 
Benjamin Jeflferies, Lief. 
Roger Complyng, Ens". 
John Vernon, Cap". 
Arthur Everard, Lief. 
W"" Knightly, Ens". 
John Frey, Cap". 
Geo. Dewitt, Lief. 
James Davenport, Ens". 
John Hambleton, Cap". 
Thomas Buck, Lief. 
Samuell Martyn, Ens". 

The whole bundle of these 
the 27"' of August 1678." 



Rowland Williams, Coll. 
Willoughby Bryan (sic), Lief*. 
Christopher Kaynell, Ens". 
Richard Ayres, Lief Coll. 
Daniell Mitchell, Lief. 
John Hall, Ens". 
William Barnes, Major. 
Richard Sheer, Lief. 
John Hopton, Ens". 
Joseph Wynthropp, Cap". 
William FuUum, Lief. 
Thomas Gregory, Ens". 
Paull Lee, Cap". 
W" Way n Wright, Lief. 
John Austen, Ens". 
Arthur Cockeram, Cap". 
John Morris, Lief. 
Edward Thomas, Ens". 
John Cade, Cap". 
Daniell Pellar, Lief. 
X'pher Rymer, Ens". 
Moyle Johnson, Cap". 
Walter Phillips, L*. 
W"' Pike, Ens. 
lists is endorsed : — " Received 



1G79, April 2. The 70 negros from Tobago had 
been granted to Governor Stapleton by patent dated 
12 April 30 Charles II., but the States General having 
claimed that they were unlawfully captured, he was 



compelled to pay the Dutch full value for them. 
Captain Haddock, who was the prime mover in the 
matter, was now dead, and Sir Richard Haddock 
appears to have had a share in the venture. 

On 15 July Paul Lee and Jeremiah Watkins (? as 
Judges or joint Deputy-Governors) with Philip 
Warner, Speaker, signed an "Act for Encouragement 
of Settlers and Builders," by which it was enacted 
that all persons obtaining proportions of land, and 
building thereon a timber house vnthin six months, 
would retain the land in fee simple. Such a pro- 
portion in St. Johns was limited to 50 feet front by 
80 feet back ; in Falmouth, 40 feet by 60 feet ; in 
Bridge Town, 40 feet by 50 feet ; in Parham, 60 feet 
by 80 feet. 

1678-9. On 29 January Stapleton wrote that the 
Comte D'Estrees squadron fell upon the scholes of 
y" isle d'Aves betwixt Bonare and Caraso, and lost 
13 sail, whereof his own was one. 

1679. On the 30th of the First Month, the said 
Governour Paul Lee issued a Warrant to Stephen Harper 
Constable, requiring him to go to the house of Anthony 
Cade, where a religious Meeting then was, several being 
assembled waiting upon the Lord in Silence. The Constable 
rushed rudely in, and commanded them to depart, but the 
Assembly continued, till the Constable, with one John 
Austin, an Ensign, and others who attended him, grew more 
urgent, and producing the Governour's Warrant, fell to 
hauling the Persons assembled by Force and Violence out 
of the Meeting, using such unseemly Behaviour, and mixing 
their Speech with Oaths, to the Grief of all sober Persons 
present. (Besse.) 

1680. Colonel Stapleton reports : — 

In Antego, Valentine Russell Esq. dep. govei-nour and 
Judge of the Sessions of the peace and Goal delivery y« 
councill his assistants. 

In the precincts of phalmouth paul Lee Esq'^ Judge of 
comou pleas & nisi prius does alsoe y'' office of a Justice of 
j'^ peace. 

In the precincts of S' Johns W™ Barnes Esq. Judge of 
the comon pleas & nisi prius. Coll. Rowland Williams 
commands the militia and a particular Reg' his L' Coll. is 
Rich. Ayres. 

Major W™ Barnes. Cap* Paul Lee. 

Cap' John Cade. Cap' Moyl Johnson. 

Cap' Jo. Winthrop. Cap' Archibald Johnson. 



Of the other Reg' is : — 

Coll. James Vaughan. 
L' Coll. Tho. Mallet. 
Major Jeremy Watkins. 



Cap' I. Thomas. 
Cap' Sam. Jones. 
Cap' John Vernon. 
Cap' Jo. fry. 



The Secretaries office is Injoyed by John ley the Mar- 
shall by Hen. Symes. The Register office in y' Island is 
distinct from j" Secretaries office by an act it keepes record 
of lands and all conveyances thereunto belonging. 

On 7 February 1679-80, and on 5 May 1680, he 
reports : — 

The Deptford ketch Cap' Avie Commander has arrived 
from Surinam with 102 persons black & white now at Antigua 
the Dutch wont let any more leave tho' they are in a bad 
plight & liable to the attack of Indians. 



Ixii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



On 15 June the Council signed a letter, theii* 
names were : — 

Jn° Parry. Rich. Ayres. Val. Eussell. 

Sam" .Jones. Jn° Cade. Paul Lee. 

Sam" Long. Will. Thomas. Row. AVilliams. 

Jas. Vaughan. 

From an estimate handed in to the P.O. we learn 
that 1000 men formed in 10 companies (including 
their transport) would cost £17,510 a year. If 
regimented the pay would be, for the Colonel 12s., 
Lieut.-Colonel 7s.,]Vrajor 5s., Ayde-Major 4s., Quarter- 
Master 4s., Chaplain and Chirurgeon 6s. 8d., his mate 
2s. 6d., Captain 8s., Lieutenant 4s., Ensign 3s., 
Sergeant 18d., Corporal 12d., Drummer 12d., and 
Private 8d. per diem. 

In September, William Gaughag, Field-Marshal, took 
away from one of the People called Quakers 600 lb. of 
Tobacco, by Order of Governour James Vaughan, for not ap- 
pearing at the usual Place of Exercising in Arms. (Besse.) 

1680-1. On 10 March was read at the Council 
of Trade the Treaty of Neutrality between Barbados, 
Jamaica, the Leeward Islands, and the French. 

1680, January the 23"'. 

A List of the Kings Subjects now in Surrinam with the 
Number of their Slaves viz' : — 

Imprimis. Negros. Imprimis. Negros. 

Thomas Buncombe 40 James Seaman 

Francis Bruning 50 Teag Deniford 

Henry Mackintosh 30 William Denton 2 

Rob' Fulgeman 25 Rob' Barry 3 

Andrew Clyfiford M" Danford 15 

Thomas Region 2 William Robisson 4 

James Region Isaack Pears 

Nathaniell Davis 6 John Rawlins 

John Bull John Hart 

William Nights John Hosier 

Henry Plane Daniell Gwine 

Francis Browne William Powell 5 

Thomas Gregory Valentine Pennell 

Arthur Barton John Davis 3 

Philip Darby 5 Henry Jorden 

Steven Ryan 4 Thomas Hill 

Rob' Simes William Colle 

Henry James 4 Roger Reyly 2 

William Monroe 10 

Benjamin Pine 212 

Phillip Thomas 3 «= 

Endorsed :— " A list of y^ Kings Subjects White & Black 
in Surinam. Rec* the 26»» Aprill 1680." 

All the above must have been transferred shortly after- 
wards to Antigua. 

The true State of the Manufacture of Sugars within our 
Plantations. Which requires all manner of En- 
couragment. 

1. Because our Plantations have reduced the Price of 
Sugers in its severall sorts, from 2 shillings (formerly paid) 
unto 8'', from 15'^ to 5'' from lO"" and upward to under S"! 
although wee have had the possession of that Manufacture 
not much above 25 or 26 years. 

2. Our Plantations have not only saved to this Nation, 
the whole money usually expended for that Com'odity (or 
may easily save it) But have raised a Revenue, besides 
by exporting out into Forraigne parts yearly about Seaven 
or Eight Thousand Tnnns of that Commodity. 

3. That our Plantations have by this meanes helped to 
save our import, & to promote our export to above 400, & 
sometimes to above 5 or 600,000 sterling per year, Without 



the Assistance of which supply yearly, This Nation must 
have probably long since sunk in its Trade, our Drapery 
abroad haveing so manifestly decayed, as it hath within 
these last 30 yeares. 

4. That by reason of this Industry of our Plantations 
wee have already beate out the Portugeize at Brasile from 
sending home any Muscuvadoes. And have reduced their 
fine Sugars from 7 or 8 pounds the hundred, unto 50 & odd 
shillings, & are by this meanes the sole Merchants, almost 
of all that Suger that is Manufactured into loafe or hard 
Suger either in Holland, France, or Hambrough as being 
all made out of our Muscovados. 

5. That if encouragment were therefore given to the 
planting, increasing & full manufacturing of that Com- 
modity, it might be as easy for us to beate out the Brasilians 
in their Trade of White Sugars, & to furnish Spaine & the 
Streights, with that Commodity, as wee have aUready beate 
them out of the Muscovados, which attempt would be the 
more Adviseable as is humbly conceived. 

1. Because the Ingrossing into our own hands, the Trade 
of Whites as well as that of Muscovados would at least double 
the Revenue (to this Nation) which wee now have by the 
said Suger, & consequently would so much the more con- 
tribute to ease the greatnesse of our Consumption. 

2. Because the better price Sugars do yeild, the more 
encouragment there would be to plant it. And so increase 
the Quantity of it, which is an easy matter for us to do, 
even to what Quantity soever shall be necessary for all 
Christendome. 

3. Because as we now rule the Price of Muscovados in 
all Countries, in regard we have most quantity of it, (and 
might have much more ruled it, even absolutely, had not 
the French & Dutch lately wronged us by new Impositions, 
which have not been retaliated by us) so for the same reason 
we may equally be able to Rule the price of White Suger, 
and of all sorts of refined in all places, if once such course 
be taken, as that, we are Masters of Whites, as much as we 
are of Muscovados. 

4. Because by how much the more we have beate 
out the Brasiliajis, from the Trade of Sugar, or may yet doe. 
By so much the more reason, there is that we should pre- 
vent the ffrench & Dutch in their planting of it also, as far 
as we may. 

5. Because the Dutch by getting footing upon the faire 
Coast of Guiana of late, and that French most industriously 
minding the Increase & Fortification of their Plantations, 
are like unavoidably to undermine us in that Trade, if 
nothing extraordinary be done by us to encourage our 
Plantations in it. 

6. Because by reason of the late injurious & imoderate 
Taxes of our Neighbours, upon our Sugar, the Muscovadoes 
sent home, is sold now for 22' per Hundred, which is but 
two pence halfe penny per pound, both for the Merchant & 
Planter, & that after the payment of Custome Freight & 
Petty charges here & and after the payment of 4i per 
Centum there also. 

7. Because the said sugars yeilding so little a price as 
they are now reduced into, do not cleare 6 per Cent, to the 
Planter for all his money & charges laid out, or not much 
more, which must make the planter in time unavoidably to 
grow carelesse. And so the Commodity itselfe will be 
hazarded if not in the whole, yet in the maine, bulk of it to 
be lost by us. 

8. Because besides the late & im'oderate Taxes, layed on 
Sugar, by the French & Dutch IS"' per Hundred is layed 
upon it Custome inward. The raoity of w'='' being paid back 
upon the Export of it, the Stranger & Forraigner of other 
parts hath it not only as cheape or cheaper, then we our- 
selves have it. 

But they imediatly refining it, & Manufacturing it, & 
we not doing it. The Sweat, Paines, & Hazard of the 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OF JAMES II. Ixiii 



Planter & Merchant in making and Iiringing home the said 
snger, doth wholly go to feed & enrich the said Strangers. 
Upon all which it is with all hurablenesse propounded : — 

1. That the Excise be layd wholy on the fine Sugars of 
Brasill, & taken off from all White Sugers of our own 
especially if exported. 

2. That an extraordinary be put open those Muscovadoes 
of ours, which are exported without being Manufactured 
which may well beare a halfe penny upon a pound outward. 

3. That in consideration of the Encouragment of our 
Manufacture one Shilling & no more, may be put upon the 
Hundred weight of Muscovadoes custome inward. It 
yeilding now but little more than 20' for y'' said Hundred. 

The English Suger Plantations have formerly employed 
about 400 Saile of Sliips annually & in them nigh 10,000 
Seamen. They also formerly added a Native Comodity of 
above 800,000"'= value to the Nation, of which the Planters 
have not 40,000"" per an' clear profit, the rest (but what 
goes to His Ma"" Dutyes) is distributed amongst His 
Ma''" Subjects, for their Provisions, Shiping & Manu- 
factures till of late the Plantations never cost His Ma''^ or 
His predecessors anything for their mantainance. 

The ffrench in the late Warr took S' Christophers 
Antegua & Mouiitserat & in them above 15,000* Negros & 
other Materialls of planting amounting in value to above 
400,000"'^ Sterl., which being made use of in their own 
Islands they are not only very much increased in the Pro- 
duction of Suger but also in strength by the cominge to 
them of great numbers from ffrance. 

The flfrench King bending his designes to become great 
at Sea & (as wee do humbly conceive) knowing that the 
Trade to the Plantations is one of the Chiefe causes of the 
great number of Seamen in England, and taking Courage 
from the aforesaid advantages prosperity of his aflPaires in 
the Caribby Islands, doth designe wholy to beate the 
English out of the suger trade in order to which bee hath 
of late done many things for their incouragment. 

One is bee hath laid an imposition of 32 Livers 10 
Souse, upon all fforraine refined sugers & 15 Livers per 
Cent, upon all fforraine Whites, And upon the Sugers of his 
own plantations of what Quality soever but 4 Livers by 
which meanes increasing the Value of his own Sugers he 
hath made Suger makeing of very great profitt to his own 
planta'ns which hath so much increased their strength by 
enticeing great numbers to them from firance in hopes of 
gaine that they are become terrible to the English inhabi- 
tants in that part of the World. 

This Terror & apprehension of the growing flforce of the 
ffrench in those parts hath made many of the prudent & 
Richest Planters of the Sug'' plantations begin to settle in 
New England and the parts adjacent many being allready 
gone & more enclined that way. By the aforesaid great 
impositions on fforaiu Sugers in France, the Sugers of 
Brasile are as it were prohibited of that Country, and are 
therefore in greater Quantity then formerly brought into 
England which lessens the Vallue of English Sugers & if 
continued one of these two things following must unavoid- 
ably ensue. Either that the English planter Encumbred 
in his Manufactures by the last act of Navigation a custome 
here amounting to 12^ per Cent, another in the Colonys 
amounting to 4| per C must laye down the Trade as finding 
it no longer profitable. Or the Poorer sort of Planters who 
are the Strength & Defence of the Collonys will by reason 
of the low vallue of their Com'odityes which is worth but 
12» per Cent, in English plantations, be forced through 
poverty & uneasiness to wander for a lively hood into other 
parts as 1600 have (within a year past) done from Barbados 
alone & perhaps may be wonne to go over to the French or 
Dutch plantations where Suger is worth 20' per C* & where 
* 1500 would be nearer the truth. 



many English Planters are allready gone, by which meanes 
all the English Suger plantations will be so weakened as 
they will fall into the Hands of the ffrench, when ever they 
please to attack them unless his Ma'^ att a vast Charge 
keep great Garrisons there. 

By the Loss of the Plantations itt is humbly conceived 
these following inconveniences will fall on England. 

Ten thousand seamen which were etaployed in this 
Trade will be to seeke of employment who for a livlyhood 
must either go into the service of him that gaines it, or 
betake themselves to other Trades, by which meanes France 
will have 10,000 Seamen more, & England 10,000 Seamen 
less then she had which differs the former Ballance 20,000 
Seamen which added to the other Navall preparac'ons of 
France may make her Equall if not Superior to England in 
power by Sea. 

A Native Comodity of 800,000"" per an' val' being 
wholly lost many flfamilyes who subsisted by this Trade will 
want where withall to pay the Landed Man for his Corne 
Cattell, etc. 

If the Comodityes of the Suger & the growth of the 
English plantations formerly cost this Nation 800,000^''' 
per an' of their Bullion, it must necessarilly follow that if 
the Suger Plantations shall be lost then this charge must 
again fall upon the Nation, which will be 1,600,000""^ 
Sterling per An' difference in the present Ballance of trade. 
And how the present Trade of this Nation is able to bear 
such a losse wee submitt to the Wisdome of y'' Honors. 

All these great advantages to His Ma*y & this Kingdome 
doth acrew by the single industry of not above 10,000 
English planters which wee humbly conceive could be no 
way employ'd in England more to the advantage of this 
Nation. 

The premisses being considered by yo"' Honno''' great 
Wisdome & prudence, your petition" do humbly hope that 
your HonC' will see that it may bee of ill Consequence to 
Clogg the Suger Comodity with further impositions, which 
allwayes falls upon the planter ; but rather (by an imposition 
uppon fforeine Sugers equall in proportion to that of France) 
Put the English into as good a Condition as the ffrench 
Planter, that their Poor may be able to stay amongst them, 
and the means of drawing them to their own Plantations be 
thereby taken from y« ffrench . 

Endorsed : — " Concerning the Suger Plautac'ons : y'' P.O. 
from Coll. Lynch." 

Muscovados Sugar is the Cane Juice boiled to a con- 
sistence put into Potts & there let stand untill the molosses 
or syrops are run from it & pay 18* custome. 

Sundnjeds are Muscovados sugar dryed 6 or 8 hours in 
the Sun & pays 18'' custome. 

Clayed Suger is Muscovados suger with a batter of Clay 
put on it in the Pott & the Water that is mixed with the 
Clay sinking from it & pressing through the Suger washes 
the Molosses from the graine, when this sort of suger is 
taken out of the Pott, it is devided into two sorts, that 
which is next unto the Clay is White, (but little in Quantity) 
& this is the white Snger of the Plantations & pays 5' 
custome. That which is farther ft-om the Clay remains in 
cooler something better then Sundryed & is the greater 
quantity, & is the Brown Suger of the Plantations & pays 
18'' Custome at present. 

Refined sugers are the plaine Muscovados Sugers melted 
down boyled up again & clayed & pay 5= custome. 

Those Planters that have Houses & Potts enough doe as 
most profitable, clay all their sugers that are fitt for it, & 
these are halfe of the Suger makers. 

Those that have not Houses and Potts enough doe 
sundry their Muscovados Suger which hardens the grain, 
& keeps it from dissolving in the transportation as undryed 
Muscovados doth to a very great losse of weight. Some 



Ixiv 



THE HISTOEY OF ANTIGUA. 



Lauds and over ^7ett seasons will produce Suger not fitt to 
be Sundryed or clayed & only fit to be refined, & this is the 
chiefe reason there comes home so much of that sort of 
Suger besides it is the scale of Com'erce, men paying their 
Debts with the worst & sending their best Suger to the 
Markett for their own accompt. 

Before the increase of the French Plantations and the 
heavy Impositions in France upon English and other 
fforein Sugers the several sorts of Sugers were sold as 
followeth viz. : — 

Plain Muscovados Suger at about 40' per C now is sold 
for about 22^ out of which is deducted the 4^ per 0. & 18'' 
Customs with fraight & other Charges. 

Sundryed & Brown Sugers were then sold from 45' to 
3"" per C now are sold from 25 to 40' according to the 
goodness of each sort. 

White Sugers were then sold for above 5"" now for 
lesse then 50'. 

The falling of the Profitts of the Suger Trade hath 
proportionably diminished the number of the Inhabitants 
of the Suger Collonys Barbados being since 1665 fall'n from 
14,000 Fighting Men to lesse then 8000 and they continue 
still going away, 2000 people haveing gone away within a 
yeare past, whereof the sobriest & the Richest to the parts 
about New England some to y^ flfrench plantations, & the 
looser sort out of hopes of plunder to Jamaica. 

Should the White Sugers of the Plantations be Taxed 
in favour of the refiners of England, then would the planters 
be beaten out of that Trade, & the Brown & Muscovados 
Suger imported in greater quantity which would proportion- 
ably lessen its value, & those Labourers iraployed in making 
of White Suger wanting Imployment would forsake the 
plantations to their further weakning. 

Should Sundryed & Brown clayed sugers be taxed one 
half peny instead of one farthing (which was the first 
proposal) then would the planter be able to import no more 
of that sort neither, which is the aime of the refiners, the 
quantity of plain Muscovados would then be great & the 
refiners being the only buyers of that used in England their 
value would soone come so lowe as to breake all the Suger 
planters, & perhaps induce them to goe over with their 
stocks to the French plantations where they are offered laud 
for nothing & where for the iucouragm' of the planters. 
White Sugers are taxed no more in France then Brown & 
almost 4 times as much imposition upon Forreine Sugers as 
upon French. 

To avoid these dangers to this Trade it is humbly pro- 
posed That upon Brown & Muscovados Suger y'^ Excise be 
one farthing per pound. 

That upon (? Sunday) or Muscovados of fforainers one 
half peuny. Upon White Sugers of the English Plantac'ons 
one half peuny. Upon fforaigne Whites one penny per 
pound. 

This would secure them against the Portugall & firench 
plantations, & avoid the designe of the refiners of England, 
■who would have the Planters not able to imjwrte one ounce 
of Suger fit for any bodies use but theirs, which by loosing 
the plantations would loose their Trade also. 

Endorsed : — " Description of sugers making." No date. 
(Egerton MS. 2395, fo. 636.) 

Nevis Dec. 10, 1681. 

Extract of a letter to M' Piatt from M' Wilkins in 
Nevis concerning his estate there, with the prices that 
provisions, etc., beare in those parts : — 

All things bein very dear. 



Cassader Bread is sold per pi^ att 
Graine per Bushell att 
Beefe per Barrell att 
Att All Times. 



lbs. of Sugar. 
02 
80 
300 









lbs. of Sugar 


Fresh meate is sold per p 


'i att 






4 


Cod Fish per p'' att 








2 


Biskett per pound 








2i 


Cheese per p'' 








6 


But tire per p'' 








6 


Madera Wine per gallon 








40 


Brandy per Gallon 








100 


Broad cloath per yd. 








250 


French fait shoes each paire 






50 


Canvas per y'^ 








12 


Blew Linnen per y'' 








10 


Copper & Brass per y)<^ 








20 


Pewter per p** . 








16 


Hoes, Axes & Bills 








12 


Carpenter, Mason & shine 


31er each per 


day 


50 


One Plantation cost:- 


— 








To y' Doctor per an' 






, 


SOOO 


The Feild Overseer per an' 


. 




3600 


To the Tayler for each N 


egroes 


suite makeing 


10 


Smiths Work in one year 


ab' 


. 




2000 


Levy of one Year 




, 


. 


4000 


Shoes for Countrey Serv*' 


each 


paire 


. 


35 



The state of a Sugar Plantation. 
There is now upon it 70 working Slaves 35 old & yong 
ones, at p'sent fitt for little, & ab' 30 horses & cattle w* 
two sugar workes two good mills, 11 copers & 3 stills & 
apurtenances thereto belonging, one very good stone mansion 
house with kitchin & other necessary outhouses, etc., also 
down at towne two good large Storehouses consist^ of 5 
severall tenem" so that y'= whole estate may be really worth 
£8000. (Egerton MS. 2395, fo. 597.) 

1681, April 15. At a meeting of the General Council 
& Assembly of the Leeward Islands there were present : — 
Gent" of the Conucill. 
Cap' Chas. Pym, 
Nich. Raynsford, Esq., 
L' Col. Jn° Estridge, 



of Nevis. 



Cap* Jn" Pogson, 
Cap' Paul Lee, 
Cap' Jn° Fry, 
Cap' .In" Symes, 
M-- W-" Fox, 

Gent° of the Assembly, 
M' Philip Lee, Speaker, 
M^ Jas. Walker, 
M^ Ralph Willet, Sp^ 
Cap' W" Willet, 
Cap. Jn" Vernon, 
L' Col. Tho. Mallett, 
M^ Jn" Blake, Sp"', 
L' Jn° Davis, 



of S' X'phers. 
of Antego. 



of M'Serrat. 



of Nevis. 
of S' X'phers. 
of Antego. 
of M'Serrat. 



The meetings of the General Council and As- 
sembly were appointed at various times by the 
Captain-General, and the members met to discuss 
various matters of common interest, and to legislate 
thereon. 

On 16 Aug. Sir W" reported, that on 4 July last the 
Indians lauded at Barbouda, & killed Cap' Francis Malham 
& 7 others, having forced their block-house. Cap' Mal- 
ham's wife & 2 children with a servant woman escaped. 
Arrow-root is used to rub into wounds caused by their 
poisoned arrows. In his next letter he bitterly complains 
that the soldiers are starving, his own salary & their pay 
being still unpaid & now running for the 4"' year. Cap' 
X'pher Billop, commander of the ketch Deptford, overhauled 
the ship Providence of London, Geo. Nanton Master, & she 
not shewing colours he fired a shot at her. The Providence 



FROM RESTORATION OP CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OY JAMES II. Ixv 



returned her fii-e which killed 1 mau & wounded 6. He 
then boarded her & brought her to Antigua where she was 
condemned. Sir W. Stapleton begs to have her cargo of 
217 negros & reminds the Board that he had to pay dearly 
enough for the last gift of the Kings viz. £700 st. for the 
70 Tobago slaves (see ante). £1500 st. had been recently 
granted towards the erections of forts, etc., & one half was 
received this year. 

On 2-t Aug. was passed an Act for dividing the Island 
into 5 parishes building churches & raising funds. The 
parishes so formed were : — 

S' Pauls to include Falmouth, Rendezvous Bay & part 
of Willoughby Bay. 

S' Philips to include part of Willoughby Bay, Nonsuch 
& Belfast. 

S* Peters to include Old & New North Sound. 

S* .Johns to include Popeshead, Dixons Bay, S' Johns ; 
& Five-Islands. 

S' Marys to include Eoad & Bermudian Valley 

Divisions. 

On the same day was passed another Act, conferring on 

Foreigners all the Freedom & Privileges enjoyed by British 

subjects, & by this judicious policy many Protestant aliens 

were attracted to the Island. 

Dec. 7. 15 large Church Bibles ordered to be sent out. 

Dec'' 10. A patent was this day passed to Cap' Rich'' 

Manning, of "Waste called Jollies Hill of 250 acres formerly 

in the possession of — Jolly, at the yearly rent of an ear 

of Indian corn. (Colonial Leeward Islands, No. 50.) 

This Voyager (Dampier) writes largely of the Hurricane 
that happened here in 1681, and of the Signs that it gave of 
its coming, common with the Caribbean Hurricanes ; but 
the most remarkable Accident in it, happened to a Ship of 
120 Tons and ten Guns, commanded by Captain Gadbury, 
who had careened his Ship in Musketo Cove, in S' John's 
Harbour but a little before, and being warned by the 
Planters of the approaching Hurricane, he moored his Ship 
as secure as be could with all his Cables and Anchors, 
besides some Cables which he made fast ashore to great 
Trees ; and about Seven that Evening went ashore to a poor 
Planter's House, about half a Mile from the Shore. By the 
Time he and his Men were arrived at the House, the Wind 
came on very fierce at North East, and veering about to 
North and North West, settled there, bringing with it very 
violent Rains. Thus it continued about four Hours, and 
then fell flat Calm, and the Rain ceased. 

In this Calm he sent three or four of his Men down to 
the Cove, to see what Condition the Ship was in, and they 
found her driven ashore dry on the Sand, lying on one Side, 
with the Head of her Mast sticking into the Sand ; after 
they had walked round her and viewed her a while, they 
returned again to the Captain to give him an Account of 
the Disaster, and made as much haste as they could, because 
the Wind began to blow hard at South West ; and it blew 
so violently before they recovered the House, that the 
Boughs of the Trees whipt them sufl!iciently before they got 
thither, and it rained as hard as before ; the little House 
could scarce shelter them from the wet, for there was little 
besides the Walls standing. Yet they staid till the next 
Morning, and then coming to the Ship, found her almost 
upright, but all the Goods that were in the Hold were 
washed out. Hurricanes since that have been frequent in 
this Island, but there was nothing iu them so extraordinary 
as this. (' The British Empire in America,' by John 

Oldmisou, vol. ii., p. 192.) 
1682. In the Second Month Philip Snelling, for re- 
fusing to pay Priests Wages, had taken ft-om him by James 
Jones Constable, a pair of Stilliards worth 280 lbs. of Sugar, 
by an order of William Barnes President. ( Besse.) 

Oct. 10. At a meeting of the Council there were present : 
Hon. Paul Lee President, Col. Rowl"^ Williams, Maj'' W"" 



Thomas, John Parry Esq., Cap. Fra. Carlile, Sam. Winthrop 
Esq. 

Nov. 14. W°» Blathwayt requests W" Freeman Esq., 
Col. Bastian Baijer & other Merch'' & planters at London 
to attend the next meeting of the Com'ittee of Trade & 
Plantations. 

May 24. An Act was passed for sending Shalloops 
against the Indians. This refers to Stapletons Expedition 
to Dominica. 

Deposition of Tho. Bisse of Nevis Merch' re a sloop 
(taken by a privateer of Cape Cod) bound from Boston to 
Virginia, belonging to Messrs. Loyde, Rich. Middlecott, 
Anthony Haywod & Adam Winthrop Merch*' in Boston, & 
now detained at S' Thomas value £1000 st. The Gov. of 
Massachusetts writes to Sir W. Stapleton about it. 

Petition of Benj. Middleton Esq., son & heir of Tho. 
Middleton late Surveyor of the Navy, reciting that his 
father spent £8000 st. on his plantation in Antegoa, but in 
1667 the French burnt his houses & took away his coppers. 
The Gov'' & Ass'y were very grateful to y'' petitioner's father 
& to M'' .Jacob Lucey & exempted them from the late Act of 
re-settlement. 

Sir W. Stapleton in his reply to their Lordships, says 
that Tho. Middleton before his death sold his great settle- 
ment called " Middleton & Fletcher " to one Yeomans of 
London who enjoyed it since the War, also M' Yeomans' 
relict & successors. Tho. Middleton had another estate 
all wood " Crabb Hall." Tho. Middleton & Jacob Lucie 
were not exempted by the Act. Sir W"' has disposed of 
Crabb Hall to 3 severall considerable families viz. to Capt. 
Williams .300 acres, Francis Burton Lieut, of a troope of 
horse 300 acres, & M''= Eliz. Williams 200 acres. 

Endorsed :— "Received 26 Feb. 1682-3." 

1683. On the 9th of the Fourth Month Henry Graydon 
suffered Distress of 587 lb. of Tobacco, by Order of the afore- 
said President (Wm. Barnes), being for the Maintenance of 
one of the Priests. In the Sixth Month William Boon and 
Phillip Snelling, for not going into the Field in Arms, were 
sent to the Fort, and kept Prisoners there thirteen Days, by 
an Order from Edward Powel the Governour : And iu 
October, John Brown for the same Cause was committed 
to the same Fort, and detained there some Days. (Besse.) 

18 April. Nich. Raynsford & Capt. Sam. Jones are 
both of the Council. 

The Speaker early this year was John Yeamans. 

May 25. John Vernon, Esq., takes the oaths and his 
seat on the Council Board. 

June 6. Sir W"" Stapleton writes to the Antiguan 
Council, that he has appointed as Dep. Gov, Col. Edw. 
Powell a soldier, whom the King had recommended to his 
notice, & his commission is read accordingly. 

25 Oct. Sam. Winthrop, Edw. Powell, W"' Barnes, Jn» 
Parry, Jn° fifrye, Fra. Carlile, Nich. Raynsford & Jn" 
Vernon all present at the Council meeting. 

Petition of Merchants trading to the Leeward Islauds, re 

the Debtors' Act, signed by : — 

W" Barnes. Tho. Elliott. W'" Smyth. 

Rob. Spencer. Row. S' John. Jn" AVestcotts. 

Jn" Bokeby. Rich. Gary. Sam. Chambletfc. 

Ph. Maiuing. Rich. Booth. Sam. Balle. 

Jn° Jelferyes. Bast. Baipts. Tho. Hart (or 

Jn° Saunders. Ja. Lucie. Hunt). 

W"" Freeman. Jn° Cholmeley. Sam. Story. 

Jn" Bawdon. Tho. Coulson. Alex"' Pollington. 

Tho. Hunt. Pet. Cartwright. Clem' Tudway. 

W" Baxter. Jn" Story. Jn" Mortimiro (?). 

W" Wrayford. Jn» Pitt. Edw. Netheway. 
Ju° Symkin. 

15 June. Stapleton writes that he has just returned 
from Indian-hunting at Dominica. We took 46 large 



Ixvi 



THE HISTORY OP ANTIGUA. 



periagoes & quenous & burned 300 houses. Our expedition 
consisted of 6 topsail Tessells with 8 sloops but they got 
separated. He complains that the French have furnished 
the Indians with fire arms. About 50 bowmen go to each 
periagoe. 

In Aug. Capt. Chas. Carlisle of H.M.S. frigott the 
Francis brought out a few fresh recruits. He reported 
later how he burnt a pyrate ship of 32 guns and a large 
Btore-ship of 30() tuns at anchor at S' Thomas. 

Sep. S'' Charles Wheeler dyed at his house in Warwick- 
shire y" 8*'' Inst. (Jeaffreson MSS.) He was a former 
Gov' of the Leeward Islands. 

On 28 Sep. was forwarded a letter from His Maj'y, re- 
citing his former one of 18 Mar. 1679-80, which was written 
on hearing that Chas. Pym Esq. of the Council Cap. Jn° 
Eddy (? Ady), Phil. Lee Speaker and L' Jos. Jory of Nevis, 
had assisted Rich. Gary & Tho. Belchamber to land certain 
negros, & oppose the agents of the R. African Co., & again 
commanding Sir William to uphold the said Company's 
agents. 

On 1 Oct. Stapleton issued a circular notice to his 
dep. Gov' that 2 or 3 elected persons, Gent" of the 
Council, as also 2 or 3 Gent" of the Assembly (the 
Speaker to be one) were to meet him at Nevis & the 
like number from each island, to sit as a General Council 
& Assembly. 

A warrant was issued against D' Port a Romish priest, 
& one Jasper Joyce who had threatened to kill those who 
informed against him for saying Mass. 

By a royal licence dated 17 Nov. Sir William received 
permission to go home for 4 months. 

By an Instruction dated 10 Dec. 34 Chas. II., it 
was laid down that for the future the Dep. Gov', who 
acted as Commander in Chief, etc., during the absence of 
the Governor in chief, would enjoy one moiety of the salary 
and fees. 

1683-4, 27 Feb. Thos. Duncombe is now Speaker & 
Major W" Barnes is appointed Agent in London. 

1684, March 29. Sir W. Stapleton writes, that he had 
sent L' Col. Pym & Col. W" Burt of the C' of Nevis with 
others to S' Thomas, to demand satisfaction of the Danish 
Gov, for harbouring pirates. They returned, having been 
unsuccessful in their mission. 

('Colonial Entry Book,' No. 47.) 

The Council of Nevis recommend S' John Knight Jun' 
of Bristol, who was formerly a trader among them, to suc- 
ceed Stapleton. On 13 June Sir John complained to the 
King that Stapleton was circulating tales to his detriment, 
the' his Maj'^ had already decided that he was fit to 
succeed him. Towards the autumn Sir W™ took his de- 
parture for England leaving at the head of the government 
Col. W"" Burt Dep. Gov' of Nevis. 

John Yeamans was this year Speaker. 

Sep. 30. Cap. John Yeamans, Major Arch. Cochran & 
Capt. John Lingham take their seats at the C & are 
sworn. Capt. Cfesar Rodeney was returned for the Road 
DiV V. Capt. Jn" Yeamans called to the C & was also 
chosen Speaker in his place. 

On 28 Oct. Gov' Ed. Powell CjBsar Rodney Speaker, 
signed an Act for ordering the prompt payment of wages 
due from Masters to Servants, which were frequently un- 
justly withheld. Shortly after this slaves were annexed to 
Freeholds. 

William Boon and Philhp Snelling, for not appearing in 
Arms, were again sent to the Fort by Col. Thomas Mallet, 
but after a few Days released by the Governour. In the 
Fourth Month, Jonas Langford, by Warrant from the 
Governour Edward Powel, had taken from him for Priest's 
Wages, and for building a Worship-house, 8645 lb. of 
Sugar. And in the next Month Edward Martin for the 
same Cause suffered Distress of 54 lb. of Cotton Wool and 



120 lb. of Sugar. Also from John Brown, for the like 
Claims, were taken three Hogs weighing 380 lb. and worth 
1140 lb. of Sugar. From Henry Graydon they took away 
a saddle, and from Mary Green Widow, several Goods 
not particularly specified. And before the Expiration 
of the same Year, the Constables again took from Jonas 
Langford, for the pretended dues of William .Jones Priest, 
Goods or Money to the value of 940 lb. of Sugar. (Besse.) 
Jonas Langford planter was required to give bond for 
£2000 St. for Barrakiah Arnald commander of the pink 
Hannah & Elizabeth of Boston & the following year a 
petition was presented by her then commander Nathan 
Stanberry. (Colonial Leeward Islands, No. 49.) 

1685. Taken by Order of Governour Vaughan, for 
Priest's Demands, from Henry Graydon 596 lb. of tobacco, 
by John Richards Constable, who at the same Time also seized 
120 lb. of Tobacco, to defray the Charges of nine Persons 
whom he had unnecessarily employed to assist him in 
making the Distress. (For an account of the persecution of 
William Boon, see vol. i., p. 69.) 

On the 29th of October this Year, a Mare worth 3500 lb. 
of Sugar, was taken from Henry Graydon for his refusing 
to bear Arms. (Besse.) 

Charles II. died on 6 Feb. 1685. 

16 Sep. Present at a Council Meeting held at 
St. John's : — 

Col. Edw-i Powell, Dep. Gov. Sam" Winthrop, Esq. 
Coll. Row. Williams. flfra. Carliel, Esq. 

John Parry, Esq. Arch* Cochran, Esq. 

Nich. Raynsfurd, Esq. Jn" Fry, Esq. 

John Vernon, Esq. Jn° Yeamans, Esq. 

Jas. Robinson was their cl'k. 
Tho. Duncombe, Speaker. 

Sep. 30. Hen. Carpenter, Esq., is Agent for the Royal 
African Co. 

11 Oct. The Duke of Monmouth having been defeated, 
it was ordered by their lordships, that all rebels transported, 
must be bound for 10 years. 

20 Oct. Sir William was in London this day. 

1685-6, Feb. 14. Cap' Garden is authorised to pursue 
& capture or kill 40 or 50 runaway slaves in the Mountains 
who had been committing depredations. 

Feb. 27. Chr. Codrington takes the oath & his seat at 
the Council Board. 

Feb. 27. By a warrant of this date a new great seal 
was ordered, to be like the former but with the name of 
Jas. II. 

1686, April 2. The Assembly comprised : — 

Rich. Ayres, Sam. Martin. John Hamilton. 

Speaker. Cha. Gosse. Cuthbert .Jameson. 

Fra. Burton. Tho. Gilliard. John Weire. 

John Morris. Hen. Winthrop. Rich. Travels. 

Geo. Symes. Rob. Garden. Aquilles Stoughton. 

John Yeamans signs as one of the Council. 

1686. To shew how dangerous it was for planters to cultivate 
the small islands, take the case of Tortola. In Colonial Leeward 
Islands, vol. ."JO, are the affidavits of Thomas Bisse, juu., of Tortola, 
of full age 12 May, and of his father Captain Thomas Bisse, Deputy 
Governor of that island, describing how a pirate crew landed there, 
and beat his son, killed his slaves, and damaged his property to the 
amount of £3327. 

In early times the colonists were usually "cut off" by the 
Indians, but in these latter and more civilised days they were liable 
to be harassed and murdered by their own lawless countrymen. 
The West Indies were always infested by these desperadoes, who 
were frequently recruited from those sparsely-populated islands 
which had no proper government, and were mostly inhabited by 
fishermen, smugglers, and wreckers. They usually carried their 
prizes to the Danish island of St. Thomas, where they disposed of 
their plunder and refitted, paying a heavy commission to the Danish 
Governor. These small Dutch and Danish colonies harboured as a 
rule dishonest merchants, receivers of stolen goods, and rascals of 
all descriptions. 



FROM RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO ABDICATION OE JAMES II. Ixvii 



8 April. Capt. Edwi Powell still Dep. Gov. 

7 Aug. The death of Sir W. Stapleton at Paris being 
announced, the King appointed Sir Nath. Johnsou to suc- 
ceed him, whose patent was forthwith ordered to be drawn 
out. On 28 Sep. his Instructions were issued by which he 
was directed, that there were to be at least 7 Members of 
Council to each island. No schoolmasters nor Ministers 
were to be authorised, without the Bishop of London's 
licence. The L' Gov'' of Nevis was to be always 2" in 
command. 

1687, 7 April. Rich* Ayres now Speaker. 

3 June. Tho. Belchamber is sworn a Councillor of all 
the islands. 

Sir N. Johnson's first letter home was written on 10 Aug. 

July 7. Muster roll of : — 
Col. Thos. Hills ) 3 com'' officers, 7 non com'' do., 

Company of Foot j 73 privates. 

Sir N. Johnsons ) 3 com'' officers, 7 non com" do., 

Company of Foot ) 70 privates. 

28 Nov''. All the governments send an address on the 
birth of the Prince of Wales. 

1687, Aug. 10. Sir Nath. Johnson writes, that a 
Lieutenant's place being vacant by the death of Capt. 
Pogson " I have appointed M"" Fra. Overton to it who rid 
in H.M. Guards," & in reference to " Col. W™ Burt's present 
of 100,000 lbs. he being dead before ray arrival his Ex'or 
& friends pretend ignorance. He (Burt) had done His 
Maj'y good service." " Since my return from S' Christo- 
phers S'' Jas. Russell L' Gov. of Nevis has died also Col. 
Redmond Stapleton L' Gov. of Montserrat so I have ap- 
pointed my kinsman M'' Nath' Blackiston who served abroad 
but came to England to serve His Maj'^ at the Rebellion in 
the West." 

On 22 Dec, was passed " An Act for dividing the 
Island into Parishes, and Maintenance of Ministers, the 
Poor, and erecting and repairing of Churches." 

1687-8, 20 Feb. Sir N. Johnson writes, that he has 
received dayly complaints by the French Protestants, who 
fly from the Islands to ours for shelter, & on their bended 
knees implore his Ma'y' mercy here. The Gov'' of Nevis 
gave up one during his absence & he was at once hung. 
He asks for power to grant letters of denization ; to which 
the King replied that he was to extend his protection to 
them, & send home the lists, on receipt of which, letters of 
denization would be forwarded. Many of these Huguenots 
settled there permanently, becoming industrious and 
respected planters. 

3 March. The Gov"^ has appointed M' Hutcheson as 
Attorney Gen' of the Leew'' I., who is of the Middle Temple, 
of 5 years barr standing, practised in England & Ireland, 



& came hither with him, recommended by the Earls of 
Middleton & Carlingford. The goverm' of Antigua 
promises him 200,000 lbs. yearly, on condition hs takes up 
his residence there. He has allowed Roman Catholics to 
build Chapels & exercise their religion & exempted them 
from paying towards the maintenance of the Protestant 
Ministers. ^ 

1688. The Assembly this year : — 
Thos. Warner. Geo. Syms, Speaker. John Prynn. 
Chas. Goss. Sam. Martin. Cuthbert Jameson. 

Peter Lee. Edw. Byam. Rob' Garden. 

John Roe. AV" Byam. John Lucas. 

John Wear. John Hamilton. Rich. Traves. 

Phille" Bird. John Gunthrop. 

The Council :— 
John Parry. Wm. Thomas. Sam. Winthrop. 

John Vernon. Wm. Barnes. John Fry. 

Arch. Cochran. ffi-a. Carlile. John Yeamans. 

1688, 4 May. The 2 Companies of foot are to be dis- 
banded & replaced. The Ordnance Office supplies 4 demi- 
culverings, 10 sakers, and 6 minions for S- Johns Fort. 

June 2. S'' Nath. Johnson writes: — " Ensign Mathews 
of S"- Christophers is in possession of an estate there pur- 
chased by the King for successive Gov'^ I have suspended 
him & Joseph Crisp from the Council for not attending to 
their duties & appointed John Barry & Dan Foggarthy a 
Lieut, in my own Company. 

" The Interloper ' Betty ' of Bristol Capt. John Burton 
with 200 negros landed over 60 at midnight (? at S' Kitts) 
which were seized by the L'^ Gov'' & am setting out for 
Antigua with my family to improve that hithertoe neglected 
Colony." 

Arch" Hutcheson, the newly appointed Attorney 
General, sends home a very lengthy report, dated 19 April 
'88 : claiming " that Francis Lord Willoughby purchased an 
estate at S* Christophers from Col. Philip Warner, for 
30,000 lbs. & 30 negros for the use of the Gov for ever. 
After the rendition of that island Col. Abednego Mathew 
was appointed Dep. Gov. & procured a patent to himself & 
his heirs & dying several years ago left Chas. Mathew his 
son & heir who is now in wrongful possession of the estate." 

Anno 1688. Taken from Henry Graydon, by John 
Jones Constable, two Hogs worth 300 lb. of Sugar, which 
were sold for four Pieces of Eight, which was but the Value" 
of 196 lb. of Sugar. (Besse.) 

On 16 Oct. King Jas. sends a circular letter to his 
governors, announcing a great invasion which is expected 
from Holland. The next official communication is on 12 
Jan. 1688-9 from the Prince of Orange directing the use of 
the old seal & the retention of all officers. 



Ixviii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



CHAPTER VI. 



WILLIAM AND MAEY. ANNE. 1689—1714. 



On 13 February 1688-9 an Act was passed granting 
to any soldier maimed in the defence of the Island 
a pension of 3000 lbs., and if slain the like annual 
sum to his widow, and j)rovision for the children at 
the public charge. 

On 28 March an Act was also passed for the es- 
tablishment of Courts of Justice. 

1688-9. In March there happened a terrible Earth- 
quake in the Leeward Islands, Monserrat, Nevis and 
Antego. In Nevis and Montserrat, no considerable Hurt 
was done, most of the Buildings being of Timber ; but 
where there were Stone Buildings, they were generally 
thrown down, which fell very hard on Autego ; most of the 
Houses, Buildings, Sugar-works, and Wind-mills being of 
Stone. Sever.al Sloops felt the Violence of the Shake at Sea. 

On the breaking out of the War between Eugland and 
France, after the Revolution, the Inhabitants of Antego, as 
well as those of the other Leeward-Islands, desired assistance 
of the Governor and Government of Barbados ; and when 
Sir Timothy Thornhill had raised his Regiment, he sailed 
with them to Antego, where he arrived on the b*^ of August, 
and received the unwelcome News, that the Fort at 
S' Christopher's was surrendered to the French, on Monday 
the 29th of July 1689 upon Articles. Sir Timothy knowing 
his Strength to be too inconsiderable to attack an Island so 
well fortified as S' Christopher's, and the Government of 
Antego solliciting him to continue with them till the Arrival 
of the English Fleet, which was daily expected ; he agreed 
to their Proposals, and landed his Regiment there, which 
he quartered in the Town of Falmouth, about the same Big- 
ness as that of S' John's Town. 

After a Month's Continuance in this Island, Lieutenant- 
General Codrington .sent three Sloops manned with 80 Men 
of Sir Timothy's Regiment, under the Command of Capt. 
Edward Thorn, from Falmouth, to fetch the English, with 
their Goods and Stocks, from the Island of Anguilla, where 
they had been miserably abused and destroyed by some 
Irish, whom the French had landed there for that Purpose. 

Before Sir Timothy Thornhill's Arrival, and during his 
Stay at Antego, the Indians of the neighbouring Islands, 
who were in League with the French, lauded several Times 
upon that Island, killing those Inhabitants who lived near 
the Sea (to the Number of 10), and then making their 
Escape in their swift Periagas. These Pyratical Excursions 
were all the People of Antego suffered by the Enemy. 
General Codrington ordered several Sloops that were good 
Sailers to pursue them, but the Periagas were too nimble for 
them : To prevent the like Damage for the future, strict 
Guard was kept on the Coasts. 

About the Middle of September, a French Privateer 
landed his Men at Five-Islands, near Antego, and took oif 
some Negroes. As he was going away with his Booty, he 
met with two English Sloops, one of which, after some 
Resistance, he took ; the other making her Escape, came 
in, and gave an Account of the Action : Upon which 
Sir Timothy sent out two Sloops manned, with a Company 
of Grenadiers, under the Command of Captain Walter 
Hamilton, who next Day brought her in with her Prize. 
On board the Privateer were 30 French and six Irish Men ; 
the latter were tried by a Court Marshal, and four of them 
hanged. In November Sir Timothy Thornhill removed to 
Nevis, at the Desire of the People of that Island. 

The Inhabitants of Autego raised 300 men, who were 
commanded by Col. Hewetson ; and landing on an Island 
belonging to the French, called Mary-Galanta, they beat 



the Inhabitants into the Woods, burnt their Town, nailed 
down their Guns, demolished their Fort, and returned back 
to Antego with the Plunder of the Island. 

Lieutenant General Codrington (for as yet he had not 
received his Commission of Captain-General) remained at 
Antego, while Sir Timothy Thornhill went from Nevis 
against S' Bartholomew's and S' Martin's : While he was 
upon the latter. Monsieur Decasse came down with 700 Men 
from S' Christopher's, to the Assistance of the French ; the 
Major General (for such was Sir Timothy's Commission) 
dispatched away a Sloop, with an Express to the Lieutenant 
General at Antego, to acquaint him with his Condition, and 
desire him to send some Ships to his As.sistance. Accord- 
ingly General Codrington ordered Col. Hewetson, with 
about 200 Men from Antego, aboard three Sloops, under 
Convoy of three Men of War, one of 40 Guns, and two of 
20, fitted out for that Purpose, to sail to S* Martin's, where 
he arrived the 30"" of January, 1689-90. The French 
Ships who were at Anchor near the Island, attacked the 
English Frigats ; and after four Hours Dispute, with little 
or no Damage on Col. Hewetson's Side, they bore away. 
(Oldmixon's ' British Empire in America,' 
vol. ii., p. 199.) 

On 11 July 1689 the Governor and Council of 
St. Kitts vn'ote that the Irish of Montserrat, pro- 
tected by the French, bad destroyed the Windward 
part of St. Kitts, doing £15,000 damage, and that 
the inhabitants had taken refuge in the Fort. 

On 14 July the following members of the Legis- 
lature signed a letter sent to the Privy Council : — 

Sam. Martin, Wm. Byam. J. Parry. 

Speaker. Cuthb' Jameson. Wm. Thomas. 

John Hamilton. Chas. Goss. Fra. Carlile. 

John Gunthorpe. John Weir. Sam. Winthrope. 

Edw. Byam. Ch'' Codrington John Yeamans. 

Peter Lee. (Gov'). Arch. Cochran. 

The Governor writes that the French have been 
beaten off Barbouda, and he has sent the Irish from 
Nevis to Jamaica. 

On 10 August the Duke of Bolton's regiment 
was ordered for the Leeward Islands, and the 
strength of Lieut.-Colonel Holt's was estimated at 
930 men. 

On the 12th Lieut.-General Codrington wrote 
that Sir N. Johnson* quitted Antigua for South 
Carolina, and on the 15th, that "Yesterday arrived 
800 men from Barbados under Sir Timothy 
Thornhill." 

On the 20th Governor Thomas Hill wrote from 
Nevis that St. Kitts bad been captured by the enemy 
after eighteen days' siege ; that at the time of 
capitulation the English had but two rounds left for 
the guns ; that 1200 men were then at Nevis ; and 
that the Governor of Barbados had sent Sir Timothy 
Thornhill with 800 men to Antego. Captain James 
Pbipps was among the killed at St. Kitts, where 500 
English fought against 2000 French. 

* " Sir N. Johnson one of y" Contractors of y° Hearth money 
Knighted at Whitehall 28 Dec. 1680 Governor of South Carolina 
for the proprietors the Lord Craven & others in 1705." (Le Neve's 
' Knights.') 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixix 



Sir John Berry gives in to the Board the following 
list of the squadron intended for the West Indies, 
the ships being provisioned for 200 to 300 days : — 
Men. Guns. 

Arch-Angell . 200 — 

Berkley-Castle . 200 48 

Princess Anne . 200 — 

Sampson . . 220 50 

Bannihall . . 200 — 

Samuell & Henry ISO 44 for Newfound-Land. 

Scepter . .160 40 

Coronation . . 200 48 t 

Success . . 200 48 Mor Newfoimd-Land. 

George . . 200 48 1 

Smi/rna-merc/iant 110 34 

Supplu . . 110 34 
Pinal instructions were given to the Admiral on 
2 December. 

The following merchants trading to the Leeward 
Islands sign a petition : — 

John Symkins. Samson Gideon. Wm. Freeman. 

Wm. Ivatt. Nath. Sanders. Chr. Jeaffreson. 

H. Young. Wm. Hare. Jos. Martyn. 

Ben. Newland. Jn° Westrot. Jn° Gardner. 

Geoff. Nightingale. Wra. Thornbnrgh. AVill. Barnes. 
Gilb' Heathcote. Wm. Willett. Wm. Wrayford. 

Tho. Hunt. Wm. Barnes. Jos. Ball. 

Jos. Jorye. Jn" Morris. Ben. Edwards. 

Alex. Pollington. Nath. Carpenter. Sam. Ball. 

Jn° Vickers. Edm. Scrope. Ralph Willett. 

Rich. Carye. Jas. Walker. Phil. Danes. 

Randol Russell. Bastian Baijer. Christoph. Oliver. 

(America and West Indies, No. 550.) 
Oct. 16. Colonel Christopher Codrington has 
been made Captain-General. 

The great fortress on Monk's Hill was commenced 
this year. 

Dec. 15. A commission was drawn up for 
Captain William Dobyns to be Lieut. -Governor of 
Antigua vice Captain Foulkes, who was Lieut.- 
Governor and surrendered that Island ; and he is to 
go out with the fleet. 

1690. In June Admiral Wright arrived at Nevis 
with a squadron of ten men of war, besides transports, 
which sailed on the 16th with 3000 men on board. 

July. Governor Codrington sends home a long 
narrative of events, announcing his recapture of 
St. Christopher^s from the French : — 

The English forces numbered 2500 all told viz. : Col. 
Holt's English Reg', the Barbados one under S'' T. Thorn- 
hill, the Antiguan one under Col. Rowl'' Williams, two from 
Nevis under Col. Chas. Pym & Col. Edw. Earle, the Mont- 
serrat one under Col. Nath' Blakiston, and the Marine 
under Col. Hegwyn, commander of the Assistance frigott. 
They landed in Frigott Bay with the loss of 10 killed & 
30 wounded, & among which latter were Sir T. Thornhill, 
Cap* Byam & Cap' Quimby. After making themselves secure, 
he sent 400 men in the night to flank the enemy & afterwards 
drove the French from their trenches into which Cap' Garden 
was the first to enter. The loss at this point was 18 killed & 40 
wounded. The Antigua Keg' had the brunt of the fighting. 
Basseterre was then taken possession of, & next day, Sunday 
22 June, the troops attended divine service there. 

He writes later, that he has sent 550 best French fii'e- 
men to Hispaniola, 800 men women & children to 
S' Martins, & the French Gov with 50 men & 200 women 
& children to Martinico. 



Oct. 14. The Governor writes that 200 of the 
Army died at Nevis, and 200 more out of the English 
Regiment, and the Barbados one is now only 250 
from the sickness.* 

The King at once ordered 400 recruits to be 
despatched. 

The exclusive patent of the Royal African Com- 
pany to supply the islands with slaves was revoked, 
and the trade thrown open. Population now 6000. 

(Southey.) 

1690-], Feb. 15. The Governor says that Nevis 
has lost 1500 men from sickness ; Colonel Williams 
takes care of Antigua, without salary, but he sug- 
gests to their Lordships that the Deputy- Governor 
should have fixed pay. 

Taken from the said Henry Graydon, by Richard Oliver, 
foi' William Loaders Priest, 127 lb. of Cotton, equal in Value 
to 508 lb. of Sugar. Taken also from the said Heniy, one 
good Horse worth 5000 lb. of Sugar, for a Fine of about 
800 lb. of Sugar, for his refusing to bear Arms. Taken 
also from Jonas Langford, by Richard Oliver, for the said 
Priest Loaders, three Hogsheads of Sugar, and Cash, worth 
4085 lb. of Sugar. (Besse.) 

1G91, May 28. Letter from Colonel Christopher 
Codrington, dated at Antigua, to Colonel Bastian 
Baijer, merchant at London, describing his doings in 
the late expedition : — 

How he burnt their chief town, destroyed the best part 
of Guadaloup, made a breach in the fort, & was ready for 
the assault when the French fleet of 11 ships, 2 or 3 of 
them men-of-war, appearing. Captain Wrightj ordered the 
whole of the Marine Reg' on board. Tho French Adm. 
Be Gasse had 500 troops with him. We set sail and early 
next morning the 2 fleets became intermixed, & th° we 
might have destroj'ed theirs with ease Capt. Wright sig- 
nalled to his ships to withdraw & only 1 of their vessells was 
destroyed. He never saw so much cowardice & treachery & 
begs Col. Bayer to inform their lordships & to get Capt. 
Wright superseded. 

The English force numbered 1800 men in the 
attack on Gua.daloupe. 

About this time four eminent West Indian 
merchants resident in London were ajjpointed by 
the Piivy Council Committee as Commissioners for 
the affairs of the Leeward Islands. Their names 
were : Bastian Baijer, a native of Antigua ; Joseph 
Martin; Richard Cary, formerly of Antigua, and 
later Governor of the Bank of England ; and Christo- 
pher Jeaffreson, of a well-known family at St. Kitts. 
They recommend on 22 May that Colonel Rowland 
Williams be appointed Clerk of the Navy, and his 
patent was made out in June. 

A General Assembly sat at St. John's in March, 
consisting of : — 



Council. 
Gen' Codrington. 
Jn" Yeamans. 
Walter Symonds. 
W"' Helme. 
Tho. Simmons. 
W"' Fox. 



Assembly. 
Anth° Hodges, Speaker. 
Jn" Gunthrop. 
Edw. Byam. 
Phil. Dewitt. 
Rich. Brodbelt. 
Jn° Scott. 



* The ravages of yellow fever aud dysentery had always caused 
a greater loss to the troops in the tropics than actu.il warfare. 
t Laurence Wright, Captain of H.M.S. ■' Mary." 

h 



Ixx 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



On 18 January was received the petition of Cap- 
tain Edward Thorne : — 

That ill 1680 he gavo up £500 worth of arms at An- 
tigua to the General, & that he & Maj' Jos. Crisp went to 
Barbados for help, & induced Sir T. Thornhill to assist with 
700 men. They charge Codringtou with keeping back the 
plunder. 

Jan. Christopher Codrington writes to the King 
thanking him for having appointed him Captain- 
General. 

1692 ? List of Council in Antigua in their 
seniority, undated : — 

1. John Parry, Esq., chief judge of Falmouth 

Precincts, President. 

2. Col. Row. Williams, Commander of the Militia. 

3. John Prye, Esq. 4. Col. Fia. Carlile. 

5. John Yeamans, Esq., Chief Judge of S' John's 

Precincts. 

6. Tho. Duacombe, Esq. 7. Maj'' Edw. Byam. 

1693. In April an abortive attack was made on 
St. Pierre, Martinique, with a large force of 4000 or 
5000 men, under the command of Sir Francis 
Wheeler, with whom was also Governor Codring- 
ton and the Volunteers from the Leeward Islands. 
The expedition failed owing to sickness among the 
troops and friction between the commanders, so the 
fleet repaired to Boston. 

From an undated list of the officers, etc., dead in the 
eqnadrun since leaving England, it appears that there died 
6 Commanders, 3 Lieutenants, 3 Masters, & 668 men. 
Col. Goodwins Reg' lost 1 Colonel, 1 Major, 6 Captains, 10 
Lieutenants & Ensigns, & Col. Foulkes' one lost Col. 
Foulkes, Cap* Murray, & 6 Subalterns. 

Aug. 3. Colonel Thomas Hill, Deputy-Governor 
of St. Kitts, has been suspected of conniving at 
illicit trade with St. Thomas. 

Thomas Bartlett, Clerk to the Assembly, is paid a 
salary of 3000 lbs. a year. 

Benjamin Wickham and Sam Hilder are Coroners, 
and Samuel Martin Treasurer. 

Aug. 29. Colonel John Hamilton and Major 
Samuel Martin take their seats at the Council Board 
after the usiial oaths. 

Aug. 30. Major Philemon Bird to be powder 
officer. 

Nov. 6. Governor Codrington writes that Colonel 
Lloyd went up to Barbados and there died. 

1693-4, Jan. 11. A patent was ordered to be 
drawn out for Mr. William Barnes to be Provost- 
Marshal vice Mr. Thomas Belchamber, deceased.* 

1694. The regiment at the Leeward Islands, 
formerly commanded by Colonel Godfrey Lloyd, 
deceased, is now Colonel Holt's. 

List of Offic" of Coll. Holts Regiment. 
Standing Offic" to the five Companies Establisht 
from the first of May 1695. 
Col. Hen. Holt. L' Adrian Van Alphen. 

Maj-- Eaw<i Nott. L' Henry Pearne. 

Cap'" Tho. Delavall. Ensign Osenberg. 

Cap' Dav"* Ganspoel. Ensign Rob' Baron. 

C : Chrisf Codrington. Ens : Rob' Coningham. 

* The -will of Thomas Belchamber of Nevis, Esq., was dated 23 
May 1693 ; sworn there 12 August, and proved P.C.C. 21 November 
1693. 



Cap'" Licaten' Powell. iOnsignc Home. 

Lieu' Rich'i Garth. Ensign Sharpe. 

Cap'" Jo" Lyons who is to have 
the first vacant Company. 

Reform'd Offic'% who are to receive halfe Pay during their 
actuall Service & attendance on the Regiment, and to 
be replaced upon the first vacancies in their respective 
Qnalities & according to their Senioritys, Capt" 
Henry {sic) Lyons being first to be provided for as 
above : — 

Captains. L' . . . . Booth. 

Cap'" Tho. Holt. L' John Sanderson. 

Cap'" Jo" Pigott. L' Jo" Yeomans. 

Cap'" Etlwi Norton. L' Fran. Smith. 

Cap'" Jo" Forder. Ensigns. 

Cap'" Paul de Brisac. ^imgn John Meauls. 

Lieutenants. Ensign John Codrington. 

L' John Tvyons. Ensign Samuell Clark. 

L' Geo. Harrison. Ensign .... Ijacassee. 

L' Sam" Broadbelt. Ensign Charles Webb. 

1/ Rich' Holt. Ensign Rad. Palmer. 

L' Cliarl Lloyd. Ensign Tho. Blish. 

L' Demeny de Fuckingberg. 

By his Majes'J" Command, 

William Blathwayt. 

The following list is also given : — 

Cap''. John Yeamons. 



Engo Co" Henry Holt. 

L' Co" E^" Nott. 
Engd Maj'- Tho. Delavall. 
Eng-i Nathan" Blakiston. 
Irel'' Henry Lyons. 

Christop' Codrington. 
Eng*" David Gonspoell. 

Thomas Holt. 

John Piggott. 

James Norton. 
Flan'' Godfrey Lloyd. 

John Forster. 

Leiu''* 
Cap' L' Jiihn Powell. 
Richard Garth. 
Charle Loyd. 
John Sanderson. 
Richard Holt. 
Henry Peareti. 
Adrian Van-Alpan. 



Rich'' Harrison. 

Samuell Broadbelt. 
Dominicus De-Fauconbege. 
Samuell Smith. 
John Lyons. 

Ensignes. 
Gasparus Van-Osenbergh. 
Edward Barron. 
Robert Cuningham. 
John Coddrington. 
Samuell Clark. Eng". 
William Sharpe. 
Samuell Home. Eng''. 
Radney Palmer. 
Charles Webb. 
Charles Thornhill. 
Thomas Biffe. 

[blank] 

[blank] 
John Miles. 



Arthur Booth. 

All the officers except those marked are all with the 
Regim't in the West Indies. 

Shortly after 1694 this regiment was reduced 
from 13 companies of 60 men to 5 companies of 
100 men. 

1696. Edward Walrond, Esq., having accused 
Mr. Palmer, a Member of the Council and Secretary- 
General of the Leeward Islands, of saying " that the 
Court of England was as much debauched now as 
ever; that the King kept a Miss openly and the 
Queen chiefly delighted in Bawdy songs. Masques, 
Plays, etc.," the Council recommended his suspension. 
His Majesty and Privy Council on receiving their 
rej)0rt ordered his removal from all his offices, by 
warrant dated at Whitehall 11 Feb. 1696-7, and 
Edward Parsons was appointed Secretary in his place. 
John Palmer in his defence stated that he was 
ensign in the war of 1672, under Colonel William Burt. 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxi 



In the Year ICOG, the Hastings Frigat was here, and 
sailed for London, Convoy to a small Fleet of 11 Ships, 
which were above eleven Weeks in their Voyage. 

(Oldmixon, vol. ii., p. 201.) 

1697, May 1. List of the Council : — 
John Yearaans, Esq. Major Edw. Holt. 
Row. "Williams, Esq. Major Sam. Martin. 
Fra. Carlile, Esq., Snper- Tho. Dnncomli, Esq. 

annuated. John Palmer, Esq. 

John ffry, Esq., Superannnated. Hen. Holt, Esq. 
John Hamilton, Esq. 

It was ordered on 29 July that fiftj' women con- 
victs in Newgate be sent to the Leeward Islands. 

General Codrington about this time forwarded a 
proclamation to New Yoi'k and New England, in- 
viting people over to settle the French lands in 
St. Christopher's. 

July ch-ca. Captain James Norton j)etitious 
that Colonel Thomas Hill,* Deputy-Governor of 
St. Christopher's, is lately arrived at Liverpool, and is 
since dead there, and asks to be appointed in his place. 
Endorsed :— " Read 10 August 1 697. Granted." 

Sep. Governor Codrington writes that they have 
lost their best privateer briganteen, which blew up 
soon after leaving Antigua, by which 50 men were 
killed. The French have hitherto captured three of 
their sloops. 

On 8 Feb. the Governor suspended the Hon. 
Thomas Duncomb. 

Edward Walrond made numerous complaints to 
the home Government against the General. 

1698. The Council and Assembly of Antigua 
state that the General Council aud Assembly consist 
of two Members of the Council and three of the 
Assembly, who are chosen for each island, and they 
suggest that in future each island should send up 
five Members of Assembly instead of three. 

June 10. Governor Codrington writes that he 
had reduced St. Christopher's and three other islands 
— St. Eustatia, St. Bartholomew, and St. Martin's. 

By the Treaty of Ryswick it was agreed that the 
French lands at St. Kitts should be restored to their 
former owners, and English Commissioners were 
nominated on 5 July to see the same carried out. 

John Lucas, Esq., having been very unjustly im- 
prisoned by Codrington, complained bitterly of his 
arbitrary conduct, and wrote that he had been sent 
to prison, and £5000 bail refused, because he had 
written to Lord Orford. Lord Lucas acted as a 
mediator in the quarrel. 

Governor Codrington seems to have treated the 
above John Lucas, Esq., a late Speaker, with great 
injustice. The latter had written home making 
certain complaints ; he was then tried for libel, and 
a verdict of £2000 damages given against him, and 
shortly afterwai'ds thrown into prison and £5000 
sterling bail demanded. The affair ended with the 
death of General Codrington, which was reported by 
Deputy-Governor John Teaman s to have taken place 
on Wednesday morning 20 July. 

» The will of Thomas Hill, Esq., Lieut.-General of H.M. Lee- 
ward Islands aud Lieut.-Governor of St;. Kitts, was dated at Nevis 5 
April 11197 ; proved P.C.C. the 2Uth Ootober following. 



On 22 December an Act was passed for electing 
an Agent who was to be nominated annually by the 
Governor. His salary was fixed at jglOO sterling 
j'early over and above needful charges and expenses, 
and his chief duty was to negotiate the various 
Island Laws for confirmation by Royal assent. 

Dec. 31. The Council of Nevis -^Vrite home on 
31 December announcing that owing to the death of 
General Codrington and of Colonel Thomas Hill, and 
the suspension of Colonel Samuel Gardner, Lieut.- 
Governor of Nevis, they have taken on the Govern- 
ment. On 4 February they further write to say 
that Colonel Collingwood and his Regiment have 
arrived at Nevis in Admiral Benbow's fleet. 

l(;i)8-9 ? In January 1G99 Admiral Benbow arrived 
at the Leeward-Islands, having Col. Collingwood's Regiment 
on Board, Part of which was quartered in Antego, and Part 
in the other Islands. The Governor having received some 
more forces from England, to make up the loss of these, 
most of them having died in the Islands, resolved, on the 
breaking out of the present War, to attack the French at 
Guardaloup. The Merchants of Antego had equip'd several 
Privateers ; which, in Conjunction with some Privateers of 
the other Islands, and a Squadron of Men of War, made a 
Strength at Sea too mighty for the French. He raised a 
Regiment of Soldiers in Antego, of which Colonel Byam 
was Colonel ; and the other Leeward-Islands furnished Men 
also for this Enterprize. (Oldmixon, vol. ii., p. 202.) 

1698-9, Jan. 27. List of Assembly :— 

Nath. Sampson, Gent. 
W"' Grear, Gent. 
Rich. Oliver, Gent. 
Abra. Swan, Gent. 
Fra. Rogers, Gent. 
Cain Osborne, Gent. 
Jn° Painter, Gent. 
Nath. Crump, Gent. 
Cap. .In° Weir, absent. 
M'' Rob. Freeman, sick. 



Geo. Gamble, Speaker. 
W'" Thomas, Gent. 
Hen. Lyons, Esq. 
Pet. Lee, Esq. 
Sam. Watkins, Gent. 
Cap. Steph. Duer. 
Cap. Jn° Roe. 
Cap. Jn° Lyons. 
W"' Lavington, Gent. 
Cap. Rob. Martin. 
Cap. Jn" Ker. 

The quartering of Colonel Collingwood's regi- 
ment was discussed and Colonel Holt's named. 

On 25 March his Majesty ordered that Colonel 
Christopher Codrington's commission as Captain- 
General was to be prepared. The new Governor was 
nephew to the late one, and had a good reputation as 
a scholar and soldier. 

1699. * List of Council prepared by their lordships. 



"' Antisroa. 



M' Gary's observa- 
tions upon Coll. 
Codrington's List. 



Suspended. 
Gon to Jamaic 
In England. 



Ju" Yeomans ( 
Eowl' Williams I 
Fran. Carlile / 
Jn° Fry ( 

Jn" Hamilton 
EdW Byam 
Sam' Martin I 
Tho' Duncomb \ 
John Palmer. 
Hen. Holt." 



M' W.'s obs'vations upon Coll. 

Codrington's List, 
of great Estate sence & 
Reputation. 

Super annuated. 

of good Estate and Repute. 
Treas', of good sence & repute, 
of great Estate, good sence and 
Repute. 



" Antigoa. 

M' Gary's List to M' W.'s Observations upon 

fill up vacancies. M' Gary's List. 

Jn» Otto Bayer of good Estate & repute. A Dutchman. 
Jn" Tankard I Supernumerary and neith. of them great 
Hen. Pearn I Estates. , „ . , „ . 

Jn° Fry, jun' A young Gent, of good Estate and Repute. 
Edw' Parsons of good sence and Repute." 



Ixxii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



" 1699. Antigoa. 

M' Weaver's List 
M' Gary's observations (to fill future 
upon M' Weaver's List. vacancies). 

Tho. Duncomb.^ 



Character. 



A factious trouble- 
some fellow. 



Edw" Walrond'.^ 
Nath. Sampson. 

Rioh. Lighfoot. 
John Lucas 

Philemon Bird. 

John Roe. 

Jn° Vernon. 

W' Thomas. 
( Isaac Horsford. 
[RichJ Oliver, 

Geo. Gamble 



many years Speaker of y' 

Assembly. 
Of good Estate, sence, and 

Reputation. 



present Speaker.' 



Honest men of 
small Estates. 
A factious trouble- 
some fellow. 

"18 July. Names agreed on by y« Board to be Councell" Antigoa. 
Coll. Era. Collingwood, L' Gen'. 
Jn» Yeamans. Sam. Martin. 

Rowl"' Williams. Tho. Duucomb. 

Fran. Carlile. Edw. Parsons. 

Jn° Fry, Sen'. Jn° Corbet. 

Jn" Hamilton. Jas. Thynne." 

Edw'' Byam. 

1699. At a meeting of the Assembly in July it 
was decided that a platform should be built at 
Parham and 7 great guns purchased. The seat of 
Mr. William Laviugton had become vacant by his 
death, and another member, Mr. William Thomas, 
had gone off to England. 

On 14 December the following tax was ordered 
to be levied over and above the 1 lb. per acre by 
Lord Willoughby's Act : — 

lbs. 
350,000 
240,000 
36,000 

626,000 
52,242 

678,242 



6 lbs. of sugar per acre 
30 „ ,, per head on 8000 uegros 

6 „ „ per head on 6000 cattle 



On ground rents in town & trade 



The public debts amounted to 676,242 lbs. at 
12s. 6d. per cent. 

1699-1700, February 1. At a New Session held 
at St. John's the following returns were made : — 



For 
S' Johns towne. 
S' Johns Division. 
Nonsuch. 



Justices taking the 

Election. 

Peter Lee, Esq' Cap' John Otto | 

M' Thomas Long I 

Peter Lee, Esq' M' Richard Oliver | 

Cap' John Gamble ) 

Henry Lyons, Esq' Henry Lyons, Esq' ( 

Cap' Charles Loyd ) 

Henry Pearne, Esq' Peter Lee, Esq' | Old road and Ber- 

Cap' John Roe 1 moodian valley. 

Edw" Byam, Esq' Laurence Crabb, Esq' ( q;^ ^^^^-^^ g ^^^^ 

Cap' Nathaniell Crump ) 

laurence Crab, Esq' M' Nathaniel Sampson i -n if ^ 

M' Abraham Swan ) ^^^^^^1. 
Sam" Martyu, Esq' M' George Thomas Five Islands. 

Peter Lee, Esq' Cap' George Gamble I Popeshead and 

M' Samuel Watkius ( Dicks'" bay. ■ 

Henry Lyons, Esq' M' Kean Osborne | Falm" and Rende- 

M' Barry Tankard f vouz bay. 
Henry Lyons, Esq' Cap' John Lyons t.7-,, vi t. 

M' BaldwinJohnson } Willoughby Bay. 

Edw"* Bya', Esq' M' John Painter I „ ,, 

Francis Rogers f New north sound. 

George Gamble was chosen Speaker nem. eon., and 
the Hon. John Yeamans was appointed to act as 
Chief Justice with a salary of £200 a year. 

1700, October 18. The Governor writes from 
Nevis that Colonel Michael Smith, the Lieut. -Governor 
of that Island, is dead. 

Col. James Norton, L' Gov"" of S' Kitts, having been 
unanimously proved guilty of charges of cruelty to his 
indentured apprentice, is dismissed from all his offices by 
the Gov' & C. 



Col. Tho. Delavall, L' Gov of Moutserrat, is dead; M' 
Parson, who is the senior Member of Council there, being 
factor of the Royal African Co., cannot serve ; Cap. Wm. Fox, 
the next, being aged & indisposed declines ; so Codrington 
has appointed Col. Anth° Hodges to succeed as Ij' Gov''. 

December 11. Mr. Long, a member of the 
Assembly, having been sent for thrice and not 
appearing, was fined 10 lbs. 

December 23. A tax was this day imposed ou 
9000 negros and £500 c. voted for a monument 
in England to the late General Codrington. The 
Postmaster was to receive 3d. per letter, and to pay 
Id. to the person delivering letters to him. A member 
of the Assembly received 6s. for each day's attendance. 

1700-1. New Sessions January 16. 

Baldwin Johnson, Gent. | Willoughby bay. 

Jn« Lyons, Esq' Henry Lyons, Esq' j ^^^^^^],_ 

Chas. Loyd, Gent. I 

Walter Quarm, Esq' Rich. Oliver, Gent. [ g, j^j^^^ Division. 

Nath. bampson, Gent. I 

Jn" Lyons, Esq' Cap. Isaac Horsford | Falmouth & Rende- 

Nath. Monk, Gent. ( vouz bay. 

Ed. Byam, Esq' Jn" Painter, Gent. | ^^^^ ^^^^^ g^^^^ 

Fran. Uogers, Gent. ) 

Hen. Pearn, Esq' Peter Lee, Esq' | Old Road & Ber- 

Jn" Fry, Gent. I mudian Valley. 

Walter Quarm, Esq' Geo. Gamble, Esq' I 

Cap. Jn" Otto 



S' Johns Town. 



Ed. Byam, Esq' Laur. Crabb, Esq' 

Cap. Nath. Crump 

Laur. Crab, Esq' Cap. .In" Kerr 

Abra. Swan, Gent. 

Peter Lee, Esq' Sam. Watkins, Gent. 

Fran. Rogers, Gent. 

Sam. Martin, Esq' Geo. Thomas, Gent. 



Old North Sound. 
Belfast Division. 



I 
f 
I 
( 

I Popeshead & Dicki- 
j sons bay. 
Five Islands. 

George Gamble was chosen Speaker, and among 
various rules passed were the following : — 

1. The votes of the House to be secret & any member 
publishing the same to be expelled. 

2. 3/- fine for swearing & cursing. 

3. Any member interrupting another to be fined a piece 
of eight. 

4. The Speaker to be addressed by a member standing, 
a 3/- fine for omission to do this. 

5. No smoking allowed ; fine of 3/-. 

6. Dinner to be at 12. 

Francis Rogers, i-eturned for two places, elected 
to sit for New North Sound. 

Colonel Ed. Fox, before the arrival of Christopher 
Codrington as Lieut.-General, having passed certain 
acts, their Lordships directed by their letter of 11 
December 1700 that they should be confirmed by the 
Assembly. 

James Weatherill, Gent., was returned for the 

vacancy for Popeshead. 

1701. List of Forts & Guns at Antigoa. 

o. T 1 T? t f 13 Gunns, Mounted I from 12 to 4 
S' Johns Fort< \^ , ? ,. 

16 ,, Unmounted J rounders. 

Platform at the Old Road, 6 smal Guns, all 3 Pounders. 

Willoughby Bay, one I small Platform with about 6 

Falmouth Town, one J guns each. 

Parham our Second Town of Trade. We have no Guns. 

Nevis at this time was the most powerful and the 
best supplied of the Leeward Groui), having 23 good 
guns in numerous forts. 

May 30. The death of Nathaniel Sampson, Gent., 
was announced, and Major John Lyons having gone 
off the Island, there were two vacancies created in 
the Assembly. 

Geo. Underwood Hill Gent, of A. petitions that M"' Par- 
sons Sec'' G' is dead. Pef has lived for some years at A. & 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxiii 



has been bred to the law & applies for the post. (Endorsed: — 
"Received 13 Nov. 1701.") 

Nov. 27, 1.3 W"' III. Patent to Hen. Carpenter Esq. 
to be Sec'' G' v. Edw. Parsons Esq. deceased. 

On Christmas Day Major Samuel Martin vras 
xaurdered by his slaves, vrliich created such a panic 
that on 30 December 1000 cartridges were ordered to 
be served out to each Captain of a Company, and 
10,000 vrere to be lodged in the Magazine, as a pre- 
caution against any spreading of the insubordination 
among the blacks. 

December 30. Governor Codrington writes in 
connection with the murder of Major Samuel Martin 
by his slaves : — 

"We have lost a very usefull Man in Major Martin next 
to Governour Yeamans." . ..." I am afraid he was guilty 
of some unusual Act of Severity or rather some indignity 
towards the Coromantes, for they are not only the best and 
most faithfull of our Slaves, but are really all born Heroes, 
there is a differance between them and all other Negroes 
beyond what 'tis possible for your lordships to conceive. 
There never was a Rascall or Coward of that Nation. 
Intrepid to the last degree. Not a man of them but will 
stand to be cut in pieces without a Sigh or Groan gratefull 
and obedient to a Kind Master, but implacably revengefull 
when ill treated, my Father who had studied the genius and 
temi^er of all kinds of Negroes 45 years," etc. 

December. The General Assembly voted £1200 
sterling to Governor Codrington for a piece of plate. 

May 4. War declared against Prance and Spain. 

The following account of land forfeited to the 
public for non-payment of taxes, was handed in at a 
meeting of the Assembly 1 December 1719 : — 

Antigua. May 20"', 1702. 

Names of persons to whom the land Acres of lb. of Sugar 

did belong. Land. or Tobacco. 

To John Merchant, Sen. 52 6,154 

„ Thomas Williams 30 .3,035 

„ Estate of Darby Noonane 40 4,594 

„ Estate of William Pike 30 1,320 

„ Estate of George Turphery 35 4,645 

„ Estate of Andrew Joyce 200 16,045 

„ Barth" Barrett for Johnson 30 2,095 

„ Estate of John Lingham Green Isl'' 60 2,545 

„ David Fuller 15 1,490 

„ Estate of John Green 20 1,025 

„ William Stevenson for Suttons Est» 30 3,754 

„ Estate of John Cobb 50 1,900 

„ Estate of Darby Collins 20 1,430 

„ William Burden 10 200 

„ Rich-i Dash wood, ab' 25 2,150 

„ Edward Gratrex 60 3,132 

„ Estate of S'' W>" Stapleton 125 6,100 

„ the lady Penelope Russell 60 3,650 

„ Estate of Moyle Johnson 75 3,450 

„ James Budds 90 6,110 

„ Maj"- Thomas Delavale 1000 27,000 



2047 101,824 



The above Lands were published for non-payment of the 
aforementioned Sums according to Act of this Island. 

1702. A clause in an Act, dated 28 June, pro- 
vided for the erection of a cage, pillory, stocks, 
■whipping -post, and ducking-stool in each town. 

By another Act five Commissioners were appointed 
for St. John's, and five for Falmouth Precincts, for 
the regulation and suf)ervision of all public ponds. 



An Act was passed this year for the better 
government of slaves and free negroes, and by 
clause 9 a slave striking and wounding a white could 
be punished by slitting of the nose, cutting ofE a 
member, or death, at the discretion of the justices. 

By another Act for regulating the Militia it was 
enacted that every man between the ages of 14 and 
65 should serve either in the three regiments of 
Infantry or the mounted Carbineers. This latter 
corps consisted of picked reliable men, appointed by 
the Governor and Council. All clothing, arms, and 
horses were to be provided at the public charge, and 
each plantation was bound to provide one Cai'bineer, 
the whole number to be never less than 60. 

Two vacancies in the Council were created this 
year by the death of Colonel Francis Carlile, and by 
the departure of Thomas Duncomb, who sold his 
estate and retired from the island. 

By an addi-ess from St. Christopher's on 23 July 
it appears that £50 for a piece of plate and 50 negros 
had been voted as a gift to Colonel Codrington by an 
Act of that island. 

August 14. £2000 worth of stores to be sent out. 

1702. Rowland Williams, John Hamilton, Ed- 
ward Byam, James Thynn, Henry Pearn, William 
Codrington, Henry Lyons, and John Lyons to be the 
Council. 

July 6. Codrington writes that he has 1200 
French prisoners, having just received the capitula- 
tion of St. Kitts. 

" Col. Hamilton of Nevis was my second as Maj'' Gen^ 
Col. Hamilton of Antigua & 12 gent" of the best estates 
there attended me. I could not spare Col. Byam from the 
island, & Col. Pern & Col. Williams were both sick." 

September 7, 1 Anne. A patent was signed this 
day by Christopher Codrington appointing John 
Yeamans Lieut. -Governor of Antigua. 

1702. Memorandum about Maj. Geo. Thomas who had 
been presented to the King by Lord Carteret & had applied 
for the next vacancy in the C. (America and West Indies, 
No. 451.) 

1702-3. At a Council of War 20 Feb. there were then 
fit for sentinells including corporalls in 

Maj'' Gen' Earles Reg' - - - 388 

Brigf Harailtons „ - - - 498 

Lord Donegalls ,, - - - 441 

Lord Charlemonts ,, - - - 430 



Total - 1757 

List of officers & sentinells killed wounded deserted 
or taken prisoners at Guadaloup since our 1=' landing on 
12 Mar. 1702-3 till 6 May following: — 

Officers. Sentinels. 

9 killed 105 killed 

18 wounded 191 wounded 

9 dead 72 dead 

60 living 59 deserted 

105 subalterns living. 12 pris''^ 2719 living. 

1703, July 1. Colonel John Johnson was ap- 
pointed Lieut.-Governor of Nevis. 

George Larkin, the Secretary-General of the 
Leeward Islands, writes on 31 May that the Governor 
of Bermuda has released him (though it does not 



Ixxiv 



THE HISTORY OE ANTIGUA. 



aj^pear why he had been confined), and he complains 
of the chaotic condition of the Secretary's oflfice. 

On December 3 the Queen had appointed Colonel 
William Mathew as Capt.-General vice Codrington 
dismissed, and on 27 December his commission was 
ordered to be drawn out. 

February 18. Ordnance stores to the value of 
£2200 are to be despatched. 

1703-4. Colonel Codrington writes home 14 
FebiTiary attributing the loss of his government to 
certain mistakes he acknowledges to have made. 
The draught form for his revocation was dated 24 
February. 

1703-4. February 14. Colonel Codrington writes 
from Nevis that out of five years' salary he has only 
received £900. 

The commission for Sir William Mathew bears 
date 5 January, and by his instructions dated 17 
February he was directed to swear in Rowland 
Williams, John Fry, sen., John Hamilton, Edward 
Byam, James Thynn, Henry Pearn, William Codring- 
ton, Charles Mathew, Henrj' Lyons, Barry Tankard, 
and Thomas Morris as Councillors of Antigua. 

1704? April 20. The salary of the Governor- 
General is by the Queen's instructions to be increased 
from £700 to £1200 sterling, and each Lieut.- 
Governor will receive £200 sterling a year. 

1704. Out of 108 ships which left Barbados and 
the Leeward Isles for England in October only 61 
arrived at their destination, 43 having been carried 
into French ports as prizes. 

July 14. At a meeting of the Council there were 
present : — 

S'- W" Malhew, K"', Capt. Gen'. Chas. Mathew, Esq. 
Hon. Jn° Yeamans, L' Gov''. Hen. Lyons, Esq. 

Jn" Hamilton, Esq. Barry Tankard, Esq. 

Edw. Byam, Esq. Tho. Morris, Esq. 

Hen. Poarne, Esq. 

Sir William's commission, dated 26 January last 
was read, and the various officers took the usual 
oaths. 

Jvily 20. Codrington writes that he has lost his 
eyesight and the use of his limbs, and complains of 
Commodore Walker's* conduct at Guadaloupe. 

On 26 July the returns were sent in for the New 
Sessions as follows : — 



By 
Henry Pearne, Esq' 

Richard Oliver, Esq' 
Maj' John Gamble 
Francis Rogers, Esq' 
Charles Loyd, Esq' 
Laurence Crabb, Esq' 



Maj' John ffry 
Cap' Charles Goss 



ffor 
Refuse to Serve. 
I Bermudiau Valley 
) A: old Road. 
Maj' Jn" Gamble A: I Saint Johns 
Said Richard Oliver I Division. 
Maj' ffrancis Rogers I New North 
Cap' John Painter I Sound. 
M' Joseph French | Popeshead A: Dicki- 
M' James Browne I sous Bay. 

Cap' William Grear | None Such 
Cap' .lohn Duer \ Division. 

Nathaniell Crump, Esq' | OldNorth Sound 
James Porter. Esq' ] Division. 

Thomas Oysterman, Esq' Cap' Robert Martin ffive Islands. 

John Lucas, Esq' M' Baldwyn Johnson | Willoughby Bay 

M' Nathaniell Monk ! Division. 

Edward Byam, Esq' Richard Buckeridge, Esq' | S' Johns 

M' Edward Chester I Town. 

Isaack Horsford, Esq' Cap' Kean Osborne \ ffalmouth & Ran- 
Said Isaack Horseford j devous Bay. 

John Keir, Esq' Samuell Mears. Gent. I t> m ^ 

M' Nicolas Collins I ^eUfast. 

* Commodore H. Walker, who had been accused by Governor 
Codrington of misbehaviour during the late Expedition to Guada- 
loupe, puts in a copy of the log of H.M.S. " Boyue " as his defence. 



Richard Oliver was chosen Speaker. Mr. John 
Fry refused to serve, as he was de2:)arting for England. 
£800 currency a year was voted to the Governor for 
house hire. 

July 27. Captain James Porter is ordered to be 
paid £111 for the guard-house, stocks, and cage he 
had built at Parham. 

August 3. Captain Main Sweete was returned as a 
Member. 

August 9. Charles Kallahane, Gent., was returned 
vice John Fr}', and Captain Samuel Watkins was 
appointed to take charge of all the forts. The patent 
of Nicholas Nicholls as Attorney-General, dated this 
day, was read. 

August 23 and 28. The following gentlemen 
received their commissions as J.P.'s, and were 
sworn :— 

Jn" Yeamans. Tho. Morris. Natli. Crump. 

Edw. Byam. Rich. Oliver. Jas. Porter. 

Hen. Pearne. Isaack Horseford. Rob. Mai'tin. 

Hen. Lyons. Fra. Rogers. Rich. Buckeridge. 

Barry Tankard. Jn" Gamble. Rob. Thornton. 

Jn" Lucas. Sam. Watkins. Tho. Oysterman. 

Jn° Kerr. Sam. Parry. Chas. Loyd, Esquires. 

On September 5 the following list of the forts, 
• and of the officers who were willing to take charge 
of them, was drawn up : — 

Kleafs Point. Shaw's Point Cap' Kerr w'" his Officers. 

Willuughby Bay Fort Cap' John Lucas. 

Parham Cap' James Porter. 

The Narrows. Marshalls Cap' Nath" Crump w"' his 

Creek Officers. 

Saint Johns Town Maj'' John Gamble, Cap' Otto 

w"' their Offieei's. 

Saint Johns Fort & the Cap' Oliver & Cap' Home. 

Battery under the Fort 

Mackiuens Point Maj'' Long, Doctor Jiackinen. 

Dixson's Bay M'' Christopher Knight. 

Soldiers Gutt Maj' Francis Rogers. 

Kellys Bay Nath" Humphreys & Rob' 

Irvin. 

Barnacle Point Cap' John Painter. 

English Harbor Cap' Kean Osborne w"" his 

Officers. 

Road Fort Cap' Charles Goss & Cap' Tho- 
mas Williams. 

Blubber Bay Hill Lieu' Coll" ffiy. 

Fullertons Point & Hawk- Maj'' George Thomas & Cap' 

ness Point Rob' Martin. 

The Care of the Great Guns AVilliam Garrett. 

along y'= Bay between the 

Fort & Dixson's Bay 

Cotton Plantation Cap' Goss. 

Riggs Point Cap' John Duer. 

Pearn's Point Coll" Pearne. 

Guns at Lublolly Bay Maj'' Thornton. 



Platformes. 



Willoughby Bay, Sandy 
Island Point on the 
Savana Side 3 guns 

Falmouth Point 3 guns 

Mangrove Point at Par- 
ham 4 guns 

Criple Gate at S' Johns 
4 guns 



Maj'' Henry Lyons, Cap' Grear, 
Cap' Duer. 

Cap' Horseford, Cap' Osborne, 
Barry Tankard. 

Cap' Thomas Morris, Cap' Por- 
ter, Cap' Parrey. 

Maj'' Thornton, Cap' Rob' Mar- 
tin, M'' John Haddon. 




^M2i ^cc'//^ncy/){J/llc/ Jc7//(i' ou/f Ca/?. (/e//.-''. 
ko/ur/eqacK/yiour of t/n: -^-/?-'a/r) ff/ilf/Od :"■■[ 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxv 



The ship " Hanover," of Bristol, Captain Gustavus 
Scott, commander, was captured in St. John's Road, 
by a French man-of-war. The great guns arrived 
this year. 

Sej^tember 5. Francis Pouch, born in the Province 
of Perigord in Guienne, wishes to take the oaths of 
allegiance and subscribe to the test. 

November 25. Sir W. Mathew writes that he 
has been taken very ill, as also his wife and secretary, 
and most of his family are greatly indisposed. 

Sir WilliaDi Mathew died on 4. December, and the 
Hon. Colonel John Johnson, Lieutenant-Governor of 
Nevis, assumed the government as Commander-in- 
Chief. 

December 6. Colonel Codrington writes that Sir 
W. Mathew died on the 4th instant, and asks to be 
appointed Captain-General. 

1704-5. At a Meeting of y'^ Gent" of y= Assembly at 
Parliam Toun March y'= 14 it was announced that Col. 
Johnson the Commander in Chief was expected, & 2 pipes 
of wine, 2 barrels of flower, 4 of beef, & 2 of porke were 
ordered for his entertainment at the public charge. 

January 17. Letter from Christoj)her Codrington 
to the Earl of Petei'borough, in which the writer 
complains of his broken constitution. (America and 
West Indies, No. 451.) 

February 6. Colonel John Johnson writes that 
Sir W. Mathew arrived on the 14th Jiily and died on 
the 4th Nov. {sic). He has sworn in as Councillors 
Colonel Codrington (the late General), and Colonel 
George Gamble v. Mr. William [sic) Fry, senior, and 
Mr. James Thynne, deceased. 

Monks Hill Fort has been building these 16 years. 
Colonel Walter Hamilton writes from St. Kitts 
about the French attack of 11 February. 

1705, March 28. The Queen having appointed 
Colonel Pai'ke to be Captain-General, etc., his draught 
commission was this day presented. 

April 20. A new seal was ordered, and the old 
one is to be broken up and sent home. 

May 10. The Instructions drawn out for Governor 
Parke were very voluminous, about 100 folio pages. 

1705. From a letter received on 14 November it 
appears that the Island was then divided into five 
parishes, containing five churches which had three 
Ministers. 

There were three Militia Regiments, one troop of 
horse, three Queen's Companies, 4139 black cattle, 
34 windmills, 136 cattle-mills, 92 cannon, and 
12,187 negros. 

1705-G. From John Johnson Esq. to S' Chas. Hedges 
dated Mar. 13, saying that the French who numbered 2300 
overpowered the 6 or 700 opposed to them at S' Kitts; de- 
stroyed all the works & canes in 7 days ; took 300 negros ; but 
departed unexpectedly. The enemy had 2 ships of 72 guns, 
1 of 60, 1 of 58, 1 of 44, & 1 of 20. He has appointed him- 
self, Geo. Gamble, Jn° Lucie Blackman & Dan' Mackinen to 
the C of Antigua. 

1705-C, March 15. " Ordered that Cap' Richard Oliver 
be paid }"= Summe of £100 c. money out ofi" the publique 
Treasury off this Island For making 2 Carriages w'" 4 
wheeles each For 2 off the Field pieces belonging to ye 
Same." 



1705-G ? March 25. Gov .Jn° Yeamans writes to 
notify the Cap' Gen' that on the 21^' inst. 50 French sail 
were between Antigua & Montserrat, 12 or 15 being men 
of war, the same fleet which ruined S' Christophers 6 weeks 
past. 

1706, March 26. The enemy has attacked Nevis. 
Major Kean Osborne is dead. ' 

May 2. The Tax for ensuing year : — 



On 55,000 acres of Land att 3 

13,000 negros att 12 
5,000 cattle att 4 
On Traders 

On Towne Rents att 12 p"- Cent. 
On Wine Lycences at £30 I 
„ Punch „ „ 10 J 

On Dry Goods imported as Formerly 5 p'' Cent 
Impost off Liquors 
Additional impost to l)e raised by a New Act 1 

50 pr Cent. / 



£ currency. 
8,200 
7,800 
1,000 
1,000 
700 



300 

500 
800 

400 



£20,700 

Joseph French, Esq., is Treasurer. 

April 20. Colonel Walter Hamilton writes that 
the French captured Nevis in two days. 

June 3. Colonel Richai'd Abbott, President of 
Nevis, writes that the Island has capitulated to the 
French, and they have agreed to pay them £42,000 
or 1200 negros as a ransom, to save their houses from 
pillage. 

Colonel Daniel Parke, the new Captain-General, 
arrived at the Leeward Islands on 6 July. 

On 14 July he presided at a meeting of the 
Council, when there were pi-esent the Hon. John 
Yeamans, Lieutenant-Governor, Christopher Cod- 
rington, John Hamilton, Edward Byam, William 
Codi'ington, Henry Lyons, Barry Tankard, Thomas 
Morris, and George Gamble, Esquires. 

The Queen's commission, dated 25 April last, was 
read, nominating Parke Captain-General, as also one 
from Prince George of Denmark, Lord High Admiral 
of England, appointing him his Vice- Admiral. 

On 22 July the Hon. John Johnson, the Com- 
mander in Chief, gave up the great seal, which was 
duly broken at the Board. 

The following return was made for the New 
Sessions : — 



By 
Chas. Lloyd, Esq. 

Fran. Rogers, Esq' 

Hen. Lyons, Esq' 

Jn° Kerr, Esq' 

Rich. Oliver, Esq' 

Tho. Oesterman, Esq' 

Rob. Martin, Esq' 
Nath" Crump, Esq' 

Jn" Gamble, Esq' 

Isaac Horsford, Esq' 

Sam. Watkins, Esq. 



Cap' Jn° Duer 
Cap' W"' Green 
Cap' Jn" Painter 
Cap' Jeremy Blizard 
Coll" \V'" Byam 
Lieut. Baptist Looby 
Cap' Steph. Duer 
Said Jn" Kerr, Esq' 
L« Coll" Tho. Williams 
Said Rich. Oliver 
Coll" Geo. Thomas 
Edv?. Ferrie, Esq' 
Geo. Thomas 
Sam. Parry, Esq' 
Sam. Philips 
Coll" W'» Thomas 
Jn" Brett, Gent. 
W"" Pearne 
Tho. Franklyn 
Era. Rogers, Esq' 
Nath" Humphry absent 



For 
Nonesuch. 
New North Sound. 
Willoughl)y Bay. 



Belfast. 
) 

S' Johns Division. 

i Bermudian valley 
j and the Road. 
Five Islands. 



Old North Sound. 
i S' Johns Town. 

Falmouth Division. 

/ Popes head & Dick- 
I sons Bay. 



July 22. Richard Oliver was chosen Speaker. 
Colonel George Thomas declines his seat. 



Ixxvi 



THE HISTORY OP ANTIGUA. 



On July 23 ^£800 c. was voted to the Governor for 
house hii"e, which on the 26th was increased to 
£1000 c. 

July 26. Rev. Simon Smith, Rector of Falmouth, 
petitions that by the Act of 1692 he is entitled to 
16,000 lbs. yearly stipend, has been rector five years 
and received none of it. 

J 706, July 30. At a Meeting of all the Militia 
Officers there were present : — 



His Excelleucy Daniel Parke. 

Coll" Edw-i Byam. 

Coll" Geo. Thomas. 

Coll" Ja" Humiltou. 

L» Coll" Geo. Gamble. 

L' Coll" W"> Codnngton. 

L' Coll" W"' Byam. 

L' Coll" Fra. Rogers. 

Maj' Val. Morris of the Brigade. 

„ Tho. Morris. 

„ J a" Tomliuson. 

,, Jn" Burton. 



Cap' Jn" Otto. 

„ Steph. Duer. 

„ Jas. Porter. 

„ Giles Watkins. 

„ W" Pearne. 

„ Antho. Monteyro. 

,, Tho. Oesterman. 

„ Tho. Nanton. 

„ Jer. Blizard. 

„ Jn° Sawcolt. 

„ Jas. Barter. 

„ Ambrose York. 



In later lists, on 25 January 1706-7, appear 
Colonel John Lucie Blackman v. George Thomas, 
Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Williams, Major Henry Lyons, 
Captains John Duer, John Kerr, Humphry Osborne, 
Richard Oliver, Joseph French, and James Nisbitt ; 
on 8 February 1706-7 Captain John Paynter; on 
March 1 Captain William Howard ; on 20 Novem- 
ber 1707 Major Richard Oliver ; on 29 June 1708 
Captains John Wickham, Edward Taylor, and Anthony 
Brown; on 8 January 1708-9 Captains James Parke, 
William Hughes, Nathaniel Humphrys ; and on 26 
March 1709 Captain Joseph Buckshorne. There were 
at this time three regiments of Militia and one troop 
of horse or yeomanry. 

July 31. Main Swete, Esq., by his petition, 
states that John Johnson, Esq., appointed hiui 
Major of Monk's Hill Fort and of other forts, and 
principal store-keeper. 

August 16. Mr. John Haddon was chosen for Five 
Islands. 

August 20. Execution issued against St. Paul's 
Parish for 100,000 lbs. due to the Rev. Simon Smith. 

August 30. The Officers of Ordnance are to con- 
fer with Mr. Cary (? the Agent) as to what stores 
shall be sent to the Leeward Islands. 

September 13. Samuel Watkins takes the oaths as 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. Mr. James Barter 
was returned for Rendevouz Bay vice Mr. Thomas 
Franklyn, deceased. Lieutenant Henry Langrish, 
who had been wounded in the public service, is voted 
£20 c. for a sword. 

September 13. Rev. James Field has suspended 
Mr. Smith, the rector of St. Paul's. 

September 15. Gov Parke writes, that Col. John John- 
son has been killed by M'' Pogson, who once kept a planta- 
tion for M'' Freeman in 8* Kitts ; but Col. Codrington 
having forced him out, M' Freeman complained in the 
House of Commons, & Pogson got possession again., & in 
Sir W. Mathew's time, was sworn of the Council. After 
Sir W. Mathew's death Col. John Johnson suspended M"' 
Pogson by Codrington's order, but he (Parke) restored him. 
Col. Johnson was a bricklayer ; entered the Army & became 



Serj' ; Tiffany made him a Capt. for bringing him store 
of black cattle during the war ; Codiington made him 
a Major L' Col. & L' Gov. He could not read nor 
write. 

October 5. Gov. Parke writes home, that he has 
com'issioned Maj'' Gen' Hamilton, the L' Gov. of S' Kitts, 
to be L' Gov. of Nevis, v. Col. Johnson deceased, & Col. 
Lambert Presid' of S' Kitts to be L' Gov. He complains 
that My Lady Russell & Stapleton had each of them above 
200 Negros at Nevis & not 1 white man. Col. Codrington 
has 400 negros on 1 plantation & only 1 white man. The 
pestilence at Nevis is so great that one half of the Inhabit- 
ants are dead or dying. 

Parke was shortly afterwards censured by their 
Lordships for exceeding his powers in pi'esuming to 
change the Lieut. -Governors, but they acquiesced 
in what had been done. 

November 12. General Codrington and Governor 
Parke have already had disagreements, and are fre- 
quently at variance. 

Colonel Lillingston's Regiment has been ordered 
out to relieve the detachment of Colonel Whetham's. 

Colonel Richard Abbott writes home describing 
the events which lead to the capitulation of 
Nevis, and encloses a copy of the articles of sur- 
render. 

Numerous depositions were forwarded from St. 
Kitts, in reference to the recent killing of Colonel 
John Johnson by Captain John Pogson. The former 
was stated to have been unarmed when he was shot. 
The jury brought in a verdict of not guilty. 

1706-7, Februai-y 4. Governor Parke was anxious 
to fortify St. John's Town, but this the Assembly 
i-efused to sanction. 

February 15. Letter fi-om Gov' Parke stating that 
there are at Antigua 800 men fit to bear arms. Col. Whet- 
ham's Reg' has received no pay for 5 years. The Colonel 
lives in London, draws their pay, but sends them no 
clothing. He (Parke) has made only 2 new Ensigns 
viz.: — M'' Ryley's sou of the Excise, & M'' Mitchell's son 
of Surrey. A new Ensign just out from England told him 
that he had given 70 guineas to Col. Whctham for his 
Com'ission. 

1707. May. Gov'' Parke writes that the i)ieces of the old 
seal which was broken up have been lost, & that old Col. Cod- 
rington & Sir Nath. Johnson kept theirs. 

June 10. Govei-nor Parke informs their Lord- 
ships that 300 of Colonel Luke Lillington's regiment 
have arrived from Ireland. 

July. Many provision ships from New England 
have been captured by the French. 

July 18. Colonel George Thomas, Member for 
Belfast, is dead. Captain John Duei-, Member for 
Belfast, and Mr. John Haddon, for Five Islands, have 
both gone off, so there are three seats vacant. 

The Patent for Laurence Crabb, Esq., to be of the 
Council V. Pearne, deceased, was dated 26 July 1707, 
6 Anne. 

Governor Parke writes that he has removed Walter 
Hamilton, the Lieut. -Governor of St. Kitts, to Nevis, 
and appointed Colonel Michael Lambert to be Lieut. - 
Governor of the former. Their Lordships sanction 
this, though warning him that it is contrary to his 
instructions, and enclose the necessary Patent, which 
is dated 5 July 1707. 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxvii 



1707, July 31. "A list of persons ou whom the Soldiers 
are intended to be billeted." 



POl-ESHEAD & DiCKISON'S BaY. 



Doctor Maokinen . 
Chr. Knight . 
Wm, Weatherill . 
Jonas Langford 
Coll" Rogers & Hen. Hodge 
Coll" \V'atkins 
Jacob Morgan 
M' Royall 
Joseph French 
John Codner & John Green 
way .... 



Maj' Long .... 

Sam. Boon & Jn" Hodge 

Garrett Garrett 

Nath. Humphreys 

W"' Hamilton & Henry 
Xantou .... 

Tho. Gilliard 

Joseph Hodge & Hen. Grey- 
don 



Old Nokth Sound. 



Parham plantation 

— Martin 

Jn° Otto 

Governor Yeamans 

Benj. Nibbs . 

Rob. Christian 

Sam. Parry . 

Steph. Duer . 

Jn° Duer 

Coll" Blackman 

Joseph Redhead & Tho. Haws 

Rich. Cochran 

Laurence Crabb . 

Tho. Morris . 



Jn» 



Bur 



4 Sam. Wickham 
2 Geifry Duncomb 

2 Hazael Reynolds 

3 ton 
Jn" Wickham 
Jn" Lightfoot 
James Parke . 
Chr. Codrington 
W'" Codrington 
Nath. Crump 
Sam. Philips 
James Porter 

2 Vernon's & Freeman's Estate 
1 W'" Byam . . . . 



1 
1 

] 
1 
1 
1 

8 
2 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 

50 



New Nokth Sound. 



Jacob Le Eoux 
Hen. & Giles Blizard 
Elliot & Gravener 
Richardson & Thaxter 
Jeremiah Blizard 
Francis Carlile . 
Abra. Redwood 
Jn° Paynter . 
Edvf . Byam, Esq' 



Frances Oliver 

Rich. Oliver . 

W"' Glanvile . 

Jn» Buxton . 

Jn" Hamilton 

Ash's Estate . 

Sam. Byam . 

Jas. Nibbs & W™ Sigsworth . 

W"> Thomas .... 



1 
2 
2 
I 
3 
1 
2 
1 
3 

30 



Bellpast. 



Mrs. Elliot . 
Mrs. Collins . 
W" Steel 

Widow Reynolds & Keef e 
Jn" Witts & Tho. Lowry 
Sam. Mayrs & W" Paynter 
Owen Maccarty & Jefferson 
Cornelius HoUoran 



Marmaduke Urlin 
Timothy Singin & Jn° Lavi 
count 



Benj. Steel & Joi 

man . 
Tho. Room 
Cap' Kerr 
Jo. Richards 



ihua Tod 



Nonsuch & Willoughby Bay. 



W" Grear . 


1 


W"" Lavington 






W" Bradshaw & Theodore 


Jn" Lucas, Esq' 




Godet 




Jn° Lyons 




Lucy Lucas & Jn° Corbett 




Hen. Lyons . 




Skerett 4: Lynch . 




Baldwyn Johnson 




Jn" King 




Tankerd's Estate . 




Chas. Lloyd . 




Bacon & pike 




Elmes & Pryn 




Anthony Browne & M' Toft 


Falmouti 


I & 


Rendevous Bay. 


Joseph Gale . 


1 


Freeman's Estate . 


Dominick Bodkin 


1 


M" Monk 






Alex' Callman 


1 


Nath. Monk . 






Tho. Nanton . 


1 


Isaac Horsford 






Tyson's Estate 


1 


Barry Tankard 






Main Swete . 


2 


Kean Osborn 






Dennis Machlemare & Mas 




Jas. Barter . 






ters .... 


1 


M' Whitlock . 






Savannah 


4 


M' Howard . 






W"> Franklyn 


1 


M' Looby 







15 



2 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

18 



2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 

30 



Old Road & Bekmudian Valley. 



Maj' Burton . 


1 


Ambrose Yorke 


W" Dunning 


2 


Anthony Monteyro 


Huyghue & Bromwell . 




Beshoon & VVharfe 


Henry Winthrope 




Patrick Browne . 


Samson's Estate . 




Kallahan . 


Sam. Fry 




Rob' Sheeres . 


Coll» WiUiams . 




CoU" Frye . 


Polling ton . 




Valentine Morris . 


Trant .... 




M' Turton 


Jn° Terry 




Leonard & Stevens 


Maj' Martin's Estate . 


2 


Butler & Sutton . 


Cap" Roe 


2 


Benson & Barton . 


Peame's Estate . 


3 





34 



St. John's Town & Division. 



Cap. Nisbitt . 

Jacob Thibou 

Edward Taylor . 

Daniel Soues 

W"' Johnson . 

Tho. Wise .■ 

W™ Gilhan . 

Cesar Rodeny 

M' Barbottain & Rose Kene 

Nich. Trant ... 

Jn" Parrott & Jn" Martin 

Caleb Lasher 

Edw. Chester, Jun., & M' 

Bendall ... 
Rose & Haig ... 
M' Proctor . 
M' Kirwan . 
Chr. Stoodly . 
Jas. Wade 
Edw. Perrie . 
Rich. Denbow 
Thos. Kerby . 
Jn" Brett 

Andrew Murray . 
Hanson & Napper 
Rich. Meynell 
Cap. Oesterman . 
M' Bird .... 
M" Hill 
M'" Donaldson 



Cap. Otto 

M' Field 

M' Haddon . 

Geo. Dewitt . 

Jn° Wright . 

Geo. Gamble . 

Maj' Tomlinson 

Ju° Gamble . 

Cap. Oliver . 

Jonas Langford 

Samson's Estate 

Cap. Sookwell 

Clerk's Estate 

Edw. Chester, Sen' 

Col. Tho. Williams 

Edw. Home . 

Gary's Estate 

S' Thos. Cooke 

M' Harman . 

Roger Williams 

Rob. Weir 

Hughes & De Koster . 

M" Morris & Cap. Watkins 

M' Guichinet 

Rob. Dunning 

Hughes & Pawley 

M" Wharfe & M" Hastings 

M' Scouch 

Bintell & Burroughs . 



4 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

77 



Five Islands. 



Tho. Turner . 
Maj' Sam. Martin . 
M' Hanson . 
Cap. Otto 



2 Jn" Martin .... 

2 Coll" Geo. Thomas 

1 M" Thornton 

1 Jn" Manwaring & Anderson . 



2 
2 
1 
1 

12 



1707. A further list was drawn up on 25 Aug. 
Popeshead & Dickinson's Bay. 



Chr. Knight . 
Mary Weatheril . 
Jonas Langford 
Sam. Watkins, Esq' 
Joseph French 



Nath. Humphrys . 
Hen. Nanton & Jn" Butler . 
Cap. Isaac Royall & Jn" 
Hodge . . . . 



New North Sound. 





Jacob Le Roux . . .1 


Rich. Oliver, Esq. . 


1 


Fra. Carlile .... 1 


Jeremiah Nibbs & M' Parker 


1 


Augustus Balam & Arthur 


W'" Glanvile . 


1 


Williams .... 1 


Col. Jn" Hamilton 


1 


Cap. Jn" Paynter . . .1 


M' Ashe's Estate . 


— 


Coll" Edw. Byam ... 1 


Col. W'» Thomas . 



11 



M' Rob. Hanson . 



Five Islands. 
. 1 Cap. Jn" Otto 



Old North Sound. 



Parham Plantation 
Adam Martin 
The Governor 
Steph. Duer . 
Sam. Parry . 
Jn" Duer 
Rich. Cochran 
Col. Lucy Blackman 




Jn" Wickham 
Jn" Lightfoot 
Jas. Parke 
W" Codrington 
Gen' Codrington . 
Cap. Nath. Crump 
Col. W'° Byam 




1 
1 

1 
1 
2 

1 
1 

18 




Bellpast. 


•^^^^ 


M'« Eliz. Elliot . 

M'" Collins . 

M' Meyres & W" Paynt 


. 1 
. 1 

er . 1 


M' Maccarty & Jefferso 
Jn" Witts & Tho. Leidy 
Tim Singin & Jn" Lavioc 


a 

Sen 
unt 


1 
1 
1 



Nonsuch & Willoughby Bay. 



M' Bradshaw & Theodore 

Godet .... 1 
Jn" Corbett & Lucy Lucas . 1 
M' Skerrett & M' Lynch . 1 
Jn" King . ... 1 
Cap. Cha. Lloyd . . .1 


W'" Lavington 
Jn" Lucas, Esq' 
Jn" Lyons 
Tankerd's Est. 
Hen. Lyons . 


10 


Falmouth 


Division. 


^^ 


Joseph Gale .... 1 
Bodkin's Estate . . .1 
Dennis Macklemore & Rich. 

Masters .... 1 
Savannah plantation . . 1 
W" Franklyn ... 1 
Cap. Isaac Horsford . . 1 


Barry Tankerd, Esq' . 
Maj' Osborne's Estate . 
Maj' Main Swete . 
Cap. Jas. Barter . 
Walter Shelley . 
M" Anne Monk . 





12 



Ixxviii 



THE HISTORY OE ANTIGUA. 



Old Road & Beemudian Valley. 




W" Dunninff 


1 


Blubber Valley . 


1 


M' Huytrhne & Jn" Bram 




Cap. Ambrose York 


1 


well .... 




Cap. Anthony Monk 


1 


Sampson's Estate . 






Bezune & Isaac Wharfe 


1 


Col. Tho. Williams 






Patrick Browne's Estate 


1 


Pollington's Estate 






Cha. Kallahan 


1 


Sam. Frye 






Valentine Morris . 


1 


Hedffes & Trants . 






M' Jarvis Turton . 


1 


Cap. Jn" Roe . 








17 


St. John 


s Town & Division. 


^■" 


Cap. Nisbitt & Lieut. John 




M" Hill's Estate . 


1 


son .... 


1 


Rob. Donaldson 


1 


Cssar Rodeny & M' Bar- 


M' Jas. Field 


1 


bottain 


1 


Col. Geo. Gamble . 


1 


EdW Chester, Jun., & M 




Maj' Tomlinson . 


1 


Bendall 




Edw. Chester. Sen. 


1 


Jn" Rose & M' Caleb Lasher 




Coll" Tho. Williams . 


1 


M' Proctor & Stoodley . 




Edw. Home . 


1 


Jas. Reade & M' Brett . 




M' Gary's Estate . 


1 


M' Meynells & M' Hulet 




M' Weir & De Koster . 


1 


Cap. Tho. Oesterman . 




Cap. Hen. Symea . 


1 


M' Philemon Bird 








— 



20 

August. Commissioners have been appointed to 
enquire into the losses sustained at St. Kitts and 
Nevis as ordered by the House of Commons, and 
Nathaniel Estwick is to be their Secretaiy. 

From the accounts of the Royal African Company 
it seems that between 24 June 1698 and 25 December 
1707 4945 negros were imported to Antigua. 

August 25. John Inglefield and Gabriel Thibou, 
having perfected a wind saw-mill, are granted four 
proportions of land. 

October 8. List of Council : " Row. Williams 
bedrid w"' the Gout. Barry Tankard gone to New E. 
but expected back." 

October 28. Gov'' Parke "(vrites that " The Duke promised 
me the Goverraent of Virginia at the Battle of Blenheim, 
but for some Reasons of State that was given to my Lord 
Orkney." He sends the names of 6 of the most eminent men 
to fill future vacancies in the Council viz. : W™ Thomas, 
Rich'' Oliver, Tho. Williams, Sam. Watkins, Lucy Blackman, 
& Geo. Mackenny. In excusing himself for not having 
complied with the request of their Lordships that certain 
lists sh'' be sent them, Parke makes the ingenious excuse 
that the reason why Nevis was taken was because the copy 
of the list of Inhabitants on its way home fell into the hands 
of the French, who thereby discovered that there were 
14,000 negros there & but 440 English. He was of opinion 
that Antigua being to the windward was best situated to 
help the other Leeward Islands. The hurricane of 12 
August last drove 2 men of war on shore at S* Kitts. 

November 17. It is stated that the idantation, 
formerly Mr. Walrond's, is the most suitable site for 
a camp. 

The Hon. John Lucie Blackman is Colonel of the 
Troop of Carbineers ; Hon. John Hamilton is Colonel 
of one Regiment of Militia; Hon. Edward Byam is 
Colonel of two battalions ; and Hon. Thomas Wil- 
liams Colonel of two others. 

The following are to join the Troop : — 



Sam. Byam. 
Sam. Proctor. 
And. Murray. 
Jn° Tankard. 



Ed. Taylor. 
— Home. 
Tho. Trant. 
Jn° Haddon. 



.Jn° Richards. 
Marcus Monk. 
M"^ Jarvis Turton. 



November 18. Nathaniel Estwick, from St. Kitts, 
announces the death of Colonel William Burt, the 
President of that Island. 

Between 29 June 1698 and 25 December 1707 
6750 negros in 49 vessels were imported. (Southey.) 



November 24. The lines of defence about St. 

John's Town have been completed, the ditch being 

four feet wide and four feet deep. 

1707-8, March 1. New Sessions. 
By 



For 



Fra. Rogers, Esq' 
Isaac Horsford, Esq' 
Sam. Watkins, Esq' 
Jn" Kerr, Esq' 
Tho. Oesterman, Esq' 
Cha. Lloyd, Esq' 
Hen. Lyons, Esq' 
Ed. Byam, Esq' 
Nath. Crump, Esq' 
Rich. Oliver, Esq' 

Jn° Haddon, Esq' 



Popeshead. 



Joseph French 
Nath. Humphrys 
Isaac Horsford, Esq. | Falmouth & Ren- 

Cap. Humphrey Osborne I devouz Bay. 



D' Dan. Mackinen 
Fran. Rogers 
Cap. Jn" Duer 
Cap. Jn" Lightfoot 
Coll" Jn» Frye 
Cap. Cha. Kallahan 
Cap. \\'"' Grear 
M' Sara. Wickham 
Baptist Looby 
M' Jn" Barnes 
Cap. Jn" Paynter 
Cap. Fra. Carlile 
Said Nath. Crump 
M' Sam. Philips 
Col. Tho. Williams 
M' Ed. Chester, Sen. 

M' Tho. Turner 



Dickisons Bay. 

Belfast. 

Bermudian Valley 
& Old Road. 

Nonsuch. 
VVilloughby Bay. 
New North Sound. 
Old North Sound. 

S' Johns Division. 

Five Islands 
Division. 



Col. W™ Thomas 

Rich. Buckeridge, absent ( q, ■r„v, ,„ rp„,„„ 
M' Jn" Brett, absent ( ^ ^°^''' T*^^^"' 

Cap. Jn" Nisbitt I 

Nath. Crump chosen Speaker. 

On March 5 Governor Parke, with the advice of 
the Coiiucil, dissolved this Assembly. He stated that 
in Lord Willoughby's time three members were 
chosen for each Division, which number was sub- 
sequently reduced to two, and it was only a few years 
that St. John's Town had any at all, Colonel Christo- 
pher Codrington having granted the right of electing 
two members to that town. 

1707-8. A list of the number of Inhabitants of each 
Devission In the Island of Antigua taken the fifth day of 
March one thousand seaven hundred and seaven : — 



Bermudian Valley & new 
Devission - 

Old North .sound & Par- 
ham Towne 

Marshalls Creek - 

New Morth sound - 

Dickinsons Bay 

Saint .lohns Devission - 

Five Islands - 

Belfast - - - - 

Old Roade - 

Willoughby Bay - 

Falmouth & Randevouz 
Bay - 

Popeshead 

Nonsuch 

Saint Johns Towne 



Made 5 March 1707-8 1001 805 5U 524 48 8 4 3 2 











TS 


n3 . 








® . 










QJ 


P G 


d 






Pvta 


a 
2 


c 






1 . 


pa 


s 


t.. 


S 


.3| 


a 


a 


g- 


1 


IS 


boo 


o 


m 


3 




ta 


o 


n 


o 


£ a 


Crt 


o 


o 


o 




2 


^ 








S'2 




.5 




1^ 










in 


£9 


s 


n 


S 


£^ 


56 


48 


33 


33 














io:i 


78 


47 


38 














2;» 


1.". 


23 


15 


i 












IS 


55 


45 


48 














BC, 


28 


17 


36 


2 












so 


511 


33 


35 




5 


1 


1 


1 


^ 


23 


16 


7 


5 














5« 


55 


49 


41 


8 


1 










38 


32 


17 


17 




2 


3 


2 


1 




23 


20 


17 


13 














73 


56 


36 


37 


3 












38 


28 


34 


37 


6 












94 


86 


52 


45 


6 












268 


229 


103 


124 


13 













By 

Jn" Gamble, Esq' 



1708, April 15. New Sessions. 



Rich. Oliver, Esq' 

Ed. Byam, Esq' 

Sam. Watkins, Esq' 

Cha. Lloyd, Esq' 

Tho. Oesterman, Esq' 

Jn° Haddon, Esq' 
Jn." Kerr, Esq' 

Isaac Horsford. Esq' 

Nath. Crump, Esq' 

Hen. Lyons, Esq' 

Fra. Rogers, Esq' 



Ool. W™ Thomas 

Cap. Edw. I'errie 

D' Dan. Mackinen 

Jt' Jas. Reade 

M' Edw. Chester 

Col. Tho. Williams 

Cap. Tho. Carlile 

M' Jn" Barnes 

D' Dan. Mackinen 

L' Col. Fra. Rogers 

Cap. Chas Lloyd 

Cap. Sam. Wickham 

Col. Jn" Frye 

Cap. Cha. Kallahan 

M' Tho" Turner 

Cap. Jn" Duer 

Cap. Jn" Lightfoot 

Cap. Isaack Horsford 

Cap. Humphry Osborne 

Ditto Nath. Crump, Esq' 

M' Sam. Philips 

Bap. Looby, Esq' 

M' Jn" Barnes 

M' Joseph French 

M' W" Hamilton, absent 



For 
S' Johns Town. 

S' Johns Division. 
New North Sound. 
Dickisons Bay. 

Nonsuch. 

Old Road Sc Ber- 
mudian Valley. 
Five Islands. 

Bellfast. 

Falmouth & Ren- 
devouz Bay. 

Old North Sound. 
Willoughby Bay. 
Popeshead. 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxix 



SCapta^ 



Nathaniel Crump was chosen Speaker. Dr. 
Daniel Mackinen declared for St. John's Town and 
Mr. John Barnes for New North Sound. £16,000 
currency to be raised this year for the public service. 

June 8. Richard Buckeridge, Esq., is Collector 
of the 4^ per cent. duty. James Tliyune, Esq., late 
Commissioner of Customs, died here much in debt to 
His Majesty, and Edmund Perrie is the present 
Commissioner. Herbert Pember, Esq., has been 
Attorney-General these two years past. 

A List of Persons nominated by His Excellency the 
Generall & Councill to appeare in the Corps of Carbineers 
in this Island June the 12"', 1708 : — 

W" Byam, Collonel. 
Era. Rogers i ^^ ^^^^ Sam. Byam-, 

Tho. Morris j '' ' Jas. Parkes ( , 

Jn" Tomlinson 1 tit ■ [blanJc^ 

Jert Blizard, Sen. J *^^J°^*- [blank] 

Jeftry Duncomb -> Jer. Blizard, Jun.-. 

Nich. Trant i Briga- Marcus Monk I Sub-Briga- 

Jn°Tankard, Jun. rdeers. Jacob Thibou [ deers. 
[blank] J [blanJc] J 

Jn° Parry, Adjutant. Tho. Trant, Clerke. 

Col. W™ Thomas. Jason Martin. Sam. Walker. 

Cap. Anth" Mon- Leon'' Burroughs. Tho. Turner. 

teyro. Corn^ Holloran. Jn° Witts. 
Barry Tankard. Jn° Greenway. Cha. Kallahan. 
W™ Howard. Hen. Blizard. J° Anderson. 
M'f Fra. Garble. Tim. Singin. Pet. Schurman. 
M^ Bap. Looby. Jn° Elliott. Jacob Morgan. 
Bastiau Otto. Garrett Garrett. W" Franklyn. 
Jn° Haddon. Gilb' Garrett. Jas. Hanson. 
Sam. Parry. Isaac Wharfe. Marcus Kirwan. 
Ed. Chester, Sen. Jn° AVickham. Jn" Codner. 
Jervase Turtan. Ben. Wickham. Jn" Barbottain. 
Peter Lynch. Jn" Tankard, Sen. Eob. Dunning. 
Arch. Cochran. Jas. Godsell. Hen. (xuichinett. 
Rich. Cochran. Tho. Rome. Jn" Wright. 
Jn" Russell, Sen. W™ Masters. Ed. Chester, Jun. 
Ben. Xibbs. Jn° Terry. W™ Sigsworth. 
Rich. Sharpe. W™ Nivine. Tho. Gravener. 
Jas. Reade. Hen. Norton. Jas. Nibbs. 
Geo. Kapper. Jn" Burton. Jn° Corbett. 
Tho. Turner. Chr. Stoudley. Tho. Skei'rett. 
Marm. Urlin. Philemon Bird. Giles Blizard, Jun. 
Hen. Boileau. Patrick West. Rob. Christian. 
Tho. Young. Hopefor Bendall. W'" Grantham. 
Jos. Adams. Allen Gilbert. Jn" Lavicount. 
Nath. Symmons. Jn" Reynolds. Nich. Lynch. 
W"" Glanvile. W»' Home. Lewes Jeffreys. 
Jn" Rose. Jn" Rickards. Tho. Griggs. 
Tho. De Witt. Steph. Le Roux. W'" Paynter. 
Geo. De AVitt. Anth" Garrett. Jn" Portlock, Far- 
Rich. Maynell. Rich. Kirwan. rier. 
Jn" AVestou. Rich. Denbow. 



> 



Ed. Perrie ~i 

Rich. Buckeridge 
Tho. Kerby 
Jn" Brett 
AV" Yeamans 
Jn" Brady 

Jonas Langford, Jun. 

Hen. Greydon 

Hen. Hodge 

Sam. Boon 

Alex. Callman 

Rich. Hughs 



To appeare upon allarmes 
but not otherwise. 



y Orderly Men. 



July 27. Laurence Crabb (whose mandamus was 
dated 26 July 1707) was sworn in as a Councillor 
vice Henry Pearne, Esq., deceased. Grievances which 
had been drawn up against the Governor by the 
Assembly were this day considered. 



August 19. Major Thomas Long was appointed 
powder officer vice Samuel Watkius resigned. 

Aug. 30. Letter of thanks from Col. Jas. Jones dated 
at Antigua to "My Lord" for getting him Col. Lilliug- 
ston's Reg'. 

September 23. Captain Bastian Otto-Baijer, with 
other young planters, having been accused of head- 
ing a riot of 50 negros the previous night, and of 
having behaved rudely towards the Governor, was 
reprimanded and released from custody. 

The clergy in the West Indies at this time were 
not of a high class, as the following example 
shews : — 

Sep. 23. The Rev. Simon Smith is accused of Bigamy 
& Forgery. It has been proved that he forged the Bishop's 
seal. The Bishop of Bath & Wells having written to say 
that he did not ordain him on Trinity Sunday 1692. M" 
Smith lives in town (his primitive wife). He was married 
to M''* Elliott the wife he now lives with in the Governor's 
House, & M''' Yeamans gave M" Elliot away. He married 
M''^ Slower (who is now living in S' Johns Town) at New 
York & had previously cohabited with her for some years. 
Certificate is enclosed from M"' Jn" Lambert now Rector of 
Nunny, co. Som., who married them. 

September 30. John Brady, Esq., has been 
appointed a Queen's Counsel for the Leeward Islands. 

1708-9, January 4. The Speaker, Nathaniel 
Crump, petitioned Governor Parke to summon an 
Assembly, none having sat for a long time. 

January 8. Rowland Parry and 80 others, pas- 
sengers on the " Pearle •" Galley of Bristol, petition 
that the Commander, Francis Pinnell, agreed to 
carry them from Milford Haven to Chester in Penn- 
sylvania for £555 sterling, and complain of his having 
put them on very short commons. He is ordered to 
fulfil his contract and to take them to Chester. 

Seventeen out of 22 members of the Assembly, 
and 25 merchants of repute, petition the Queen to 
supersede Governor Parke on account of his mis- 
government. They accuse him in their impeachment 
of 25 articles of having offered a bribe of £300 to 
Anthony Hodges, Esq., of Montserrat, to destroy a 
certain patent, also of having unjustly imprisoned 
9 persons, refusing bail and fining them £2900. 
The Mayor and Aldermen with other merchants of 
Bristol (38 in number) likewise presented a petition 
to Parliament against Governor Parke through their 
two Members. 

January 8. The majority of the Council on the 
other hand, including Governor John Yeamans, 
John Hamilton, William Codrington, Thomas Maris, 
George Gamble, and Richard Oliver, appear to have 
upheld, and to have been in favour of, the Governor 
on all points. 

February 16. The Hon. John Yeamans, the 
Lieut. -Governor, is appointed Chief Justice. 

February 16. The Hon. Barry Tankerd and his 
brother John armed their negros, and placed guards 
on the paths through their plantation, to prevent 
the execution of any warrant against them. On 
15 March, however, Barry Tankerd was bound over 
in £1000 currency to appear at the next Court of 
Sessions. 



Ixxx 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



March 15. Petition from the Gentlemen, freeholders, 
planters, & traders praying that the Assembly may be 
called. 



.... Nicholls. 
.... Bawne. 
. . . y Cork. 
. . . mas iTory. 
. . . rles Pritchard. 
.... Stevenson. 
.... Cook. 
. . . ph Ledeatt. 
. . . rles Goling. 
. . . ph Lee. 
. . . er Willcox. 
.... Breuan. 
.... Hunt. 
. . . ist" Taylor. 
.... Gratrix. 
.... Salter. 
. . . enj" Barnes. 
.... Steeveus. 
.... Poor. 
.... Gllliat, Jun. 
.... Manwaring-. 
.... Hanson, Sen. 
.... Godet. 
.... Rice, Sen. 
. . . ry Nanton. 
.... Blunden, Sen. 
.... Applegate. 
. . . rge NichoUs. 
. . . ry Soper. 

ffallon. 

.... Cocburn. 
Sam. ffry. 
Rob. Sheares. 
Ed. Sutton. 
Jn" ffisher. 
Tho. Banbury. 
Jn" Bramwell. 
Jn° Benson. 
Amb. York. 
Rob. Tremills. 
Vf"' Tremills. 
Jn" Laug-hland. 
Jn" Bezoon, .Jun. 
Jn° Bezoon, Sen. 
By his desire. 
Sam. Mayer. 
Ed. Nugent. 
W" Barton. 
Anth° Brown. 
Jn" Codnor. 
Geo. Parke. 
J. Hamilton. 
Jn" Richardson. 
Garrett Garrett. 
Gilb' Garrett. 
Hen. Blizard. 
Ben. Nibbs. 
Jn° Tomlinson. 
Jn° Porter. 
Jn° Lucie Blackman. 
Jn" ffry. 
Gervas Turton. 



Jn" Tankard, Jun. 
Jn" Howard. 
Nich. Trant. 
Rich. Smith. 
Jac. Thibou. 
Hen. ffletcher. 
Jacob ffletcher. 
Jn» Headland. 
W" Paynter. 
Tho. Hanson. 
Bast Otto Byar. 
Tho. Sonnes. 
And. Murray. 
Tho. Young. 
Isaac Horstord. 
Main Sweet. 
Tho. Nanton. 
Jas. Barter. 
Tho. ffrances. 
Hen. .Symes. 
Ju° Bradeson. 
Tho. Williams. 
Tho. Oesterman. 
Jn" Gamble. 
Jas. ffield. 
Jn" Bowen. 
Allen Gilbert. 
Jn" Paynter. 
W"' Steele. 
Jn° Wills. 
Mark Monk. 
Nich. Lynch. 
W"' Pike. 
B. .Johnson. 
Jn" Gratrix. 
.Tu" Martin, Jun. 
Jn° Waterfall. 
Jn° Johnes. 
Rich. Rickards. 
Jn" Jjightfoot. 
Sam. Phillips, 
Tho. Grigg. 
Josh. Jones. 
Rob. Glover, 
ffra. Powe. 
Jos. Todman. 
Corn. HoUeran. 
Jn" Parke. 
Jn" Kerr, Jun. 
W'" Kerr. 
Jos. Gale. 
W'" Thomas. 
Ed. Chester, Jun. 
Arch. Cochran. 
Rob. Jeafferson. 
Marm. Urlin. 
Dan. Mackenin. 
Ed. Warner. 
Jos. Adams. 
Jn" Barnes. 
Hen. Smith. 
Sam. Watkins. 



Barry Tankard. 
W" Glanvile. 
Ed. Perrie. 
Jn" Duer. 
flfra. Carlisle. 
W'" Lavington. 
Hopefor Bendall. 
Jac. le Roux. 
Rob. Duuing. 
Pet. Schureman. 
Jas. Nibbs. 
Ed. Perkins. 
Tho. Haws. 
Arch* Sherrard. 
Rob. Jacob. 
Geo. Dewitt. 
W"" Home. 
Ben. Wickham. 
Jn" Raine. 
Hen. Dunyter. 
Jn" Evius. 
Tho. Johnson. 
Alex. Hamilton. 
David Swijfle. 
Jn" Richard. 
Simon Lightfoot. 
Rob. Hanson, Jun. 
Jn" Levicount. 
Jn" King. 
Rich. Cochran. 
Jos. Redhead. 
.... Crosbee. 
.... ffinach. 
. . . b' Toft. 
.... Nanton. 
.... Jacobs. 
.... Winthrop. 
Row. Williams. 
W"' Hamilton. 
Geff. Duucomb. 
Jn" Martin. 
Jac. Morgan. 
W" Sutcliffe. 
Pet. Martyu. 
C'ha. Loyd. 
Nath. Bacon. 
Jn" Pryuu. 
Tho. Elmes. 
Jn" Marchant, Sen. 
Bap. Looby. 
Jas. Read. 
Cha. Kallahane. 
Jas. Parke. 
Pat. West. 
Jn" Rose. 
£d. Home. 
Jn" Russell. 
Geo. fforest. 
Rich. Dashwood. 
Ed. Chester. 
Giles Watkins. 
Tho. Trant. 



Marcli 15. Edward Morgan, aged about 21, 
deposed that he was, on the 9th instant, at the house 
of Colonel Thomas Long, his uncle, and saw nine 
persons there : — Cajitain John Duer, Colonel Samuel 
Watkins, Bastian Otto Baijer, Baptist Looby, Captain 
John Paynter, Barry Tankard, Dr. Daniel Mackinen, 
and John Barnes, who were all armed. The above 
gentlemen were all inimical to Parke, and had 
probably met to discuss the situation and concert 
measures for resistance. 

1709, April 23. His Excellency was this Day pleased to 
acquaint the hon'''^ the Lieut. Gov and Gouncill that there 
is now but six Councillors, and so proposed to them the 
Nomination of Kichard Oliver Esq'' to be one of the Gouncill 
of this Island of which the said Lieu' Governour & Goun- 
cill unanimously approved. 

An Address (undated) from Freeholders, Mer- 
chants, Planters, and Traders of Antigua, in favour 
of Parke, was this year sent home. It bears the 
original signatures of 89 persons, headed by Richard 
Oliver, Isaac Royall, and a few others of note, but 
they were very much in the minority. 

(? April.) Governor Parke writes that Judge 



Watkins had run through Captain Weatherly in a 

duel, and Mr. Sawyer son of Colonel Sawyer of 

Virginia was killed by Edward Chester. 

June 8. Gorps of Garabiniers : — 

William Byam, Gollonel. 

ffi-ancis Rogers 1 t • . n n ii 
mi HT • r Lieut.-Gollonells. 

Ihomas Morris J 

Jeremiah Blizard 1 , , . Samuell Wickham 

Sam" Byam / "^ ' John Wickham 

Jeremiah Blizard, Brigadier. 

Gilbert Garrett, Sub-Brigadier. 

John Parry, Adjutant. 

William Bartley ■< 

fFrancis Pouch >Chirurgions. 

Jonas Langford J 

Black- Jn° Anderson. 



■ Gap'^ 



Jn" Lucie 

man. 
Tho. Williams. 
W" Thomas. 
John ffrye. 
Sam. Watkins. 
John Thomlinson. 
Ed. Warner. 
Jn" Pigot. 
Barry Tankard. 
fTra. Garlisle. 
Jas. Parke. 
W'" Howard. 
Jac. Morgan. 
Jn° Rose. 
W"' Glanvile. 
Rich. Maynell. 
Jn" Tankard, Jun''. 
Nath. Symons. 
Hen. Guichinett. 
Jn° Barbetein. 
Jos. Adams. 
Jn" Wright. 
Tho. Griggs. 
Jn" Rickard. 
Ben. Wickham. 
Giles Watkins. 
Sam. flfrye. 
Jos. ffrench. 
Jarvais Turtan. 
Anth" Monteyro. 
.Tu" Barnes. 
Ed. Ghester, Sen''. 
Ed. Ghester, Jun''. 
Arch'' Cochran. 
Jn" Lightfoot. 
Rich. Cockran. 
Bast. O'Bayer. 
Cha. Callahan. 
Marm. Urlin. 

Hen. Grey den 
Hen. Hodge. 
Ed. Perrie. 

Rich. Buckeridge. Jn" Bradey. 
Tho. Kerby. Geo. Napper, 

June 12. Governor Parke suspended the Hon. 
Barry Tankerd for not attending at the Board when 
summoned. Tankerd, who was a planter of good 
position with a clear estate of over £1000 a year, 
appears to have given offence to Parke, whom he 
challenged to a duel. 

June 18. Mrs. Elizabeth Wright deposed that 
Mr. Sawyer, a gentleman of Virginia, was killed 
by Mr. Edward Chester by a blow behind the ear. 
At the inquest, however, the verdict of the jury was 
" Apoplexy and not by a blow given." Sevei-al 
persons stated that the jury had been packed by the 
prisoner's friends. 

August 12. Governor Parke shewed to his friends 
a copy of the articles which had been exhibited 



Rob. Sheares. 
Jn" Benson. 
Jn" Weston. 
Jason Martin. 
Leon'' Burroughs. 
Hopefor Bendall. 
Jn" Witts. 
Corn. Holloran. 
Jn" Greenway. 
W"' Barton. 
Jn" Roe. 
Jas. Roe, Jun^ 
W>" Pearne. 
Gh'' Stoodley. 
Phil" Bird. 
Jn" Paynter. 
Bap. Looby. 
Nich. Trant. 
Jn" Tankard, Sen. 
Jas. Read. 
Tho. Turner. 
Jn" Combes. 
Hazael Reynolds. 
Tho. Tanner. 
Jn" Bezoine, Sen^ 
Jn" Decoster. 
Hen. Norton. 
Hen. Parkes, Jun^ 
Lewis Geoffryes. 
Nich. Lynch. 
Jn" Levicount. 
Rob. Christian. 
W'" Grandam. 
Jn" Mapson. 
.... Handson, 

Sen--. 
Pat. West. 
Allen Gilbert. 
Tho. Roome. 
, Sam. Boon. 1 „ , , ,, 

Ale.x'Gallman./0'''^^''^y*^*'"- 

W'"Yeamans. , 

To appear upon Alarmes 

and not otherwise. 



W'" Masters. 
Pet. Schuurman. 
W'" ffranklane. 
Chr. Jacobs. 
Jas. Hanson. 
Marcus Kirwan. 
Jn" Codnor. 
Rob. Duning. 
Tho. Young. 
Tho. D'witt. 
Geo. D'witte. 
Geo. Poulaine. 
Geoff. Duncombe. 
Tho. Bale. 
Ju" Nanton. 
Ben. Nilibs. 
Hen. Bh'zard. 
Tim. Singin. 
Jn" Elliott. 
Garret Garret. 
Isaac Wharfe. 
Rich. Hughes. 
Jn" Gorbett. 
Tho. Skerrett. 
Giles Blizard, Jun. 
Marcus Monk. 
Jn" Howard. 
Jacob Theboo. 
Rich. Denboe. 
Nath. Monk. 
Sam. Walker. 
Rich. Kirwan. 
Ste. Le Roux. 
Jn" Reynolds. 
Jn" Poi-tlock, 
ffarrier. 
Superannuated. 
W'" Sigsworth. 
Shelly. 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxxi 



against liim by Colonel William Thomas, Dr. Daniel 
Mackiuen, and others. 

September 7. The Governor had been recently 
shot at and wounded in the left arm (the bones 
fractured) by Sandy, a negro belonging to Captain 
John Otto-Baijer, as he was going along the highway 
near " Ottos." A warrant was issued against Captain 
Bastian Otto-Baijer and Mr. Richard Smith, and a 
reward of 150 pieces of eight promised for the capture 
of Sandy. On the 12th Mr. Richard Smith deposed 
that he spent the night the Governor was fii-ed at 
with Captain Bastian Otto-Baijer, and that Sandy 
came into the house and said the Governor had been 
shot. Bastian remarked that he might be suspected 
of complicity in the crime, so went off in Major 
Nanton's boat from Johnson's Point. Bail of £1000 
was ordered for Mr. Smith. Major Thomas Nanton 
and Mr. John Nanton then came forward and denied 
all knowledge of the affair. It does not appear how 
this affair ended. 

November 19. The Governor not having called any 
Assembly for several years, the Speaker endeavoured 
to effect a compromise, and stated that the Assembly 
would not negative any laws if summoned. The 
Governor, however, claimed the right of putting his 
name last in sanctioning laws, because the Queen 
should be allowed a negative voice, and the Assembly 
demurring to this were dismissed. 

1709-10, January 10. John Powell, clerk, 
petitions that the parish of St. Peter's has no minis- 
ter, and asks to be presented to the rectory. The 
parish oppose his application on account of his ill life 
and conversation. 

January 17. A general Council and Assembly to 
be held at St. Christopher's. 

March 21. Governor Parke was ordered home, 
and Colonel Hamilton appointed Lieut.-Genei-al. 

1710. Governor Parke writes on 8 June, "My Two 
Chief Enemys are Dead, Codrington and Hodges the 
Govemour of Montserratt." 

About this time he sent home his defence con- 
sisting of 103 closely written pages, but his state- 
ments were not as a rule veracious, so of little im- 
portance. 

September 23. At a meeting of the Council there 
were present : — 

His Escell^y Daniel Parke, Esq'', Capt.-General. 
The Hon"'= Jn° Yeamans, Esq', Lieut.-Gov^ 
Jn° Hamilton, Esq''. Geo. Gamble, Esq>'. 

Ed. Byam, Esq''. W'^ Byam, Esq''. 

W"" Codrington, Esq''. Rich. Oliver, Esq''. 

The. Morris, Esq''. 

October 20. John Brett appointed powder-officer 
vice Colonel Long, deceased. 

Nov. 16. New Sessions. The following appeared & 



were sworn : — 

By 
John Gamble, Esq' 



Richard Oliver, Esq' 

Thomas Oesterman, 
Esq' 



Doet' Daniell Mackinnen 
M' Edward Chester, Sen' 
M' 'William Glanvile 
Said John Gamble 

Coll" .John Frye 
Cap' William Pearne 

Coll" Thomas Williams 
Maj' John Thomlinson 



For 
ap. ) 

ap. I Saint Johns 

ap. j* Towne. 

ap. I 

Old Road & 
Bermudian 
Valley. 

ap. I Saint Johns 
Division. 



Samuel Watkins, Esq' 

Francis Rogers, Esq' 

John Haddon. Esq' 
Isaac Horsford, Esq' 

Nath' Crump, Esq' 
Edward Byam, Esq' 
Charles Lloyd, Esq' 
John Kerr, Esq' 
Henry Lyons, Esq' 



M' Jacob Morgan ap. 
Said Samuel Watkins, Esq' ap. 

Cap' Francis Carlile ap. 

M' William Hamilton ap. 

M' Thomas Turner ap. 

Cap' Francis Barter 

Said Isaac Horsford ap, 

M' Samuell Phillips ap. 

Said Nath' Crump ap. 

Cap' John Pig-got ap. 

Cap' John Paynter ap. 

M' Archibald Cochran ap. 

Said Charles Lloyd, Esq' . . . 

M' John Elliott ap, 

M' John Kerr, Juu' ap, 
M' George Lucas 
M' William Lavington 



) Dickinsons 
• bay Divi- 
I sion. 

Popes Head. 

five Islands. 
1 Falmouth & 
V Rendevous 
\ bay. 
I Old North 
I Sound. 
I New North 
f Sound. 

[ None Such. 

I Belfast 
I Division. 
I Willoughby 
(■ bay. 



November 17. Barbuda was occupied the pre- 
ceding Sunday by two privateers. The crew of one 
of these vessels also attempted to carry off Dr. Mac- 
kinen's negros. 

November 27. Thomas Gateward, Esq., is sworn 
in as a Master and Examiner of the Court of 
Chancery. 

November 28. The whole Assembly send a long 
list of grievances against Parke to the Council. 

December 5. It ajppears from the correspondence 
that Governor Parke had appointed one Hill as Clerk 
to the Assembly. They claimed the right of appoint- 
ing their own officer, and nominated Mr. William 
Hinde. The chief cause of their dispute with the 
Governor was due to his unwarranted interference 
with their privileges and rights, of which they were 
very tenacious. Five members of the Council advise 
Parke by letter that he had better go off to another 
Island as the popular fui-y is very great against him. 

Governor Parke having crowned his illegal actions 
by bringing into the Court-house a party of grenadiers 
with the object of overawing the representatives, the 
Assembly adjourned. That night and the next day 
they sent messengers to summon the inhabitants to 
come armed to St. John's Town the Thursday follow- 
ing, 7 December 1710, with the ostensible object of 
seizing the Governor and forcing him to quit the 
Island. On Thursday 7 December 300 or 400 armed 
men accordingly appeared. The Governor had mean- 
while prepared his house for defence, and collected 
the soldiers under Captain Nevin, Lieutenant Worth- 
ington, and Ensign Lynden. There were also with 
him Mr. Herbert Pember his Attorney- General, Mr. 
Gatewood whom he had made a Justice, Mr. Michael 
Ayon whom he had made Prov.-Marshal, Mr. George 
French, Mr. Rosengrave, and three others. 

A request was sent by the country party that 
Parke should discharge his guards, and obey the 
royal command to quit the government, to all which 
he declined compliance. Two parties of the assail- 
ants, ^^nder Captain John Piggot and John Painter, 
posted themselves on Church Hill. A shot was fired 
at them by Parke's garrison, which was returned, 
and the Governor's house was then carried by assault. 
The Governor, having received a shot in the thigh, 
was conveyed to the house of Mr. Wright, close to 
his own, where he was attended by a nurse and 
Gousee Bonnin, a surgeon ; his wound was bandaged, 
but he died in a short time from loss of blood. All 
writers on the subject appear to have copied each 



Ixxxii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



other in stating that Parke was torn in pieces by his 
assailants in the streets. The sworn depositions of 
the surgeon Mr. Bonnin (who made a post-mortem) 
and of the nurse prove the contrary, and that the 
Governor was humanely treated after he fell. In the 
affray at the capture of the house there were killed, 
on Pai-ke's side, Caj)tain Boileau, Ensign Lynden, and 
13 or 14 soldiers, and Captain Newel, Lieutenant 
Worthington and 26 soldiers wounded, among the 
latter being Michael Ayon and Mr. George French. 
On the Assembly's side. Captain Piggott, Mr. Young, 
Mr. Turton, and Mr. Rayne, were killed, and about 
30 wounded. 

Next day a sloojj was despatched to Lieut. - 
General Hamilton. 

December 11. A proclamation was issued re- 
quiring all officials to continue to discharge their 
duties as heretofore. 

December 14. Several soldiers depose that they 
met together at the Governor's house on 6th Decem- 
ber, and that Parke promised them the plunder of 
the property of all persons whom they might kill. 
Mr. George Dewit swore that the country people 
marched up to the hill near the church, and that 
the Governor's people fired the first shot. 

December 19. Lieut. -General Walter Hamilton 
issues a proclamation to the people enjoining them 
to give up all the late Governor's goods for his heirs. 

December 23. Henry Lyons, Esq., takes the 
oaths a,nd his seat at the Council Board. The 
Assembly is adjourned and new writs issued. 

1710-11, January 2. The new Assembly met 
this day, all the former membei^ having been 
returned except Mr. John Martin for Five Islands 
vice Turner, and Mr. John Barnes vice Captain Pig- 
gott, the latter having been killed in the late riot. 
Nathaniel Crump was chosen Speaker. 

January 8. H.M.S. "Adventurer" had been 
recently captured and taken into Martinico. John 
Wilkinson and Marcus Browne are imprisoned for 
trading with the enemy. 

January 9. Thirty pistoles to be expended for the 
entertainment of Lord Archibald Hamilton, who is 
daily expected to visit this Island. 

January 9. The poor settlers to Windward suffer 
from lack of water. The cisterns near the guard- 
houses are ordered to be put in repair. 

January 22. John Barnes, Gent., takes his seat 
in the Assembly, and Rowland Williams and William 
Codrington, Esqrs., join the Council. 

January 26. Nine of the Council write home 
describing all the events which led to Governor 
Parke's death, and state that he threatened to clap 
the Speaker into irons, and his soldiers boasted how 
they were ready to fire on the Assembly. 

The following partizans of Parke sign an address 
to the Queen in his favour : — 



Hon. Col. Jn° Hamilton. 
Joseph French, Esq., Treasurer. 
Cap. W™ Mathews. 
Rich. Buckeridge, Collector of 
Customs. 



Cap. Jn" Wickham. 
Maj'' Jeremiah Blizard. 
M-- Cha. Raleigh. 
Cap. Jn" Roe. 
M' Caesar Rodeney. 



for Mount Serrat. 



Jn" Brett, Naval Officer. Jn» Haddon, Esq. 

Isaac Royall, Esq. M' Tho. Turner. 

For further particulars the reader may consult the 
' History of Col. Parke's Administration,' by George French, 
1717, 8°, printed in London. 

January 26. The Assembly agree to present a 
petition to Queen Anne in regard to the conduct of 
the late Governor Parke. 

February 22. At a Meeting of the General Council 
and Assembly there were present : — 

Hon. Walter Hamilton, Esq., L' Gen'. 
Councill. 
John Davis, Esq. Edward Byani, Esq. 

John Willet, Esq. John Daly, Esq. 

James Milliken, Esq. George Wyke, Esq. 
Assembly. 
Cap. Rob. Cunninghame, 
Cap. .loseph Crisp, 

Cap. Clement Crooke, } for Saint Christophers. 
M-' Jn" I)u Port, 
Cap. Ralph Willett, 
Docf Daniel Mackineu, 
Nath" Crump, Esq., 

Sam" Watkins, Esq., ) for Autigua. 

Cap. Jn" Payuter, 
Hen. Lyons, Esq., absent, ■ 
Cap. W- White, 
Antli» Ravell, Esq., 
Cap. Jn" Bramley, 
Cap. Antli" Fox, 
Cap. W"' Barzey, 
Colonel Richard Abbot, a Member of Council for 
Nevis, was absent. 

During February and March they frequently met 
to discuss Governor Parke's afifau', and the clan- 
destine trade with St. Thomas (for which they passed 
an Act to pi'eveut traitorous correspondence with and 
the supply of stores to the enemy). 

On 24 February they sent an address to the Queen 
praying her to continue Walter Hamilton as Governor. 
March 3. Edward Perrie, Esq., and Thomas 
Trant, Merchant, Attorneys to John Perrie, Esq., 
Prov.-Mar.-General, petition that Governor Parke had 
illegally appointed Michael Ayon to his office, where- 
by' he, John Perrie, had lost three years' fees. Mr. 
Perrie's leave of absence, dated 6 August 1709, for 
two years, was read. 

March 10. Gousse Bounin, Surgeon, deposes on oath : 
that no persons struck Gov'' Parke after he was wounded by 
a shot in the thigh. He was carried out of the house where 
he was wounded about ,50 paces into M"' Wrights dwelling & 
placed on a bed, & he tarried with him till he died. He 
stuffed the wound with tow but the Gov' was so very restive 
that the bleeding recommenced of which he died. Sarah 
Collings nursed him & laid him out & swears that there was 
but the one wound in the thigh. 

March 24. Major Walter Douglas is to succeed 
Parke, and his commission is ordered by the Queen 
to be drawn out. He is instructed to try, and to send 
home, not fewer than three, nor more than six, of the 
ringleaders implicated in the mm-der of Parke. 

1711, March 29, Major Walter Douglas to be 
Captain-General, his commission and instructions to 
be prepared. 

April 5. The Lieut. -General and Council report 
that " M"' Edward Chester Sen' has offered the Lieut.- 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxxiii 



Gen" to furnish the soldiers with provisions at seven- 
pence a piece per diem which we conceive to he the 
cheapest method that can be proposed for maintaining 
them." Walter Hamilton, the Lieut. -General, writes 
home that the old seal of the Leeward Islands was 
melted down and converted into a tankard by Parke. 

April 25. The following Wednesday ordered to be 
kept as a public fast on account of the long drought. 

May 3 Mr. John Buxton, rector .of St. Peter's 
Parham, is cited to appear befoi-e the Assembly for 
having preached a very virulent sermon against those 
concerned in the commotion of 7 December last, 
which contained many false charges. 

June 25. Hamilton writes : that the French intended 
to have made a descent here, but their sloops being met by 
H.M.S. New Castle, they wei-e disabled & their design pre- 
vented ; that on 14 June 1200 French landed at Montserrat 
but Capt. Geo. AVvke with 60 men gallantly held them in 
check at a pass or gutt, & they were finally i-epulsed by the 
settlers ; & that Commodore Bourne who engaged the 
privateers off Martinico had been voted a gratuity of £500 c. 

Edward Perrie, Esq., lends the public £500 at 
10 per cent, interest (which seems to be the current 
rate at this period). 

July 2. Nathaniel Crump is appointed Treasurer 
vice Joseph French, so he vacates the Speakership 
and gives bond for .£5000. 

July 5. Samuel Watkins is chosen Speaker vice 
Crump resigned. 

July 10. Major Walter Douglas, the new Captain- 
General, arrived and dissolved the Assembly. 

By a printed proclamation pursuant to an Act of 
Parliament of 9 Anne debentures for £103,003 lis. M. 
sterling are to be paid before 25 December 1711 by 
the Commissioners, specially nominated by the Coun- 
cil of Trade and Plantations, to such persons as shall 
re-settle their plantations at St. Christopher's and 
Nevis. 

July 17. New Sessions. 
By 
Sam. Watkins, Esq' 



Edw. Byam, Esq' 
Nath. Crump, Esq' 
Jn" Kerr, Esq' 
Isaac Horsf ord. Esq' 
Hen. Lyons, Esq' 
Jn" Gamble, Esq' 

Cha. Loyd, Esq' 

Isaac Royall, Esq' 

The. Oesterman, Esq' 

Jn» Haddon, Esq' 
Jn" Sawcolt, Esq' 



For 
Sam. Watkins, Esq' I Dickinsons Bay 
Jacob Mortran, Gent. I Division. 
Cap. Jn" Paynter | New North Sound 
M' Rich. Cockran ( Divis". 
Cap. Jn" Duer | Old North Sound 

M' Sam. Phillips | Division. 
M' Jn" Kerr \ -o m j. T^• ■ • 

M' Jn- Eliot ) ^'''*^'* Division. 

Isaac Horsford, Esq' | Falmouth & Rende- 
Cap. Jas. Barter | vous bay Divis". 

Bap. Looby. Esq' \ Willoug-hby bay 
M' Geo. Lucas f Division. 

D' Dan. M'Kinen j 
Col. Jn° Gamble | The Towne of S« 

M' W'" Glanvile ( Johns. 

M' Ed. Chester, Sen. ' 
Cha. Lnyd, Esq' | 

M' Arch. C'ockran 



Nonsuch Divis", 



Isaac Royall, Esq' I 
Jos. French, Esq' I 
Col. Tho. Williams / 



Popeshead Divis". 
S' Johns Divis". 



Maj' Jn° Tomlinsou | 
Jn" Haddon, Esq' Five Islands Divis". 

Col. Jn° Frye | The Road &Bermudian 

M' Sam. Frye j" Valley Division. 

Samuel Watkins chosen Speaker. 

July 19. Joseph French and Isaac Eoyall de- 
clared unduly elected. £500 currency voted to 
Governor Douglas for the purchase of slaves and 
horses. 

July 26. Mr. Samuel Frye and Captain James 
Barter refuse to serve. 

August 3. Mr. William Hamilton and Mr. Fran- 
cis Carlile are returned for Popeshead, Major Hum- 



phrey Osborne for Falmouth, and Colonel John 
Burton for Old Eoad. 

August 11. Antigua. To His Excellency Walter Hamilton, 
Esq'', Capt. Generall and Commander in Chief in and 
over all her Majesties Leew'' Carribbee Islands in 
America, and the hoa*'" the Couacill and Assembly of 
the said Island. i 

The Humble Petition of the Merchants, Factors, and 
Traders of the said Island whose names hereunto subscribed 
in behalfe of their Imployer and themselves. 
Sheweth, 

That your Petitioners being Disabled by the ill 
Complyance of their Debtors to answer their Correspondents 
Expectation at home in Making them Returnes according 
to their Respective promises and Contracts are without any 
faults of their own not only Suspected of Injustice and 
wounded in their Reputation (upon Suppositions that they 
are paid here by the persons who deal with them, and that 
your petitioners Detain the Effects or that at Least they are 
highly to be blamed for not prosecuting their Debtors at 
Law, and by that Meanes enabled themselves to make better 
and more punctuall Remittances) but are Deprived of 
makeing any Improvement of their own private fortunes 
the proceedings of Law being so very Delitary in Relations to 
E-xecutious that it is not possible to procure any address {sic) 
that way unless the Law now is being ammended. la 
tender Consideration whereof and to the end that your 
petitioners may not suffer without Cause, and that the 
Trade of this Island may not Delay. 

May it please your Excellency, your hon", and the Gent, 
of the Assembly to make such a Law for the more Speedy 
and Effectuall recovery of Debts as in your great & grave 
wisdom you shall think most propper that so the Trade of 
this Island may flourish and your Petitioners shall ever pray. 
James Nisbitt. Samuel Procter. W. Glanvile. 

Caesar Rodney. John Barbotain. Edward Chester. 

Robert Joyce. John Burke. Joseph Adams. 

Barth. Sanderson. And''' Murray. Ric. Sherwood. 

John Barnes. Jn° Swettenham. John Rose. 

Edward Chester. John Combes. Hopefor Bendall. 

Math" Bermingham. Cha. Dunbar. Jacob Thibou. 

C. Stoodly. Thomas Trant. Thomas Dolman. 

John Roach. John Brett. Pat. West. 

August 27. Douglas says that there is so strong 
a feeling against the late Governor that he dare not 
punish the guilty. 

October 11. Eichard Lightfoot, Esq., presents 
his mandamus, and takes his seat at the Council 
Board. 

October 18. Colonel John Hamilton and Colonel 
William Byam attend the General Council, and Dr. 
Dan. McKinnen, Mr. Samuel Watkins, Mr. John 
Paynter, and Mr. Eichard Cochran the General 
Assembly at St. Chi-istopher's. 

December 11. 
Cols. John Hamilton & W'" Byam of the Councill -j 
Daniel Mackinen 



M'' Samne" Watkins 



1 



■ of the General Assembly 



for S* 

l-X'fers* 

(sic). 



John Duer 

John Painter I , 

Richard Cockran ^ J 

These to be paid £252, being £36 a head for 36 days 
service at S' X'fers, during Gov'' Parke's time. Also to 
Col. Ed. Byam, Maj. Hen. Lyons, Nath. Crump, Esq., D-- 
Dan. Mackinen, Col. Sam. Watkins, Cap. Jn" Painter, M'' 
Fra. Carlisle £22 each for their service at the last General 
Assembly. 

* This should be Antigua. 



Ixxxiv 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



On Dec. 1 1 the Members of the Ass'y received orders on 
the Treasurer for the following sumes " towards their 
expenses* for service in public aft'airs at 6/- per diem " : — 



Richard Oliver, Esq' 





18 





M' Francis Carlile 


21 


12 





Nath" Humfrey 


1 


4 





Isaac Horseford, Esq' 


18 


18 





Coll" Tho» Williams 


23 


8 





Maj' Hum. Osborne 


5 


8 





Cap' William Pearne 


11 


2 





Coll" John Burton 


1 


10 





Cap' John Paynter 


17 


8 





Isaac Koyall. Esq' 





12 





Charles Kallahan 


6 


12 





John Haddon, Esq' 


2 


8 





Edward Perrie 


G 


12 


u 


Rich'' Buckeridge 


U 


6 





Baptist Looby 


8 


S 





Cha. Lloyd. Esq' 


llj 


10 





Coll" William Thomas 


6 


6 





M' James Reade 


.5 


2 





M' John Brett 





18 





Coll" Sam" Watkins 


19 


12 





M' Sam" Phillips 


21 


18 





M' Jacob Morgan 


H) 


8 





Cap' John Lightfoot 


4 


10 





Cap' John Piggott 


2 


2 





Coll" William Byam 





6 





M' John Roe 





12 





Cap' John Duer 


5 


14 





M' John Elliot 


13 


11 





Samuel Parry, Esq' 





12 





M' Edward Warner 





18 





M' John Kerr 


IH 


10 


u 


M' George Lucas 


9 


6 





M' Thomas Turner 


y 


18 





Coll" John Gamble ■ 


16 


10 





Col" Francis Rogers 


7 


4 





M' William Glanvile 


23 


14 





Maj' Jere. Blizard 


U 


12 





M' Richard Cockran 


1 


16 





M' Da. Mackinen 


23 


14 





M' W'" Hamilton 


11 


14 





M' John Barnes 


15 


6 





Maj' John Tomlinson 


14 


14 





M' Sam" Wickham 


5 


8 





M' Andrew Murray 





12 





M' William Grear 





18 





Cap' James Barter 


8 


8 





M' Edward Chester 


22 


4 





M' Arch' Cockran 


17 


2 





Nath" Crump, Esq' 


21 


18 





M' W'" Lavington 


8 


14 





Coll" John Frye 


22 


10 





M' John Martin 


16 


18 





Joseph French, Esq' 


7 


11 



























£ 


.527 


2 






1711-12, January 14. Hon, Eichard Lightfootis 
suspended. Nathaniel Browne, Esq., Deputy-Secre- 
tary, John Booth, Registrar of the Court of Chancery, 
and George Jennings, Master and Examiner of the 
Court of Chancery and Notary Public, are sworn in. 
February 4. A proclamation was issued, order- 
ing the ensuing 20th to be kept as a fast on account 
of Governor Parke's murder. 

1711-12, Feb. 6. Antegoa. 

By the Queen. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Anne by the Grace of God of Great Brittaine, France, 
and Ireland, Queen Defender of the Faith, etc. To all to 
whom these presents shall come sendeth Greeting. Whereas 
a great number of our Subjects in this our Island of 
Antegoa did lately in an open Rebellions Manner take up 
armes & committ a most barbarous Murther on the body 
of Daniel Parke, Esq"^, then our Cap' Generall and Com- 
mander in Chief in and over all our Leeward Carribbee 
Islands in America. Nevertheless being persuaded that 
many of the offenders were drawne into that Rebellion and 
Murder by the subtle Insinuations and by the Influence of 
some of the Chief advisers and proniotters thereof, and not 
from any Rancour of mind or Disposition to our Govern- 
ment, Wee out of our princely Disposition to forgive have 
Resolved that our Clemency shall temper our Justice, 
Know Yee that wee of our Especiall Grace and Favour, 
Certaine Knowledge, and meer motion, have pardoned, 
remitted, and Released, and by these presents for us our 
heires and successors do freely and absolutely Pardon, 
remitt, and Release to all our subjects of the island of 
Antegoa who were any wayes offenders in the said Crime 
(other than such persons as hereafter are excepted), and to 
their heires, Executors, and administrators all, and all 
manner of treason, fellouys, misprisons of treason or fellony, 
murders. Crimes, Misdemeaners, and offences whatsoever 
by them and every of them (except as hereinafter excepted) 
committed, commanded, acted, or done on account of the 
said late Rebellion and Murder, and of and from all paines 
of death and other paines and penalties, Judicaments, 

* These payments continued to be made for only a few more 
years. This custom of paying their representatives was a bad 
oae, as the members were always the richest and foremost men in 
the Island, and it was felt to be an injustice to tax their poorer 
brethren, to the amount of several hundred a year, for the benefit 
of those who did not require such assistance. 



Convictions, attainders, outlawrys, Escheats, and forfeitures 
therefore had or given, or that may or might accrue for the 
same (except out of this our proclamation of free pardon 
all and every such person and persons who are apprehended 
and in custody in order to be proceeded against and 
prosecuted according to Tjaw for the Murder aforesaid, and 
brought to Condigne punishment, and all such persons who 
are fled from Justice on account of the said Crime), 
whereby others may be deterred from Committing or 
attempting the like for the future, also Except those of her 
Maj'* Couucill in any of the four Islands of Antegoa, Nevis, 
Montserrat, & S' Christophers who have been concerned in 
Encourageing, abetting, or assisting in the said Rebellious 
Murder, Provided allways that if any of the persons hereby 
meant or intended to have the benefit of this our Gracious 
and free pardon shall presume to Justifye the Murder 
aforesaid, or shall assemble and meet together in order to 
obstruct justice to be done upon any of the persons 
excepted in this our Gracious proclamation of free pardon, 
or shall attempt the like Rebellious Pratices (as above 
mentioned) for the future, they shall Receive no benefitt 
by this our Gracious proclamation of free pardon, but shall 
be liable to be prosecuted according to Law for any of the 
Crimes above mentioned, and further our will and pleasure 
is and wee do hereby declare that this our free pardon by 
the General! Words, Clauses, & Sentences thereof shall be 
respected, deemed, and adjudged, expressed, allowed, and 
taken in all our Courts in this Island and Elsewhere most 
beneficially for our said subjects (not herein and hereby 
excepted, or by the said proviso excepted) as if their 
particular persons and Crimes where herein at large and 
fully expressed without Ambiguity, question, or other 
delay whatsoever to be pleaded, objected, or alledged by us 
our heires or successors, by our Attorney Generall, or any 
other person or persons for us our heirs or successors. In 
Testimony whereof Wee have Caused these our Letters to 
be made Pattents. Witness, Walter Douglas, Esq'', our 
Cap' Generall and Commander in Chief in and over all our 
Leeward Carribbee Islands in Amei'ica, at S' John's, our 
Island of Antegua aforesaid, this sixth day of February in 
the Year of our Lord 1711-12, and in the tenth Year of 
our Reigne. God save the Queen. 



Walter ( seai. ) Douglas. 




February 6. An Act was this day passed for 
establishing a Court of Queen's Bench and Common 
Pleas. 

February 21. John Painter, John Kerr, William 
Hamilton, and John King, by their petition, state 
that they have been in prison five weeks, and ask to 
be allowed bail. It is probable that they had been 
incarcerated by Governor Douglas for implication in 
Parke's death. Six days later John Paynter, Esq., 
Hon. William Codrington, Hon. Edward Byam, Cap- 
tain John Gamble, Captain John Duer, Captain 
William Gunthrop, and Jonas Langford, Gent., came 
before Edward Perrie and William Glanvile, two 
Justices, and went bail collectively for £4000, and 
individually £1000 apiece. ^611,000 bail for the four 
prisoners was very excessive, but doubtless Governor 
Douglas was bi'iuging pressure to bear on various 
people with a view to extort hush-money. 

The Assembly complain of the charge of 9d. for 
letters as being illegal. 

Edward Warner's mandamus as a Councillor is 
dated 1 5 March. 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxxv 



The total losses at St. Christopher's and Nevis 
according to the sworn returns were £356,926 
sterling. 

1712, May 13. Governor Douglas was becoming as 
unpopular as Parke had been. He had been trading 
on the fears of the people to extort hush-money 
from them, but promised this day to cancel any 
bonds given him in the way of presents ! 

May. Kobert Cunningham, a prisoner at St. 
Kitts, petitions against Governor Douglas ; states 
that he has a wife and eleven children ; that he is a 
son of Richard Cunningham late of Glengarnock who 
served Charles I. and II. ; and that he has been 
imprisoned because he refused to vote a present of 
100,000 lbs. to the Governor. 

Jiine 26. William Mathew and, on the following 
day, Edward Warner took their seats at the Council 
Board. A letter was read from the Bishop of Lon- 
don advising them of the despatch of two ministers, 
Mr. Allen and Mr. Duncan. 

July 6. Governor Douglas writes that he has 
sent Mr. Mackinen and Mr. Samuel Watkins to 
England, to be brought to justice as prime movers in 
the late riot. 

These two gentlemen petitioned their Lordships 
on 9 October 1712 from Newgate, asking to be 
bailed. 

The total losses at Montserrat this year from 
the French invasion were given in on oath as 
£203,-506. 

Several persons sign an addi-ess to Governor 
Douglas, asking him to suspend Walter Hamilton, 
Lieut.-Governor of Nevis, who was lately Lieut. - 
General here, because he favoured the murderers of 
Governor Parke. Signed by — 

Sam. Byam. H. Pember. John Yeamans. 

Joseph French. Rich. Worthington. The. Morris. 

John Wickham. Isaac Rojall. Rich. Oliver. 

Douglas acted according to their wishes and sus- 
pended Hamilton, though seventeen of the Assembly 
and seven of the Council signed an address in his 
favour. 

July 10. William Thomas takes the oath and 
his seat at the Council. 

Thomas Kerby, who fled to Barbados on account 
of his implication in Governor Parke's murder, has 
been taken into custody. 

From a printed broadside, called " Truth brought 

to Light, or Murder will Out," together with an 

answer to the same, it appears Thomas Kerby was 

accused of firing the first shot on the memorable 

7 December 1710. Captains Pigott and Paynter led 

two parties against the soldiers, and Daniel Mac- 

kenny (? Mackinen) and Samuel Watkins were also 

prime movers. 

July 17. New Sessions. 
By For 

W" Glanvile, Esq' 



Belfast Division. 



• vSaiut Johns Towns. 



Cap' Edw. Perrie 

M' Chr. Stood ley 

Jn" Gamble, Esq' 

M' Edw. Chester, Sen. ) 
Jn" Tomlinson, Esq' M' Edw. Home i Saint Johns Divi- 

M' And. Murray I sion. 

Isaac Eoyall, Esq' Coll" Jer. Blizard | „ ,, ^ 

Cap. Jos. French ) '^°^^^ '^^^■ 

Jw Haddon, Esq' M' Rob. Hanson Five Islands. 



Jn" Wickham, Esq' .Tu" Kerr. Jun' | 

\V"' Painter ( 

Sam. Parry, Esq' M' Arch. Cockran j „ c v, 

M' Joshua Jones , JNone buch. 

Edw. Warner, Esq' Barry Tankard, Esq' | Falm"> & rendesvous 

Isaac Horsford, Esq' I bay. 

Edw. Byam, Esq' Cap' Francis Carlisle I -kt xt lu c i 

Cap' Jn" Gunthrop } New North Sound . 

Isaac Royall, Esq' Cap' Giles Watkins ( ^. , . 

M' Jacob Morsan j -Liickisons bay. 

Jn" Duer, Esq' Said Jn" Duer, Esq' I rvu xt ^-u a j 

M' James Parke j Old, -N orth Sound. 

Jn" Burton, Esq' Said Jn" Burton, Esq' / Old road and Ber- 

M' Chas. Jacob f mudian valley. 

Henry Lyons, Esq' M' Geo. Lucas | „,■,, , , , 

M' Baptist Looby [ VVilloughby bay. 

Mr. George Lucas was chosen Speaker, William 
Hinde clerk, and Thomas Stevens messenger. 

.July 17. " The Gen' with some forces belonging to this 
Island being now gone off for the reliefe of our poore dis- 
tressed Friends and neiglibours of Montserrat." 

The enemy quitted that Island on the 23rd. An 
attack on Guadaloupe was now suggested, but in reply 
to demands for assistance Governor Bennett of the 
Bermudas declined to send any men, and Governor 
Lowther of Barbados said he could not spare 200 
arms. 

July 25. Captain Charles Constable of H.M.S. 
" Panther " refuses the present* from the Assembly 
because he cannot stay. 

August 2. Mr. Barry Tankerd, Mr. Isaac Hors- 
ford, Mr. Joseph French, Mr. Jeremiah Blizard, and 
Mr. William Paynter, refuse to serve on the 
Assembly. Seventy ban-els of beef and 60 of flour 
are sent to Montserrat for the relief of the destitute. 
The public records were despatched for safety to 
Monk's Hill. Robert Hanson, one of the members, 
was ignominiously exj)elled from the House for ill- 
conduct. 

August 19. Blockhouses are to be erected at 
Monk's Hill for the women and children in case of in- 
vasion. Out of 10,000 feet of boards granted, one 
guard-house only has been built, the rest embezzled. 
The magazine at Willoughby Bay is to be rebuilt. 

September 22. Ashton Warner, Gent., was 
returned for Falmouth. 

October 4. Edward Mann, Gent., was returned 
vice Robert Hanson expelled. 

The Assembly agree that their jjresent agent. Sir 
John St. Leger, is of too near relationship to their 
General, and of no use. 

Oct. 29. Letter from D'' Gousse Bonnin, dated at London, 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, Sec. of State, saying that he has 
been sent home as an eye witness of Gov. Parke's murder, 
against Sam. Watkins, Dan. Mackinen & others as chief 
actors, & desires to be paid for his subsistence & 
expenses. 

Dec. 24. This day was read a letter from the Gov'' of 
Barbados, dated the 10"' inst., stating that as the 4 months 
truce made 4 Oct. last will cease on the 11"' inst., he proposes 
to despatch a flag of truce to Martinique to renew it. 

1712-13, Feb. 17. The following Merchants, Traders, & 
Masters of vessels, petition the GoV & C that Capt. Cooper of 
H.M.S. " Scarboro' " took a Fi-euch briganteen during the 

* It was customary at this time to retain the services of the 
captains of H.M.'s ships by offering- them presents of .50 or 100 
guineas, or a valuable sword. Without this bribery they rarely 
troubled themselves to protect the Antijjuan trade, but remained as 
a rule at Barbados. It was the spirit of the age ; bribery and cor- 
ruption pervaded all classes in a lesser or greater degree. 

m 



Ixxxvi 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Truce, & that such action will be very prejudicial. Signed 
by- 



Rich. Sherwood. 
Joseph Adams. 
Rob. Joyce. 
John Barnes. 
Rich. Burke. 
Coline Pindlay. 
Will. Grear. 
Will. Patterson. 
Marm. Nowell. 



Jas. Nisbitt. 
Chr. Stoodly. 
Sam. Procter. 
Cha. Dunbar. 
Jas. Maxwell. 
Jas. Parsons. 
Will. Glanvile. 
.... Redwood. 



Tho. Trant. 
Anth" Monteyro. 
Jn" Roch. 
Will. Hewitt. 
Jn° Newton. 
And. Murray. 
J. Woodbury. 
Abra. Cornwall. 



1712-13. List of Inhabitants. 

\Miite 

Families. Women. Children. 

S' Johns Town . . 235 246 260 

S' Johns Division . 28 30 73 

Dickisons Bay . . 19 26 45 

Popes Head . . 22 28 73 

Five Islands . . 15 15 13 

Old Road & Berm. Valley 28 28 51 

Old North Sound . 96 78 85 

New North Sound . 78 55 86 

Marshalls Creek . . 18 23 37 

Belfast . . . 42 53 92 

Willoughby Bay . . 13 13 24 

Fal"- & Randezvous Bay . 62 62 129 

None Such . . 80 89 96 

New Div" & Berm. Valley 62 48 67 



Men fit to 
bear arms. 

254 

42 

27 

27 

19 

35 
103 

80 

28 

54 
9 

99 

94 

58 



Negroes. 
831 

1.H15 
463 
364 
4.50 
589 
[blaiii] 

1,018 
818 
638 
537 

1.707 
l^blank] 

1,037 



758 



794 1,131 



929 11,838 



Parishes. 
S' John's 
S' Peter's 
S' Paul's 
S' Philip's 
S' Mary's 



Baptisms. 
42 
21 
15 
13 
5 



Burials. 

32 

13 

1 

1 

3 



From 25 March 1711 to 25 March 1712. 

Feb. 2.3. " A List of Persons Nominated by his Excel- 
lency and Councill to appear in the Corps Carabiniers in 
this Island " : — 

Collonel. 



7 



f Majors. > L'-CoUonels. 

Brigadier Sub-Brigadier. 

Captaines Adjutant. 



Barry Tankard. 
Fi-ancis Carlisle. 
John Coomes. 
Gyles Watkins. 
Sam' Fryp. 
Archibald Cockran, 
Edw'^ Chester, sen. 
Will. Pearne. 
Jacob Morgan. 
Thomas Trant. 
Baptist Looby. 
Chris. Stoodly. 
Allen Gilbert. 
John Barbottaine. 
Andrew Murray. 
Sam' Martin. 
Joseph Adams. 
James Weatherill. 
Benja. Wickham. 



Jiinas Langford. 
•Samuel Rowe. 
Henry Hodge. 

Edward Perry. 
Hopefor Bendall. 
John Barnes. 
Will. Glanvile. 
Benja. Nibbs. 
George Bullen. 
Tiiomas Dewitt. 
John Anderson. 
John Weston. 
John Witts. 
Cornelius Hallo- 
ran. 
John Greenway. 
Will. Grantham. 



Richard Meynell. 
John Wright. 
Patrick West. 
Henry Guichinett. 
Thomas Rowe. 
Antho. Garratt. 
•James Hanson. 
John Coduer. 
Robert Pancey. 
Tho. Botking. 
Char. Dunbarr. 
Natha. Wickham. 
Robert Gamble. 
Jacob Thibou. 
Rich. Denbow. 

"1 Chirur- 

.... J geons. 
Abram. Redwood. 
Thomas Jarvis. 

Orderly men. 
Rich. Hughes. 

Tho. Tanner. 



James Tjow. 
Jlath. Berrington. 
Robert Joyce. 
John Rowe. 
Benja. Eversdcn. 
Rich. Daniel. 
Joseph Hodge. 
Duncan Dee. 
Edward Man. 
John Bezoon. 
Leo. Burroughs. 
Bartho. Sanderson. 
Lewis .Tefferyes. 
Nicho. Lynch. 
Rob' Christian. 
William Dunning. 
Robert Weir. 
John Portlock, 
farrier. 



Tho. Woodstock. 
John Butler. 



To appear upon allarmes. 



John Brest. 
Tho. Breton. 
Herbert Pember. 
Will. Yeamans. 
Caleb Lasher. 
James Parke. 
James Person. 
Henry Osborne. 
Marmaduke Urlin. 
Thomas Haws. 
.Tames Nybbs. 
Joseph French. 
John Hodsre. 



Ash ton Warner. 
Will. Hinde. 
Phillip Abraham. 
Richard Sherwood. 
Giles Blizard. 
John Farlow. 
Natha. French. 
Edw'' Chester, jun. 
Will. Frankly. 
Thomas Freeman. 
George Jennings. 
Micha. Arnold. 
Gyles Thyere. 



To appear with the Comm'''', 



Tho. Williams. 
John Tomlinsou. 
John Wickham. 
John Roach. 
John Frye. 



Will. Thomas. 
Tho. Morris. 
Edward Waruer. 
AVill. Byara. 
John Otto Baiier. 



Bastian Otto 

Baijer. 
Tho. Oesterman. 
Rich. Cockran. 
John Gamble. 
John Lucas. 



1712-13, March 19. Mr. Speaker Lucas having been 
called to Barbados, Mr. Joshua Jones is chosen pro tern. 
March 24. The Attorney-General of England 
having instructed the Governor to form a Court of 
Escheat, and to put the naval office bonds in prosecu- 
tion, the following were accordingly nominated, viz. — 
Rev. Jonathan Yale Gilford to be Chancellor. 
Hon. Jn° Lucas, Chief Baron. 
Abraham Redwood ^ 
Sam. Parry >Puisny Barons. 

Jer. Nesbitt J 

The following persons petition that there is no law of 
this island to form such a Court, and that it will ruin them. 
Signed by — 

John Brett. 
Isaac Royall. 



John Wriffht. 
Abra. Redwood. 
Pat. West. 
John Booth. 
Rich. Denbow. 
Tho. Blaffden. 
Hen. Lloyd. 
Rich. Gough. 
Rich. Jardine. 
Jas. Porter. 
Jos. French. 



B. Eversden. 
Edw. Morp:an. 
John Turner. 
John Hamilton. 
Edw. Byam. 
Rich. Oliver. 
W" Thomas. 
W»' Byam. 
Gust. Scott. 
Fra. Fisher. 
Beamsly Perkins. 

Peace has been made. 



H. Guichinett. 
Jac. Thibou. 
Chr. Stoodley. 
W. Glanvile. 
Ed. Mann. 
Jos. Adams. 
Jn" Tomlinson. 
Abra. Lynch Barth. 
John Reynolds. 



171.3, July 27. 

Aug. 10. Letter from GoV Walter Douglas to my Lord 
(? Carteret) acknowledging receipt of order for him to return 
to EngH, but tho' his family is very sickly he will at once 
comply. 

August 21. A draught commission for Walter 
Hamilton to be Captain-General was dated this day, 
but never passed. 

December 15. Tlie Assembly complain that 
Governor Douglas has frequently adjourned them to 
prevent certain bills from being passed ; they also say 
that he called the gentlemen of the parish of Fal- 
mouth " a parcell of idle wretches & miserable dogs." 

The Governor left the Island this month for 
England, and copies of all the minutes were sent home 
by the Assembly, as he would j^i'obably use only 
portions for his benefit. 

1713, Dec. 15. New Sessions. 
By 



For 



S' Johns Town. 



S' Johns Division. 
Popeshead. 
Dickinsons Bay. 
Belfast. 



Nonsuch. 



Coll" Jn" Gamble 
Maj' James Nisbit 
M' Chr. Stoodly 
M' Tho. Turner 
Coll" Jn" Sawcolt i 

Cap' Edw. Home i 

Said Isaac Royall i 

M' W"> Hamilton ' 

M' Jac. Morpron 
M' Giles Watkins 
M' Jn" Eliote 
M' Jn" KinH' 
Joshua Jones, Esq" 
M' Arch. Cochran 
Said Haddon, Esq" 
JIaj' Humphrey Osborn i 
Maj' Tho. Nanton 
Cap. Fra. Carlile 
Jn" Gunthorpe, Esq" 
M' Rich. Cochran 
M' James Parke 
Cap. Ju° Roe 
Coll" Jn" Burton 
Geo. Lucas, Esq" 
M' Bap. Looby 

George Lucas was chosen Speaker. 

Dec. 15 Hon. Daniel Smith, L' Gov'' of Nevis, writes to 
say that Gov'' Douglas left the great seal with him, & that 
by the Queen's Instructions he is to be Commander in Chief 
during the absence of the Cap*-Gen'. 



Jn" Nisbit, Esq" 

Rich. Oliver. Esq" 

Isaac Royall, Esq" 

Jeremiah Blizard, Esq' 

W"> Grear, Esq" 

Sam. Parry, Esq" 

Jn" Haddon, Esq" 
Edw. Warner, Esq" 

Edw. Byam, Esq" 

W" Byam, Esq" 

Ambrose Torke, Esq"* 

Hen. Lyons, Esq" 



Five Islands. 

Falmouth & Ren- 
I desvouz Bay. 
I New North 
i Sound. 



Old North Sound. 

I Old Road & Ber- 
I mudian Valley. 

Willoughby Bay. 



WILLIAM AND MARY. ANNE. 



Ixxxvii 



Dec. 31. Jas. Nisbitt, Esq., J. P., deposes that on 
22 Sep. last GoV Donglas got him, to swear Nich^ Blake, a 
great sconndrel, to certain papers which he was told referred 
to timber-sales, bat Blake afterwards informed him that 
there were many accusations in the said papers against 
people here, including deponents brother Edw. Perrie, Esq., 
& Tho. Trant, Col. W" Thomas, Col. W"' Codrington, Edw. 
Warner, Col. Sam. Watkins, D'' Dan. Mackinen, M'' Fra. 
Carlile, M'' Arch. Cochran, M' Bap. Looby, M' Jn" Kerr, M"' 
Jn» Elliott, Cap. Sain. Frye, Cap. Jn° Paynter, M"' W" 
Hamilton & Cap. Crump the Treasurer. 

1713-14, Feb. 12. The Inhabitants of S' Philips Parish 
petition, that their church had been built by their ancestors 
at Willoughby Bay, that it wants repairing, & that a chapel 
of ease was intended to be built at Belfast over 20 years ago, 
the laud for which was given & is used as a burial ground. 
They object to have the old church pulled down and a new 
one built elsewhere. Signed by : — 



John Kerr, Church- 
warden. 
John Lavioount. 
W™ Steel. 
William Painter. 
Sam" Mayer. 
Tim"'-'' Singin. 
John Prynn. 
John Barnard. 
John Wilts. 
Joseph Todman. 
Marmaduke Urlin. 
Robert JeafEreson. 
Cornelius Halloran. 



Benj" Wickham. 
John Fouler. 
Hugfh Jones. + 
Ja. Ayres. 
Jos. Leddiatt. 
Thomas Stiff. 
Humphry Davis. + 
John Parry. 
Mich. Stridvian. + 
Peter Adgett. + 
John Brook. 
Charles Goldin. 
Cornelius Malloune. 
Henry Louvy. 



Vallentine Keeff. 
Owen M'"Carty. 
Mark Monk. 
Edward Cooke. 
Nicholas Lynch. 
James Rice. + 
Florence Carty. 
John Slarchant. 
Thomas Elmes. 
Adam Wallis. 
Peter Willcox. 
Ja. Fallon. 
Hugh Wapley. + 
Jn° Blundon. 



Dennis Sullivan. + Coll. Macmahon. Christoph. 

Greorjre Nichols. + Peter Martin. NichoUs. + 

Henry Soper. + Tho. Skerret. JohnLavicount, Jun'. 

Note. — The persons against whose names there is a cross ( + ) 
signed with their mark. 

Pet" also from Cap. Anth" Browne & M' Jn° Eliote, late 
Churchwardens of S' Philips, that at a vestry meeting it was 
decided to erect a church in the centre of the parish, on land 
already obtained from M'' Jn° King, & a 'contract was 
entered into with M'' Geo. Pullein, carpenter, for £1100. 
They pray for indemuification. 

1713-14, March 2.5. Taxes for the ensuing year. 

Taxes suggested by 

Taxes settled by Ass''', 
Licences .... 
Liquor office 

Dry goods at 10 per cent. 
Town rents 
L'' Willoughbys Act 
Traders .... 
20 per cent, uon residents 



Council. 
At 2/ per acre 
Negros at 10/ per head 
Lycenoes to sell liquor 
Liquor office 
Dry goods & traders . 
Town rents 



£ 

5,000 
1.000 

600 
1,.500 
1,000 

500 



£ 
600 

1,500 

1,000 

5U0 

600 

1,000 



11,200 



16,400 



1714, July 16. Colonel Richard Oliver was ap- 
pointed to inspect and report on the condition of the 
Records. 

July 23. Edward Perrie's commission as Clerk of 
the Navy and Naval Oflficer was this day read. The 
sum of £345 was paid to the members of the Assembly 
for their attendance. 

August 1. Queen Anne died. 



CHAPTER VII. 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 1714—1760. 



1714, September 2. Hon. Colonel Oliver is de- 
puted to draw up the Powder Act with the members 
selected by the Assembly. 

Sep. 25. Dan' Smith wrote announcing the death of the 
Queen on P' Aug. last. The proclamation of Geo. I. was 
signed bv the following inhabitants :— 



Jn" Yeamans. 
Ju" Hamilton. 
Ed. Byam. 
. Wm. (.'odrington. 
Hen. Lyons. 
W"' Thomas. 
Tho. Morris. 
Eich. Oliver. 
W" Byam. 
Jn" Lxicas. 
Jas. Field. 
Is": Royall. 
Hen. Hughes. 
Ed. Price. 
W" Howard. 
Chas. Pym. 
Syer Allcocke. 
Mar. Mackenzie. 
Joshua .Jones. 
Hum. Osborn. 
Tho. Traut. 
Nath. Crump. 
Jn° Sawcolt. 



Fra. Carlile. 

Jn" Gamble. 

Jn" Eliote. 

Giles Watkins. 

Ashton Warner. 

Jn" Roe. 

Jas, Nisbitt. 

Jn° Duer. 

Bap. Looby. 

Tho. Turner. 

Jac. Morgan. 

W'" Hamilton. 

Ed. Home. 

Marm. Bacheler. 

Tho. Jarvis. 

H. Warner. 

Hen. Douglas, Prov. 

Mar. Gen'. 
Jn" Haddon. 
Pat. West. 
And. Murray. 
W" Pearne. 
Jer. Blizard. 



Geff. Duneombe. 
Ed. Perrie, Surv. 

Gen'. 
Rich. Buckeridge, 

ColK 
Jn" Booth. 
Jn" Brunckhurst. 
Nath. Wickham. 
Ed. Morgan. 
Jas. Rawleigh. 
Jn" Chamberlain. 
Rob. Gamble. 
Ed. Thornton. 
Day. Soannell. 
Jas. Godsell. 
Nich. Weeks. 
Jn° Burton. 
Sam. Martin. 
Geo. Forrest. 
Gilb. Garratt. 
Arth. Dalvan. 
Tho. Wise. 
Fra. Hamilton. 



Through the agency and mediation of Stephen 
Duport of London, a St. Kitts merchant of French 
extraction, most of the Huguenot families of St. 
Christopher's were re-possessed of their estates by the 
King's commands, which was a wise and magnani- 
mous proceeding. Owing to religious persecution 
they were on very friendly terms with their English 
neighbours, who had often saved them from death 
and torture, and they had moreover in many instances 
cemented this good feeling by intermarriage: — for 
instance, Madame Elizabeth Salenave, widow of Jor- 



dain Salenave, who had an estate of 300 or 400 acres 
at St. Kitts before 1688, petitioned for its restoration, 
and stated that Lieutenant Robert Cunningham had 
married her niece. Her petition was granted. Other 
French Protestants had settled at Antigua, where 
letters of denization were readily granted them, their 
advent being considered to be a welcome addition to 
the strength of the Island. 

1714-15. On January 5 a draught commission 
for Colonel William Codrington to be Captain-General 
was drawn out, but it was ordered to be stopped, and 
on the 15th one for Hamilton was made out. 



1714-15, Feb. 8. New Sessions. 



By 



Jas. Nisbitt, Esq" 
Jn" Combes, Esq" 
Edw. Perrie, Esq'" 
Rich. Buckeridge, Esq" 
Edw. Home, Esq" 
And. Murray, Esq" 
Rich. Cochran, Esq"* 
John Duer, Esq" 
Geo. Lucas, Esq" 
Bap. Looby, Esq" I 

Ben. Wickham, Esq" I 
W"' Paynter. Esq" f 

Jn" Burton, Esq" / 

Jn" Roe, Esq" ( 

Fra. Carlile, Esq" | 

Jn" Lightfoot, Esq" i 
Giles Watkins, Esq" ( 
Jac. Morgan, Esq" f 

Isaac Royall, Esq" I 

Jos. French, Esq" | 

Hum. Osborn, Esq" | 

Jas. Barter, Esq" I 

Joshua Jones, Esq" ! 

Arch. Cochran, Esq" | 
Tho. Turner, Esq" f 

George Lucas was chosen Speaker. 



Herbert Pember, Esq" 

John Sawcolt, Esq" 
John Duer, Esq" 
Hen. Lyons, Esq" 
W" Grear, Esq" 
Jn" Koe, Esq" 
Hon'>'= Ed w. By am , Esq" 
Jer. Blizard, Esq" 
Isaac Royall, Esq" 
Main Swete, Esq" 

Nath. Crump, Esq" 
Tho. Turner 



For 
S" Johns Town. 

S' Johns Division. 

Old North Sound. 

Willoughby Bay 
Division. 

Belfast Division. 



Bermudian 

Valley. 
New North 

Sound. 

Dickinsons Bay. 

Popeshead Divi- 
sion. 

Falmouth & Ren- 
desvous Bay. 

Nonesuch Divi- 
sion. 

Five Islands. 



Ixxxviii 



THE HISTORY OP ANTIGUA. 



February 8. Giles Theyer, Esq., of Gray's Inn, 
was called in and presented a deposition from Charles 
Hedges, Esq., Secretary of the Leeward Islands by 
patent, authorizing him to act as his deputy. George 
Lucas, Esq., and the parishioners of St. Paul's, Fal- 
mouth, petition for the rebuilding of a bridge washed 
away by the hurricane in 1713. 

Feb. Edward Byam, Esq., appointed Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of his Majesty's Island of Antegoa in America, & Wil- 
liam Mathews, Esq., appointed Lieutenant-Governor of his 
Majesty's Island of S' Christophers, & Lieutenant-General 
Hamilton appointed Governor of the Leeward Islands in the 
room of Colonel Douglas, & Henry Douglas, Esq., made 
Provost-Marshal of the Leeward Caribbee Ishiuds in the room 
of Aston Warner, Esq., and Edward Perry, Esq., made Clei'k 
of the Naval Stores in the Leeward Islands. 

(' Historical Register.') 

1714-15. State of the Forts. 

Monks hill & Codrington battery. Many breaches, 20 
mounted & 30 un-monnted guns. 

Falmouth Fort. 7 guns mounted, 5 un-mounted, 2 
mounted without the fort, ^ barrel! of powder & a few shott, 
& some unfit firearms. 

Old Road Platform. 7 guns mounted, i barrell of powder, 
no spunge, ladle, rammer, nor ammunition. 

S' Johns Fort. The gates downe, cisterns out of repair, 
14 guns mounted, 13 carriages bad, 2 guns mounted outside, 
1 gun inside dismounted, 100 cartridges, a few great shot, 
i a barrell of powder, no rammer, etc. 

Parham Platform. 4 guns mounted, 40 shott, ^ barrell 
of powder, no ammunition. 

Willoughby Platform. 5 guns mounted, 4 carriages 
good, no stores. 

March 10. By Act the Court of Chancery was in 
future to consist of the Commander-in-Chief and 
five Members of H.M. Council. 

1715, March 28. Ashton Warner, the Clerk to 
the Council, is to be paid £70 a year, and not £30 as 
heretofore. 



D' the public of Antigua. 
To the amount of Debits. 
£18,459 2 5f 
9,300 15 OJ 

Ballance £9,158 7 5i 



By the Account of Credits. 
£9,300 15 0;^ 



May 7. John Gamble, Esq., gives the returns of 
the new members for St. John's, viz. : — John Gamble, 
Eichard Buckeridge, Major Nisbitt, and John 
Combes. 

June 28. Captain Henry Smith try'd at the King's 
Bench Bar for the Murder of Colonel Park, Governor of 
Antegoa, and acquitted. (« Historical Register,' p. 63.) 

One of the ringleaders (in the Parke riot of 1710), named 
Smyth, was brought to trial in England, as long after the 
date of the event as 1715, but owing to some iuformahty in 
the proceedings, he was acquitted, and D'' Daniel Mackin- 
non, Samuel Watkins, and Thomas Kerby, other principal 
sharers in the rebellion, under the same indictment, were 
consequently liberated from Newgate. 

(' West India Sketch Book,' vol. ii., p. 262.) 

June 30. Colonel William Mathew, the newly 
appointed Lieut.-General of the Leeward Islands and 
Lieut.-Governor of St. Christopher's, arrived at 
Nevis. 

July 8. The Commissions of Edward Byam as 
Lieut.-Governor of Antigua, dated 28 January 



1714-15, and of William Mathew as Lieut.-General 
and Commander-in-Chief, dated 25 March 1715, 
were read. 

Oct. 5. Account of Militia at Antigua : — 
One Troop of Horse . . 86 
ffoot— Blew Regiment . . . .289 
Red „ . . . . 269 

Green „ . . . .194 



752 



October 6. Colonel Val. Morris takes his seat at 
the Council Board vice Colonel Eichard Oliver 
indisposed. 

October 24. The following clergy take the oaths 
of fealty to King George : — Mr. James Field, Mr. 
Jonathan Yate Gifford, Mr. Orr, and Mr. John 
Simpson. 

Oct. 24. All the inhabitants over 18 years of age are 

required to take the oath of fealty to Geo. I., & certain 

gent" were appointed as follows to carry this out : — 

For 
Hon. Tho. Morris, Esq. 1 

Jn" Duer, Esq. [ Old Road & New North Sound Division. 

Jas. Patten, Esq. ) 

Hon. Jn" Hamilton, Esq. , 
Herb. Pember, Esq. 
Jn" Gamble. Esq. 
Chr. Stoodly, Esq. 
Isaac Royall, Esq. 
Jn° Yeamans. Esq. 
W™ Grear, Esq. 
Sam. Parry, Esq. 
Bap. Looby. Esq. 
Hon. Ed. Warner, Esq. 
Main Swete, Esq. 
Is" Horsford, Esq. 
Hon. Col. Val. Morris, Esq. ' 
.In" Burke. Esq. 
Jn" Roe, Esq. ) 

October 28. The Governor is to receive £400 a 
year in lieu of a house. 

November 8. Mr. Nathaniel Carpenter, jun., to 

be Agent for two years. 

An account of the duties of H.M. troops. 

Private Men. Serjeant. Corporal. Drummer. OflBcer. 

1. On Town guard 18 1 1 1 1 

2. Monks Hill 12 1 1 1 1 

3. S' James Fort 10 1 1 

4. Road platform 4 11 

44 4 4 2 2 



S' Johns, Popeshead, Dickinsons Bay, 
& Five Islands. 



' Belfast, Nonsuch, & Willoughby Bay. 



■ Falmouth & Rendesvous Bay Divisions. 



■ Old Ro.ad & Berm. Valley. 



The privates receive from the public of this Isl'' 9'^ a day 
part payable iu provision, a corporal or Serjeant 12'', & a 
subaltern 4/-. 

November. George Lucas, having been made 
Treasurer, vacates the Speakership, and Archibald 
Cochran is chosen. 

The gross amount received from the 4^ per cent, 
duty for thirteen years, 1703 — 1715, amounted to 
£78,528, and the nett amount was £29,313. 

November 21. Main Swete succeeds George 
Lucas (now Treasurer) as Powder Officer. 

1715-16, February 7. The commission for Walter 
Hamilton, Esq., to be Captain-General, dated 23 
August last, was read. 

Barry Tankard took the oaths and his seat at the 
Council. 

February 8. John Hamilton and John Prye take 
the oaths and their seats at the Council. 

February 11. Giles Theyer, Clerk of the Council, 
and Ashton Warner, Clerk of the Assembly, petition 
for payment of their salary. 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



Ixxxix 



February 14. Val. Morris takes his seat at the 
Council vice Colonel Eichard Oliver. 

February 21. Edward Warner takes the oaths 
and his seat at the Council. 

February 23. Chester's plantation to be rented 
for the Governor, instead of £400 a year for house 
rent. 

February 25. John Gamble, Esq., to be Chief 
Justice of the Court of King's Bench and Common 
Pleas. 

March 2. £100 currency a year voted to Gover- 
nor Hamilton. 



1716, May 3. New Sessions. 



By 
Jn° Gamble, Esq' 



For 



Tho. Oesterman. Esq' 
Jn" Duer, Esq' 
Bap. Looby, Esq' 
Jn° Burton, Esq' 
Jn" Grunthrop, Esq' 
Jer. Blizard, Esq' 
Is"^ Royall. Esq' 
Is° Horsf ord, Esq' 
Geo. Lucas, Esq' 
Jn° Tomlinson, Esq' 



M' Jn" Combes 
M' Marm. Bachelor 
M' Jas. Nisbitt 
M' Chas. Dunbar 
Ashton Warner, Esq' 
M' And. Murray 
M' Rich. Cochran 
Cap. .Jn" Lightfoot 
Sd. Bap. Looby 
Cap. Jn° Lightfoot 
M' Sam Martin 
M' Rob. Pearne 
Said Jn" G-unthrop 
M' .Jn" Painter 
M' Giles Watkins 
M' .Jac. Morprau 
M' W"' Hamilton 
M' .Tas. Weatheril 
Maj' Hum. Osborne 
Cap. W" Pearne 
M' Joshua Jones 
M' John King 
M' Geo. Thomas 



S' Johns Town. 



S' Johns Division. 
j Old North Sound. 

[ Belfast Division. 

I Bermudian Valley & 
j Old Road Divisions. 



New North Sound. 
Dickinsons Bay. 
Popes Head Division. 



Falmouth & Rendes- 
I vous Bay Division. 

[ Nonsuch Division. 

Five Islands. 



Ashton Warner was chosen Speaker. 

1716, May 3. Archibald Cochran takes the oaths 
and his seat at the Council. 

May 20. To be celebrated at the public cost, 
being the King's birthday. 

June 12. Several prisoners imported by Captain 
Scarsbrook from Liverpool, from the rebels at Pres- 
ton, are advertised to be sold. 

June 18. Captain J. Lightfoot, chosen for two 
places, elects to sit for Old North Sound. 

James Watson, a non-juror, having bought two 
prisoners, is bound over in £50. 

July 11. Mr. William Lavington was returned 
for Willoughby Bay by Bap. Looby, Esq. 

August 1. Several merchants having petitioned 
the Governor that the 4^ per cent, duty might be 
collected at four places, Edward Perrie writes to say 
that he has well known this Island for thirty years 
past, and that the duty was always collected at St. 
John's, and there only, and he advises the Governor 
to refer to the Lords of the Treasury. 

August 16. Mr. Thomas Freeman was returned 
for Old Road and Bermudian Valley vice Samuel 
Martin gone to England. 

September 19. A fast day to be kept for the 
small-pox. 

1716, Sep. 19. "A List of the Troops* Commanded by 
Colonel Edward Warner" : — 

Jeremiah Blizard, Esq"", Lieuten' Colonel. 

Humphry Osl>orne l-^^:^ 
.John Gunthorpe f ■' 

Robert Weir \ rt i. • 
Robert Pearne I ^^P'^"^ 



lors. 



Barry Tuiikerd. 
John Combes. 
William Pearne. 
Edward Chester, 

Jun'. 
Baptist Looby. 
Christopher 
Stoodly. 
Allen Gilbert. 
John Barbottain. 
Andrew Murray. 
Ben. Wickham. 
Rich. Meyiiil. 
Jolm Wright. 
Pat. West. 
Hen. Guichinett. 
Anth" Garret. 
Cha. Dunbar. 
Rob. Gamble. 
Jac. Thibou. 
Rich. Denbow. 
Tho. Jarvis. 
Jas. Lowe. 
John Roe. 
Jas. Credelauze. 
JosP'' Hodge. 
John Gallaher. 
Rob. Newton. 
Rich. Sherwood. 
W™ Meredith. 
Marm. Bachelor. 
Rob. Christian. 
Nich. Lynch. 
Ph. Abraham. 
Ben. Nibbs. 
John Weston. 
John Witt. 
John Greenway. 

October 10. 



Jas. Parke. 
Marm. Urlin. 
Tho. How (?). 
JosP'' French. 
John Hodge. 
Giles Blizard. 
W"' Dunning. 
Tho. Lynch. 
Mark Monk. 
Barth. Sanderson. 
John Langelier. 
Edm. Barter. 
John Liglitfoot. 
Rich. Ash. 
W™ Hillhouse of 

Parham. 
Hen. Lyons. 
Tho. Freeman. 
W" Hinde. 
Mich. Arnold. 
Geo. Thomas. 
W™ Dunbar. 
John Knight. 
W™ Frankly n. 
Nich. Otto Baijer. 
John Brett. 
Paul Parry. 
Hen. Brown. 
W™ Master. 
John Leot. 
John Smith. 
Tho. Dewitt. 
Jas. Davis. 
Jas. Weatherill. 
W™ Glanville. 
Geo. Weatherill. 
John Mabson. 
Barnabas Brabazon. 



John Linsey. 
JosP'' Lidea. 
W'" Grantham. 
John Fowler. 
Tim. St John. 
Edw. Trant. 
Bayer Otto Baijer. 
Sam. Watkins, 

Sen'. 
W^^ Mackinen. 
John Roach. 
Sam. Meers. 
W™ Painter. 
Jonath. Hill. 
Row. Hamilton. 
Corn. Halloran. 
Tho. Skerret. 
W" Hillhouse in 

S' Johns. 
Hen. Warner. 
W"i Thomas. 
.Jas. Faerweather, 

Farrier. 
Peter Mercer. 
Levy Guishard. 
Tho. Turner. 
Ashton Warner. 
Sam. Watkins, 

Jun'. 
John Tomlinson. 
Herb. Pember. 
W™ Yeamans. 
W™ Thomas at M"^ 

Martins Plant". 
Gilb. Fleming. 
Josh" Jones. 



tarns. 



* This is the Yeomanry, or Troop of Carbineers. 



Fifteen days quarantine to be im- 
posed on all persons arriving from Martinique on 
account of the contagious distemper raging there. 

The burial of people who have died of small-pox 
in St. John's Churchyard is thought to be dangerous 
because of the rocky soil and shallow gi-aves. 

November 3. A battery to be constructed at 
Cripplegate. 

November 5. Mr. Christopher Stoodly, one of the 
Churchwardens of St. John's Church, states that the 
poor people cannot be accommodated at the public 
charge, the small-pox having caused such ravages. 

Mr. George Thomas to be powder officer. 

November 17. Major William Cogan of Bar- 
bados, merchant, petitions for the payment of £440 
which he spent in getting a man-of-war and volun- 
teers over to Antigua during the last French scare. 

Nov. 19. This Day Colonel Dowglass, who some time 
ago was convicted of Male-Administration during his late 
Government of the liCeward Islands, being brought to the 
King's-Bench Bar, receiv'd his Sentence, which is, to 
remain five years in Prison, and to pay 500 1. as a Fine. 
(' Historical Register,' p. 549.) 

Antigua was certainly unfortunate in having such 
disreputable Governors forced on the inhabitants. 
Of two successive ones Parke was killed by the people 
and Walter Douglas imprisoned five years. 

By Act, dated November 24, a new church was 
to be erected in St. John's in the place of the old 
one. 

November 30. Habbijah Savage of the sloop 
" Bonetta " deposes that he was taken by two pirates 
between St. Thomas and St. Croix of eight guns and 
80 or 90 men each, the one the " Mary Anne," and the 
other French. Paul Williams, a goldsmith born in 



xc 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



New England, was also there with other jjrisoners. 
In December Captain Hume of H.M.S. " Scarboro' " 
was sent by the Governor of Barbados in search of 
them, and took on board one officer, two Serjeants, 
one drummer, and 40 men. 

1716-17, January 27. James Field, clerk, Com- 
missai-y General and Eector of St. John's, appeals to 
the Governor and Council against the opposition of 
some of the vestry (Captain Otto-Baijer, Major Tom- 
linson, Caj)tain Haddon, Mr. J. Morgan, Captain 
Turner, Mr. Stoodly, Mr. Murray), they denying him 
liberty to choose a churchwarden. Petitioner has 
been Minister of St. John^s 24 years. The case is 
referred to the Bishop of London. 

Jan. 31. The C report that "We find the books 
unbound, & the whole Records iu very great disorder, nay 
some of them are in so bad condition that they can scarce be 
read." They are ordered to be revised by a Committee & 
some of them transcribed. 

February 13. £1000 voted to the Governor for 
the repair of his house. 

February 20. Samuel Watkins is ajjjiointed 
Chief Justice vice John Gamble, who resigned on 
account of the gout. 

Feb. 25. " Several persons having obtained commis- 
sions in the Militia, 'tis ordered that Ben. Nibbs, W" Monk, 
Mark Monk, Row. Hamilton, Jas. Fairweather, W"' Grant- 
ham, lately appointed officers, be discharged from the Troop 
of Carabiniers, & W"' Franklyn, Tho. Dewitt, Sam. Mears, 
Corn. Halloran, Tho. Skerrett, & Jas. D ... be discharged 
as incapable of duty ; also that Tho. Williams, Sam. Parry, 
jun'-, W" Till, Tho. Hunt, Ben. Rutland, Ju" Elliot, & Hen. 
Nibbs join the said troop." 

1717, March 27. Work at Monk's Hill fortifica- 
tion to be postponed, it being now croj) time. 

Elizabeth Bass Johnson petitions for a licence to 
beg alms. 

The gun-carriages and gates at St. John's Fort 
ordered to be repaired. 

March 29. Hon. William Thomas granted one 
year's leave of absence. 

An Address was forwai-ded to His Majesty on his 
return from Germany. 

May 28. The next 5 June to be a fast day for 
drought. Two sloops are hired to fetch water from 
Berbuda and deliver it at the Narrows and Wil- 
loughby Bay for230or settlers. Suggestion also made 
as to the feasibility of distilling water. 

June 6. Captain Eose of H.M.S. " Seaford " is 
sent after the pirate at Blanco (a vessel of 12 guns 
and 120 men), and he was given two barrels of pistol 
powder, 10 of floui-, and 20 soldiers. The Lieut.- 
Governor, Council, and Assembly unanimously 
petition the Secretary of State against the recall of 
Hamilton. 

Hon. Colonel Thomas Morris having been sus- 
pended by the Governor for the alleged use of dis- 
respectful language about the King, many persons 
present depositions in his favour. He had sat at the 
Council Board since his appointment on 13 August 
1703. 

July 26. Archibald Cochran takes his seat at 
the Council, his mandamus bearing date 4 April 



1717 at St. James. Complaint was made that much 
of the water bi'ought by the slooj)s went to people 
who could well afford to obtain it themselves. 

August 27. One hundred barrels of flour to be 
purchased for the poor. 

September 11. Several members being dead or 
gone off, writs are to be issued vice Mr. John Painter, 
Mr. William Pearne, Mr. Eobert Pearne, and Mr. 
Andrew Murray. 

After the conquest and expulsion of the French 
from St. Kitts in 1704, it was for a long time doubt- 
ful how the English Ministry would act.* They had 
intended in the first instance to restore the Island to 
the French, but wiser counsels prevailed, and it was 
resolved to retain the captured portion and grant 
patents for three years to any English who would 
undertake to settle estates in the French quarter. 

The following grants of lands in the French 
quarter had been ah'eady made since 1704 : — 
List of Planters who have no lands in the English quarter. 

Acres. Negros. 

Walter Douglas, Esq. 

Peter 8oulegre . 

Anthony Fahie 
Antego John Hamilton 

Montserrat Edward Parson 
Nevis Gen' Hamilton 

Nevis L' Gov'' Smith 

390 acres & 100 negros have been returned to Madam 
Salenave. 

List of those who have also plant"^ in the English q''. 

Acres. Negros. 



400 


150 


400 


190 


200 


90 


150 


10 


200 


40 


400 


200 


200 


40 



L* Gen' Mathews 


300 


70 


Maj"' Oen' Lambert . 


350 


ICO 


Ralph WiUet . 


200 


71 


Fra. Phipps 


200 


47 


Jos'"'' Estridge 


150 


50 


Hen. AViUet . 


100 


40 


Jn" Willet 


250 


00 



September 12. William Codrington wrote from 
Doddington offering Government £8 per acre for 
2000 acres in the French quarter ; Mr. Micajah Perry 
and Eichard Perry and other merchants of London 
also made various offers for lands, and Thomas John- 
sou offered £61,000 for the whole remainder. The 
unoccupied lands were not, however, sold to these 
speculators, but Lieut. -Governor Mathew surveyed 
them himself, and they were all sold to planters 
and the proceeds received by the home Government. 
In 1718 a very complete list, with personal particulars 
of the 97 grantees, was drawn up. 

(B. T. Leeward Islands, vol. 15.) 

October 18. The poor are still in great distress 
from lack of bread-stuff, and owing to the dry 
weather and the worm they are daily leaving. One 
hundred barrels of flour are to be distributed. 

* West Indian history presents this curious phase, that millions 
of money and thousands of liyes were often sacrificed in capturing 
the French or other Islands ; but their reduction was no sooner 
accomplished, and new plantations settled by our countrymen, than 
by a stroke of the pen an uncertain patched up peace would be 
signed, our colonists sacrificed, and islands which were always a thorn 
in our side would be complacently restored by thoughtless Ministers 
to their former owners. Such policy did not suit the colonies, the 
planters expected to reap where they had sown, and not to be thrown 
over to suit Ministers' European policy. 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



xci 



October 25. John Reynolds had just sold 500 
barrels of flour at two pistoles each. The following 
new ineuibeis were returned : — 

Isaac Horslbrd, Esq., for Falmouth & Rendesvoiis Bay. 

W" Home, Esq., Bermudian Valley & Old Road. 

The. Pigott, Esq., New North Sound. 

1717-18, January 13. The old seal to be broken, 
and the new one just arrived to be used. 

February 20. John Gamble takes his seat at the 
Council. 

February 24. Next 5 March to be a fast day for 
drought. 

1717-18, Feb. The Committee report as follows con- 
cerninn; the finances : — 



d. 



343 15 







,250 
350 



1,000 
500 



The Annual Revenue. 

There is a perpetuall fund of one pound of Sugar or 
Tob.acco raised annually per acre on Fifty-five 
thousand acres of Land which at 1^ per pound 
amounts to ------- - 

The Duty on Liquors Imported uncertain, but gener- 
ally is 1,200 

That during: the late Warrs with France the Tax on 
Slaves hath been from tenn to sixteen shillings 
per head frequently on Land and Cattle in Pro- 
portion. This year on Slaves only at ten shillings 
per head for sixteen thousand iive hundred is 

On house Rents in the towns at 5 per cent. 

On Merchants trading in the Island according to the 
appearance of their business which Commonly 
amounts to 

On Lycences for selling Liquor - - - - - 

On Ships and other Vessells trading to the Island one 
pound of powder per ton . - . . . 

The annual charge attending the Publick of this 

Island in time of Peace. 

To Monks Hill and other Fortifications for Gunners 

and Matrosses 

To Carriages and Flaggs about - - - . - 
To making and Cleaning Ponds - . - - . 
To Publick Entertainments and Festivals - 
To the Council and Assembly's allowance on their 

Public meeting at 6' per D;iy - . . . 
To their Clerks and Messengers Sallery ... 
To the Agents allowance ---... 
To Solicitations at home ...... 

To repairing the Fortifications 

To the Charge attending Slaves Executed and taking 

up of Runaways ------- 

To Pensioners allowance ------ 

To Expence attending the General and Quarter 

Sessions Clerks and Coroners fees 

To the Treasurer his Clerk to" 

To repairing of Bridges --...- 
To incident Charges for Expresses sick sailors from 

his Majesty's Ships fcc" 

To rent of a house for his Excellency . - - - 
To the four and a half per Cent, and other Charges 

attending the Importation of sugar &c" for 

18,000 hhd' is 

The Charge attending the Publick of this Island in 

time of Warr over and above what it doth in Peace. 
To Monks hill Fortification for Managers Clerks 
Overseers Provisions .and allowance for work of 
slaves at one per cent. ------ 5,800 

To twelve Guards at £75 per iiun. - . - . 900 
To Quarters allowed twelve officers and three hundred 

Centinells fi,670 

To French Prisoners Truces and Provisions - - 1,500 

T.) alarmes and Expresses 1,200 

To carriages for Gunns 1,000 

To Provisions for Guarders 150 

Tu Masons and other Workmen 400 

Signed Nath' Crump. 

James Weatheeill. 
Mabm» Bachelek. 

The Comniittee also send in the following report 
concerning defences, etc. : — 

On Monkshill FortiSoation North Bastion to Eastward 
of the Gate 6 Gunns, 4 well mounted, two wants Carriages. 

The West Bastion Eastward .3 Mounted, 2 Dismounted. 

The Great Platform Eastward 3 Mounted, 7 Dismounted 
for want of Carriages. 

On the Soutli side of the Fortification 4 Guns well 
mounted. 

On the West side of the Fortification 4 Guns dismounted 
and no Carriages. 



548 
400 
100 
600 














500 
113 

450 
200 
700 



15 













500 
131 



5 






250 

600 

80 












1,000 
600 











10,125 


























































On the Bastion of the West side of the Gate one well 
mounted, 3 Dismounted and want Carriages. 

On the Lower Battery called Codringtons 4 Guns well 
mounted but not serviceable by reason they are Covered 
with the watch of the Hill. 

Most of the Guns when fitted will want Platforms. All 
manner of Rammers, Spunges, Worms, & hand-spikes. 
Flaggs for all the forts and Platformcs, and blie Spunges & 
Rammers for Guns of four pounders, to those for 24 Guns 
for all the Forts. A Quile of Rope for Monks Hill and 
Saint .Johns. 

On Falmouth Fort— 12 Guns mounted, and not above 
si.x fitt for service, the Carriages being Decayed. 

Willoughby Bay Platform— 5 Gunns and but one for 
service, for want of Carriages. 

Parham Platforme — 4 Cannon well mounted, but wants 
a Platforme and the ]\Iagazeen Repaired. 

Old Road Platforme— 6 Guns well mounted, the other 
fitt for no use, the Platforme in good order. 

Fort James — at Saint Johns 17 Pieces of Cannon, and 
not six fitt for service. Carriages being English Wood all 
Decayed. The Gate down and wants doing up. 

The Magazeen wants repairing. The Platforme that 
the Guns play on wants repairing. A new foot to the Flagg 
staff, this being Rotten. 

On Dickinsons bay. Ship Sterne, & other Bays, about 
thirty pieces of Cannon, none fitt for service, all lying on 
the Ground. 

At Monks Hill nine pair of Lignum Vitaj wheels with a 
little repair will be made good. The List taken the 12*'' of 
August 1717 per 

Sam' Parry. 

March 3. George Lucas is sworn in as Treasurer. 

The Assembly address the King about Governor 
Hamilton's reported supersession and Colonel Pur- 
cell's appointment in his place. 



Hen. Syms. 
Jn° Wi'ckham. 
Tho. Williams, 

Esq. 
Tho. Williams. 
Jn» Teate. 



Nath. Wickham. 
Edw. Mann. 
Roger Adams. 
Sam. Brvant. 
W™ Thomas. 
Nich. Lynch,. Jun. 



Sam. Martin. 
Obad. Bradshaw. 
Jn" Tomlinson, 

Jun'', to join the 

Troop. 



1718, March 81. An Address vras sent to the 
King on the birth of a Prince. 

Benjamin Rutland, John Buckshorne, Caesar 
Rodeney, and Robert Heughes to join the Troop, 
and John Lavicount, Jun., and John Fowler 
exempted. Three hundred small arms have arrived. 

There having been hardly any freight this season, 
several masters of ships petition against the payment 
of dues. A bridge was recently built at the end of 
Dunconibe's Folly for £100. 

June 10. Elizabeth Benson petitions for a 
licence to beg alms, all her property to the value of 
j6200 having been burnt as per certificate. She is 
accordingly licenced for six months. 

Isaac Royall, John Boudinot, and Charles Everet 
to join the Troop. 

Joseph French is so gouty he cannot longer 
serve. Some of the Members were fined for depart- 
ing the House contrary to rules. 

July 1. John Gamble joins the Council. 

September 18. John Haddon petitions for 3000 lbs. 
of sugar or £18 for his negro. 

Four Members were fined 6s. for being absent at 
calliuff over list. 



XCll 



THE HISTOEY OF ANTIGUA. 



October 9. Samuel Martin and Tho. Kerby, 
Esqrs., are returned for St. John's Town. 

October 29. The present season a fine one. 

December 10. John Yeamans, Esq., John Price, 
Nathaniel Humphrys, Thomas Morris, Jan., to join 
the Troop, and William Hilhous of Parham discharged. 

December ] 6. Perrie York, Thomas Ainesworth, 
Eobert Bryan, and Robert Menzies to join Troop. 

Dec. 24. John Knight, Esq., of Gosfield Hall in the 
county of Essex, appointed Secretary of the Leeward 
Islands. (' Historical Register.') 

1718-19, March 6. Letter read from Mr. Secretary 
Craggs, dated 24 December last, notifying the Gover- 
nor that war with Spain was about to be declared. 
£5000 was at once raised for placing the colony in a 
state of defence. 

1719, March 26. £432 was paid to members of 
the Assembly for their services from 9 March 1715 
to 18 February 1718-19, and £144 to those of the 
Council. 

May 22. £1000 to be raised for the forts, and 
one negro per cent, to be put on to work. 

May 28. Mr. Jac. Morgan and Mr. Andrew 
Murray expelled the House for contempt. 

June 9. There are 84 barrels of powder in store 
and 15 due. 

Hon. Colonel Thomas Morris was re-instated at 
the Council by order of the King, dated 4 April this 
year. The Roman Catholic Act was disallowed. 



The re-election of Andrew Murray and Jac. Mor- 
gan, recently expelled, is declared void. 

July 6. John Gamble, Esq., takes his seat at the 
Council, his mandamus bearing date 20 August 1718, 
vice Richard Oliver, Esq., deceased ; likewise John 
Yeamans, Esq., whose mandamus was dated 6 Decem- 
ber 1718, vice Colonel William Thomas deceased. 

August 1. The Assembly adjourned, and to next 
meet at the house of Jeffry Duncomb in Parham 
Town. 

August 7. All the laws are to be transcribed, and 
Thomas Kerby, Esq., offers his collection of them for 
£300, which was accepted on 14 September. 

November 17. Slingsby Bethell,* Gent., John 
Duer, Gent., Peter Gayner, Rob. Magill, Ambrose 
Lynch, and William Hughs to join the Troop. 

December 1 . Joshua Jones, having been aj^pointed 
Deputy of the Leeward Islands by Horatio Walpole, 
Esq., Surveyor and Auditor-General for America, 
takes the oaths. A letter from the Lords of the 
Treasury was also read, apjjointing Clement Crook, 
Esq., as a Receiver of the Casual Revenue by warrant. 

December 7. A Comt of Exchequer to sit and 
settle about the sums due from the late Mr. Richard 
Buckeridge, the Receiver and Collector of Customs. 

John Lucas to be Chief Baron, and Isaac Hors- 
ford, Samuel Mai-tin, Thomas Kerby, and Christopher 
Stoodly, Esqrs., to be Barons. 

• Later, M.P. for London, and Lord Mayor 1756. 



1720, July 18. List of Inhabitants of the Leeward Islands. 









Free. 


Servts, free & unfree. 




Men able 








Meu. 


Women 


Boys. 


Girla. Men. Women 


Boys. 


GhTs. 


arms. 


Negros. 




Antigua . 




739 


819 


744 


652 471 140 


45 


42 


1109 


19,186 




Montserrat . 




486 


492 


295 


.320 64 10 


9 


12 


444 


3,772 




Nevis 




331 


426 


206 


312 33 18 


13 


4 


378 


5,689 




S' Christophers 




645 


694 


626 


575 16 54 


28 


15 


755 


7,321 






Christenings & Burials at Antigua 6 Feb. 1715-lC to 18 July 


1720. 


















.Males. 


Females. 
















Chri 


steninfcs . 


230 


223 
















Burials . 


311 


124 


















Exports from Antigua. 


















Gallons 


lbs. of 


lbs. of lbs. of 


lbs. of 


lbs 


of 


gals, of 


gals, of 






Lime Juice. 


Sugar. 


Cotton. Ginger. 


Lignum A'itse 


Fustick. 


Rum. 


Molasses 


25 June to 25 Sep. 1719 








4.114,811 


105,644 27,841 


2,488 






81,366 


52,233 


25 Sep. to 25 Dec. 1719 






335 


495,155 


23,511 1,090 


2,222 






23,422 


6,467 


25 Dec. 1719 to Mar. 1719-20 


, 


1090 


1,184,716 


40,060 




12,000 


39.024 


20.690 


25 Mar. 1720 to 25 June 1 


"20 






6,149,090 


93,495 57,046 








100,152 


61,266 




1425 


11,943,772 


262,710 85,980 


4,710 


12,000 


243,964 


140,656 



During the last two or three years there had 
been much dissension in St. Philip's Parish as to the 
advisability of building a new parish church in the 
centre of the district. The old one stood at Wil- 
loughby Bay by the sea-shore, and no doubt answered 
its purpose in early days, but now the great majority 
of the people lived several miles off, the various 
plantations having become fully settled, and the old 
township at Willoughby Bay, which had but few 
houses, was chiefly used for the shipping of sugars 
to St. John's. 

It does not appear how the Assembly settled this 
controversy, but it is probable that the matter was 
compromised by retaining the old parish church by 
the sea-shore and improving the chapel of ease at 
Belfast for the accommodation of the inhabitants at 
the other side of the parish. The following lists are 



in vol. 16, B. T. Leeward Islands, together with a plan 
of the parish with the names of the owners of the 
estates, also one of Antigua annexed. The proposed 
new central church was to be on the land of Captain 
John King, half-way between Belfast chapel and 
Willoughby Bay old church. 

1720. List of the Parishioners of S' Phillips Parish that are 
for building of the Center Church their Number of 
Acres of Laud and Slaves : — 



The Hon"" Coll" John Frey 
Maj'' William Grear 
Maj"' Anthony Brown 
Cap' John King . 
Cap' John Richards 
Joshua Jones, Esq'' 
M"' Geffery Lyons . 
M' William Lavington . 





Land. 


Slaves 




334 


90 




123i 


60 




158i 


48 




222 


80 




200 


53 




270 


32 




415 


94 




140 


59 



GEORGE I. GEORGE 11. 



xcm 



M'' Obadiah Bradshaw 

Cap' William Monk 

Doct"' Joseph Archbold 

M"' Mark Monk 

M' Thomas Kerby 

M-- Gilbert Garrett . 

M"" George Brown 

M' John Waters 

Cap. John Kerr 

Cap. John Elliot 

For the Center Church 

Against the Center Church 

DifFerance 



1.S6 

70 

27i 
102i 

50 

43i 

27 

20 
286 
2534 



23 

10 

6 

9 

24 
1 
6 

85 
101 



2,81H 
2,2401 



780 
548 



51U 232 



List of the Parishioners of S' Phillips Parish that are against 
The Center Church their Number of Acres of Land and 
Slaves : — 



Cap. William Paynter 

M'' Benj" Wickham 

M' John Lavicount, Sen' 

M"- John Witts 

M.' Tymothy Singau 

M' Joseph Lydeatt 

M"" Joseph Todman 

M"' Thomas Spencer, Jun 

Cap' W" Steele 

M'' John Lavicount, Jun 

M.'' William Steele, Jun 

M' Henry Lowry 

M'^ John Barnard 

M' Jn° Fowler 

M' Jacob Swan 

M' Vail. Keefe 

M' Mart. Laviconnt 

M' Sam'i Lavicount 

W Tymothy Fowler 

W Sam'i Miles 

M'' John Delanay 

M' George Hyde 

M'' Peter Adgett 

M"^ John Baker 

M' Charles Golding 

Jn" Pbilpott 

John Brooks 

Henry Swan 

Corn. Maloou 



M^ 
M-- 
M^ 
M^ 



Brought over 



Nonsuch. 
M'' Barth" Applegate 
M' Symon Albiston 
Sam" Amonnett . 
Richard Bowen . 
Benj* Barnes 
Thomas Elmes . 
James Echterlony 
Hugh Jones 
Daniell Manehan 
Ambrose Marchant 
William Prynn . 
Edward Poskins 
Francis Paw 
John Pike . 
William Rice 
Den' Sullivan 
Thomas Stevenson 
Robert Toft 
Peter Wilcox 
John Williams . 



Land. 

110 
480 
64 
98 
83 
150 
20 
16 
80 
54 

80 
20 
30 
29 
10 
13 
13 

36 
30 
10 
60 
10 
30 
20 
20 



Slaves. 
40 
100 
18 
39 
31 
30 
11 

1 
11 
17 

1 
15 

7 
20 



1,566 
674i 



15 
10 
10 
32i 
34i 
70 
20 
10 
20 
20 

1301- 
23 
10 
20 
10 
10 
15 
94 
37i 
10 



2 
3 
6 
2 
8 
1 
3 
2 
4 



387 
161 



2,2404 548 



5 
4 

12 
6 

28 
1 
2 
7 
7 

18 
2 
2 

13 
1 
3 

20 

15 
2 

1 



3i'i 


6 


10 


3 


20 


3 


10 


— 


6744 


161 



John Wallis 
John Coleburn . 
William Reynolds 
Godfry Ellis 



By Act of 20 February 1721 the Body Ponds 
•were declared to be public, paths to them were 
ordered to be laid out by a jury, and persons were 
forbidden to cut timber within thirty feet of the 
edge. These particular ponds are stated to have 
yielded fresh and wholesome water when other 
bodies of fresh waters had become dried up. 

1721, May 9. John Hart was this day nominated 
by the King to be the new Captain-General, and on 
May 11 direction was given that his commission was 
to be at once prepared and Hamilton's revoked. 

July. The English and French Governors sign an 
agreement for mutual aid in the destruction of pirates. 

December 19. John Hart, Esq., the new Captain- 
General, arrived this day after a seven weeks' 
voyage. He appointed William Mathew, Esq., the 
Lieut. -General, to be Lieut. -Governor of Nevis, as 
well as of St. Kitts, in the place of Colonel Michael 
Smith, who had recently died in London. 

Andrew Kingston, commander of the " Lloyd " Galley, 
carrying 12 Guns & 18 Men, wrote on 24 April from S' 
Christophers : — " I was on the 26"' of March about four 
Leagues from Antegoa : they fir'd at me, being Pirates, one 
a Ship of 3G Guns, 250 Men, and 50 Negroes, the other a 
Brigantine of 18 Guns, 46 Men, and 20 Negroes : These I 
could not withstand." . . . . " PS. At this Place are several 
Pirates in Prison, which run away with Merchant-Ships 
Boats from Antegoa, and were taken at Santa Cruz, an 
Island not inhabited : Its thought they will not be hang'd, 
which makes a great many Pirates about these Islands." 

(' Historical Register,' p. 247.) 
1721-22, Jan. 1. New Sessions. 



Justices taking 

the election. 

Mich' Arnald, Esq. 



Ashton Warner, Esq. 

Giles Watkins, Esq. 

Geo. Thomas, Esq. 
Hon. Nath. Crump, Esq. 

Sam. Parry, Esq. 

Geo. Lucas, Esq. 

Hum. Osborn, Esq. 

Jas. Weatheril, Esq. 

Jn" Gunthrop, Esq. 

Bap. Loobey, Esq. 

Jn" Burton, Esq. 



Persons elected. 
Tho. Freeman, Esq. 
Chas. Dunbar 
Jn° Burk 
Barth. Sanderson 
Ashton Warner 
Rich. Oliver 
Jacob Morgan ( 

W"' Mackinen f 

Geo. Thomas 
Jn° Wickham. 
Jn" Kerr 
Jn° Duer 
Jn° Lightfoot 
Bap. Loobey 
Hen. Osborn 
Hum. Osborn 
Isaac Horsford 
Isaac Royall { 

Jas. Weatheril ) 

Jn° Gunthrop | 

Rich. Ash I 

Joshua Jones 
Jn° Richards 
Sam. Martin 
Jn° Roe 



For what place 
elected. 



. S' Johns Town. 



S' Johns Division. 

Dickinsons Bay. 

Five Islands. 
[ Belfast. 

} Old North Sound. 

> Willoughby Bay. 

( Falmouth & Ren- 
i dezvous Bay. 

Popeshead. 

New North Sound. 



Nonsuch. 



I Old Road & Ber- 
/ mudian Valley. 

Hon. Ashton Warner chosen Speaker 7iem. con. 

1721-22, Jan. 2. Jn° Roe declared to have been unduly 
elected for Old Road, & Tho. Freeman to be the member. 

By the 32" Royal Instruction the annual salary of 
£700 St. hitherto paid to the Capt.-Gen' out of the 44 per 
cent, duty, is to be increased by £500 St., & £200 st. a year 
is to be paid to each of the L*-Gov". Any extra sums voted 
to the Governor must be settled by the 1" Assembly called. 

Jan. 8. The meetings of the Ass'y having always been 
held in taverns, it is now thought fiHvjoob'e '■b"'- - h],ecial 
house shall be treated for, & it is stated that M'" Dayley'a 
can be rented for £100 a year, also Col. Jas. Nisbitt's. 



XCIV 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Jan. 29. The Ass'J sits from 9 to 2 p.m. £1200 c. per 
annum is voted to Gov' Hart, to begin from 2.5 Mar. 1723, 
& £1000 a year till then. He appears to have been dis- 
satisfied with this sum, but on 1 Feb. he finally agreed to 
accept £1500 a year, which was to be raised by a tax of 
3/6 per ton & 3 per cent, on goods imported. A cistern 
was ordered to be built at Barnacle Point Guard House. 

1722. Present prices of produce at Antigua : — 
Sugar . . . .18/- per 100 lbs. 
Rum . . . .18'' per gallon. 
Molasses . . . . 9'' „ „ 
Black ginger . . .15/- per 100 lbs. 
Scraped ,, . . . 50/- ,, „ 
White cotton . . . 8^ „ lb. 
Yellow „ . . . 7'' „ „ 

May 3. Col. Jeremiah Blizard the Coroner is paid for 
sitting on 39 bodies, at £3 2s. 6d. each. 

1722-23, Jan. 10. M"' Hen. Warner is appointed 
powder-ofiicer. 

Feb. 12. Nath. Gilbert is returned for Old North 
Sound & Jn" Parry, Esq., for Nonsuch. 

Captain Nath' Uring with the colonists sent by the 
Duke of Montague to colonise S' Lucia having been com- 
pelled to capitulate to the French retired to Antigua. He 
had with him but 80 men able to bear arms. (Southey.) 

1723, May 25. The Assembly ofi'er .3/6 a ton for a year to 
Gov'' Hart, which he refused to accept, and dissolved the 
House on the 27"' inst. for not complying with H.M. 
instructions. 



1723, June 11. New Sessions. 



Hon. Edw. Warner, Esq. Hum. Osborn, Esq' 
Geo. Lucas, Esq' 



Ashton Warner, Esq. 
Jas. Nisbitt, Esq' 

Hon. Arch. Cochran 
Col. Jn° Gunthorp 
Sam. Watkins, Esq. 
Isaac Royall, Esq. 
Col. Geo. Lucas 
Cap. Jn" Burton 

Col. Geo. Lucas 
Jn" Kerr, Esq. 



Ashton Warner, Esq' 
Rich. Oliver, Esq' 
Jn° Burk, Esq' 
Chas. Dunbarr, Esq' 
Chr. Stoodley, Esq' 
Hopefor Bendall, Esq' 
Tho. Freeman, Esq' 
Nath. Gilbert, Esq' 
Fra. Carlile, Esq' 
Jn" Gunthorp, Esq' 
Jac. Morgan, Esq' 
.las. Weatherill, Esq' 
Isaac Royall. Esq' 
Tho. Jarvis. Esq' 
Hen. Osborn. Esq' 
Hen. Lyons, Esq' 
Sam. Martin, Esq' 
Sam. Fry, Esq' 
James Gamble, Esq' 
Joshua Jones, Esq' 
Jn° Parry, Esq' 
Jn" King, Esq' 
Jn° Lightf oot. Esq' 



Falmouth. 
! S' Johns. 



l«. 



S' Johns Town. 



Old North Sound. 
New North Sound. 
Dickinsons Bay. 
Popeshead. 
Willoughby Bay. 



1 Old Road & Ber- 
I mudian Valley. 
Five Islands. 



Nonsuch. 
Belfast. 



Ashton Warner was chosen Speaker. 

Sam. Martin & Sam. Fry are declared unduly elected & 
Jn° Burton & Fra. Burton, Esqrs., take their places. 

June. Jn° Kerr to take the place of Jn° Lightfoot 
unduly elected. 

July 23. Mr. Wavell Smith, the new Secretary- 
General, has lately an-ived. Thomas FreemECn, 
Joshua Jones, and Richard Oliver of the Assembly, 
to join with certain members of the Council and to 
form a Committee for inspecting the records in the 
Secretary's office. 

August 7. Wavell Smith, Secretary-General, and 
Patrick Crawford, Provost-Marshal-General, present 
their patents under the Great Seal, both dated 
29 July last at St. Kitts, and take the oaths. 

September 3. Order passed for £12 to Jacob 
Eustin for chains for Finan the pirate, whose body 
is now hanging at Rat Island. Order for £8 Is. 6d. to 
Anthony Gan-at for gallows. Petition of Francis 
Delatroide for payment of Jll for dining 24 jurymen, 



of whom Richard Oliver was foreman, at the trial of 
the pirates. 

September 13. Henry Warner, clerk to the 
Board of Officers, is paid £18 15s. or 3000 lbs. for 
one year's salary. 

List of vessels drove ashore during the late dreadful 
hurricane of 19 & 20 Sep. : — 

At S' Johns Harbour, 7 ships, 6 snows, 7 briganteens, 2 
schooners, & 6 sloops. 

At Falmouth, 1 ship. 

At Parham, 2 ships & 4 sloops. 

6 ships, 2 snows, 3 briganteens, 1 schooner, & 1 sloop 
rode out the storm. 

H.M. Ships "Hector" & "Winchilsea" at English 
Harbour received no damage. 

October 4. Wavell Smith writes that Governor 
Hart has removed with his family to St. Kitts and is 
at variance with the Assembly of Antigua. 

October 18. Colonel Humphry Osborne, repre- 
sentative for Falmouth, is dead. William Furnell, 
merchant, who lost a cargo worth £1300 on board the 
" Joanna " by the late storm in St. John's Harbour, 
petitions for remission of duty. 

Antigua October 22'', 1723. 

Wee the underwritten being appointed as a Committee 
to receive Proposals for the building a New Magazine, have 
accordingly mett and Richard Oliver Esq"^ being willing to 
undertake the same, has proposed to us the building one of 
Twenty two feet high from the water Table to the projection 
of the Arch, The side walls to be three feet and half thick, 
to be arched with Brick nine Inches, and a Wall to be over 
the Brick to make the Arch Three feet thick and to be 
tarrassed over, and all other things to be compleatly done 
according to an Estimate delivered herewith, which M'' 
Oliver proposes to do for Three hundred pounds cash to be 
paid as soon as the new magazine is finished and M'' Oliver 
to have the Old Magazine and the Land belonging to it, 
delivered to him to dispose off as he shall think proper 
which land we believe to be half a proportion or there- 
abouts. 

John Frye. 

Francis Carlile. 

John Burke. 
The above was the outcome of a resolution arrived at on 
13 Sept. at a meeting of the Ass'>', when it was recorded 
that " M'' Oliver a member of this House has proposed the 
undertaking to build a Publick Magazine for powder." 

November 9. George Thomas returned for Fal- 
mouth vice Colonel Humphry Osborne, deceased. 
Petition of John Chapman, Commander of the ship 
" Francis," driven ashore during the late storm in St. 
John's Harbour, whereby he lost £700. Begs for 
remission of the 3 per cent. tax. 

November 15. The new Assembly voted the 
Governor £600 currency for the repair of his house 
which suffered by the late hurricane, and £1000 
currency for his support. John Parry resigns his 
seat. Arthur Dabson, Esq., Deputy-Provost-Marshal, 
says that the prison is in such bad repair that the 
prisoners can go in and out as they like. 

November 26. By a royal proclamation all officers 
are to renew their commissions under Governor 
Hart. The Hon. William Byam records his protest 
that by the royal instructions the first Assembly 
must always pass an Act for the Governor's mainten- 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



xcv 



ance, and not a second one as in the present case. 
Charles Dunbar is Surveyor-General of the Customs. 
Wavell Smith and Richard Oliver, Esqrs., are sworn 
as J.P.'s. 

November 26. The following to join the Troop : — 



Tho. Stevens. 
Vict. Looby. 
Jn" Bryan. 
Edw. Morgan. 
Abraham Picart 
De Laferte. 



Jacob Morgan, Esq. Benj. Joyce. 

Geo. Thomas, Esq. Joiiath. Hill. 

Gilb. Fleming, Esq. W" Grimes. 

Peter Adams. W™ Hood. 

Peter Hazell. Ja° Delap. 

Hugh Holmes. W" Nugent. 

Dec. 2. Timothy Singin, Tho. Nicholas, Steph. Blizard, 
to join Col. Warner's troop of Carabiniers. 

Dec. 9. A new gaol to be erected. Licence of absence 
under the great seal granted to M'' Patrick Crawford, 
Provost-Marshal of the Leeward Islands. 

Dec. 12. The following gentlemen were sworn as pond- 
wardens : — 



Jn° Parry 
Rob. Bryant 
Jn" Kerr 
Nath. Gilbert 
Jas. Parke, Esq" 



Geo. Thomos 
For Jn" Gunthorpe 

Falmouth Is' Royall 
Precincts. Fra. Carlile 

Chr. Stoodley, Esq'" _ 



For S' Johns 
Division. 



Cei'tain young Traders & others having been utterly 
ruined by gamblers & swindlers, an Act was passed on 
2 Dec. 1723 for their protection : by which any player 
winning by fraud at cards, dice, billiards, tables, tenuis, 
bowls, skittles, shovel-board, nine-pins, cock-fighting, horse 
races, dog matches, or foot races, would foifeit treble win- 
nings, i of which would go towards fortifications & ^ to the 
loser. No person might win over £7 within the 24 hours 
without incurring the like fine. 

Great numbers of slaves having taken advantage of the 
lenity of the laws & fled to the mountains, whence they 
issued in armed bands to damage the plantations, an Act 
was passed on 9 Dec. 1723 for their better government. 
Their ring-leaders were attainted of felony & a reward of £3 
■was payable for each runaway killed & £6 if captured alive. 
The full value of such slaves killed to be paid their owners. 
Christmas day & the 2 following days were to be holidays 
for all slaves .during which time it was customary to declare 
martial law. 

1723-4, Jan. 23. It is decided that the Attorney-Gen' 
shall always receive 42/ cash for his opinion. W™ Mackinen 
returned for Dickinsons Bay v. Jac. Morgan. Many of the 
troops hare died owing to their irregular way of living. 
The Council of Officers passed a resolution to have Dragoons, 
that the soldiers should have bayonets & every officer appear 
■with a half pike & sash. 

January 27. It was decided that "a breviatt 
field officer " has a right to sit and vote at a general 
court-martial. The Governor appointed Major James 
Weatherill and Major John Tomlinson, Junior, his 
Aides-de-camp. 

February 13. It is ordered that 100 of the Duke 
of Montagu's servants, who have been a great while 
in the Leeward Islands, shall be offered £15 a head 
if they will agree to sign Indentures for two and three 
quarter years or more, and to have each one pair of 
shoes and 10 yards of oznabrigs. Mr. William John- 
son agreed to build a gaol upon Major Eichard 
Oliver's plan for £900, and a magazine for £200, 
which was accepted. 

February 17. The Speaker to collect the laws for 
publication, towards which £500 was voted. 

March 10. £40 a year is to be paid to the free 
school at Parham, where the Council and Assembly 
and all Courts of Law are held for Falmouth Division. 



The population and produce of the Island for the 
past year is thus estimated : — 

Whites (of all ages) . 5,200 

White Men . . 1,400 

Blacks (of all ages) . 19,800 

Sugar . . . 12,000 hogsheads 

Eum .... 4,000 (? puncheons) 

Molasses . . . 850 

Cotton . . . 200,000 lbs. 

Ginger . . . 200,000 lbs. 
(1724 ?) March 27. Michael Ayon petitions, that he 
was wounded in the defence of Gov Parke, that he lost 
£1000, that he attended here for the prosecution 5 years & 
was only paid 5/ a day. Hopes for some compensation for 
his losses & charges. Ordered £100 a year pension during 
pleasure. (America and West Indies, No. 552.) 

The Duke of Montagu had recently attempted a settle- 
ment at S' Lucia with 180 persons mostly indentured of 
whom many deserted, & the remainder having capitulated 
to the French were sent on to Antegoa. 

1724, April 8. William Reynolds, a poor man, 
petitions the Assembly that Mr. Secretary Smith 
has charged him 14s. or 15s. instead of 3s. 9c?. 
Wavell Smith is reprimanded and referred to the 
legal docket of fees settled by Governor Codrington 
in 1703. 

May 12. Mr. William Johnson is appointed 
Clerk to the Assembly vice Mr. Henry Walker 
resigned. 

August 3. It was ordered that no person should 
cut down timber within thirty feet of public ponds.* 

November 26. The Council in their address to 
Governor Hart remind him that in three years he 
has received from the Island £4300 in specie, that 
no former Governor received as much in five years ; 
they now ofPer him a house or £400 a year, but 
refuse to pass the Act of Settlement. 

December 5. Governor Hart replies that £4300 
currency is equivalent to £2860 sterling, and out of 
that his servants' wages are £200 a year ; he will for 
the future reside on another island. 

December 11. The Council answer that Governor 
Hamilton lived in the same house at £40 a year rent, 
and had no estate here, and they had twenty-five 
years' experience of him. They have had three good 
seasons and discharged £15,000 of old debts, but there 
is still due £2318 currency to Mr. JohnDenew of the 
"Mary" galley, o-wing since 1705-6, with interest 
at ten per cent., also £1363 currency to the estate of 
the late General Hamilton and £571 to William 
Nevine, Esq. 

Gov' Hart reports that the Inhabitants of Antigua sail 
9000 tuns of shipping. The annual produce for export 
calculated on the mean for 7 years is 12,000 hhds. sugar, 
4000 of rum, 850 hhds. molasses, 200,000 lbs. cotton, 
200,000 lbs. ginger, no indigo. There are 5200 whites & 
19,800 blacks, 1400 Militia. Taxes on 55,000 acres of 
manurable land. Cost of government £6500. 3 Mihtia 

* Antigua -was formerly covered with forest, nearly all of 
which had been cleared for sugar planting. That the indiscriminate 
destruction of trees was considered to be an eril is proved by the 
above order from the Assembly, and their retention in the 
immediate neighbourhood would naturally retard the evaporation 
of water from the ponds. Whether or not the establishment of 
woods on waste hill-tops at Antigua would attract rain may be left 
to specialists to say, but there can be no doubt that they would help 
to retain in the soil what rain fell. 



XCVl 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Reg'' of foot & 1 troop of Carabiniers. Col. Rich. Lucas 
has 10 companies of regular troops each of 32 effectives. 

December 23. The Members of Assembly agree 
to remit for the future their pay of Ga. a day. 

1725, July 6. Their Lordships received a petition 
against Governor Hart from the merchants trading 
to the Leeward Islands. 

Captain Francis Cooper of H.M.S. " Lynn " and 
Captain Artlmr Del Garno of H.M.S. " South Sea 
Castle " having reported that English Harbour 
might be made a very proper place for careening and 
refitting, and so save H.M. ships the trouble of going 
to the Northern Colonies for that purpose, an Act 
was passed 25 September 1725 granting twenty acres 
to the King, on which wharfs, magazines, and store- 
houses might be erected for the use of the men-of- 
war of the Leeward Islands Squadron. 

Between 20 December 1721 and 25 December 
1725, 5600 negros were imported in forty-four vessels. 

(Southey.) 
1725-6. Governor Hart appoints Francis Carlile 
to the Council vice Colonel John Hamilton, deceased. 
January 3. John Roe, Esq., is appointed a 
Puisney Judge of the Court of K.B. and C.P. 

Mr. Robert Oliver was returned for Nonsuch vice 
Mr. John Parry. 

William Johnson is sworn in as Master and 
Examiner in Chancery, and Edward Chester and 
Nathaniel Crump, jun., as J.P.'s. 

January 6. Colonel Crump is dying, and the 
Governor recommends Edward Chester for a seat at 
the Council. 

January 10. St. Peter's Parish having been found 
to be too extensive, the western portion was by Act 
erected into a separate parish called St. George. 
The Chapel of Ease with its burial-ground situate at 
Fitches Creek was to be used as a parish church, the 
new rector whereof would enjoy the customary fees 
and salai'y. 

March 11. A general fast ordained for drought. 
1726. Mr. Gilbert Fleming had recently pur- 
chased the office of Deputy-Secretary at Antigua 
from Mr. Knight for ±200 a year. 

May 20. Gov"' Hart writes that " Antigua is in a most 
deplorable Condition from the Dry weather, which has 
Continued for Eight j\Iouths past, there having been no 
Rain fallen there till within this three Days. So that they 
have not only lost their Crop for this Year and the next ; 
But they have been oblig'd to bring all their Water from 
Guadaloupe and Mountserrat ; which was Sold at fifteen 
shillings a Hogshead which has occasioned the loss of many 
of the Cattle and Negroes." 

4633 Negi'os were imported between 20 Dec. 1721 & 
25 Dec. 172G. 

May 23. Thanksgiving ordered for rain. 
July 23. A platform and magazine to be built 
at English Harbour. 

September 20. George Lucas presents his man- 
damus and takes his seat at the Council. George 
Byam appointed Treasurer vice Thomas Kerby who 
■wishes to resign. 

1726-7, January 25. Thomas Kerby, Esq., John 
Williams, Archibald Hamilton, and Thomas Shep- 
hard to join Troop. 



March 3, Captain John King and Mr. Pare to 
serve in the Troop. 

March 10. Patrick Crawford, Esq., presents his 
patent as Provost-Marshal-General. 

1727, June 2. The Earl of Londonderry has been 
nominated Captain-General of the Leeward Islands, 
and his commission is to be drawn up. 

June 24. General Mathew wrote that Colonel 
Hart embarked on the 14th inst. for London, and 
that he daily expects the Earl of Londonderry. 

September 30. The proclamation of George II. 
is signed by 103 principal inhabitants of Antigua. 
(All original signatures Vol. 19, B.T. Leeward 
Islands.) 

Christenings & Burials Michaelmas 1726 to Mich. 1727. 
Christening's. Burials. 
S' Marys .15 12 Jas. Knox, Rector. 

S- Georges . 4 3 Tho. Allen, Curate, 

S' Pauls . 9 9 Tho. Allen, Rector. 

S' Johns . 69 66 Tho. Allen, Curate. 

S' Phillips . 9 8 Sam" Orr, Rector. 

S' Peters .10 12 Sam" Saunders, Rector. 

From 25 Mar. 1727 to 20 Nov. 1727, 1658 slaves were 
imported which were sold for £20 per head. 

Petition of Col. John Staunton that S'' Sam. Foxon was 
seized in Antigua of an estate of £300 c. per annum & died 
in 1688 & left 4 sons who were all killed in H.M. Service. 
The last was Col. Tho. Foxon, A.D.C. to Lord Cadogan, 
who was killed by his side at the siege of Mons. leaving 
pef his heir & Ex'or. Complains of the fraudulent sale of 
the plantation by a law of 1692 by the steward of it to the 
said steward's brother for £50. 

(America and West Indies, No. 451.) 

1727, Dec. 11. New Sessions. 
Bj For 

Hon. Geo. Lucas, Esq. Hen. Warner ,E^^; [ Faln^outh Division. 

Jn" Sawcolt, Esq. Ashton Warner, Esq' | „, -, , Division 

Rich. Oliver, Esq' | ^ ''"'^'^^ Uivision. 

Tho. Kerby, Esq. Jn"> Burke, Esq' I 

^tlXX'"' [S' Johns Town. 



Hon. W" Byam, Esq. 

Jn° Gunthorpe, Esq. 

Sam. Watkins, Esq. 

Isaac Eoyall, Esq. 

Hon. Geo. Lucas 

Col. Sam. Martin 

Geo. Thomas, Esq. 
Joshua Jones 

Col° Jn" Kerr 



Nath. Crump, Esq' 

Tho. Freeman, Esq' | 

W" Yeamans, Esq' / 

Fra. Carlisle, Esq' | 

Jn" Gunthorpe, Esq' f 
W" M'Kinnen, Esq' 
Jac. Morgan, Esq' 

Tho. Watkins, Esq' { 

Isaac Royall, Esq' | 

Josiah Martin, Esq' | 

Rich. Ash, Esq' | 
Sam. Martin, Esq' 
Jn" Frye, Esq' 
Geo. Thomas, Esq' 

Joshua Jones. Esq' | 

Sam. Harman, Esq' ) 

Jas. Parke, Esq' / 

Ben. King, Esq' j 



Old North Sound. 
New North Sound. 
■ Dickensons Bay. 
Popeshead. 

Willoughby Bay. 

Old Road & Bermu- 

dian Valley. 
Five Islands. 

Nonsuch. 

Belfast. 



Geo. Thomas was chosen Speaker, W™ Smith Clerk, & 
M'' Jn° Jarvis Messenger. 

December 15. John Yeamans, Esq., now in Lon- 
don, to be Agent. 

1727-8, January 5. Two hundred guineas voted to 
Captain Delgarno for his services in constructing the 
wharf and platform at English Harbour, etc. 

March 2. Hon. William Codrington applies for 
two years' more leave. 

March 23. Lord LondondeiTy announces the 
death of the Hon. Colonel Gamble. 

1728, August 19. The Earl of Londonderry's 
commission was read. George Thomas and Francis 
Carlile take their seats at the Council. The present 
Assembly is to continue. 



GEORGE I. GEOEGE II. 



XCVll 



Antigoa, Aug. 20, 1728. (By the Gold Coast, 
Cap' Tomlinson.) 

Yesterday Noon landed my Lord Londonderry, to his 
great Satisfaction as well as ours, having rid out in our 
Road off the Bar, twenty four Hours Hurricane, in Defiance 
of almost inevitable Death : It has done no Damage to any 
of the Ships here, except one New-English Man, which is 
drove on the Eocks to the Westward of Ratt-Island, and 'tis 
feared will be lost. Some few Sloops were drove on Shore, 
but got safely off again ; and on Shore are several Mills over- 
set, and many others very much damaged. 

(' Historical Register,' vol. xiii., p. 289.) 

September 2. John Gunthorpe, Esq., stated 
that Mr. Stephen Blizard had been returned for New 
North Sound, and George Thomas, Esq , that Mr. 
Robert Freeman was elected for Five Islands. 

Samuel Martin now Speaker. 

September 18. The Earl of Londonderry writes 
to notify his arrival at his seat of government on 19th 
August last, on which day he published his com- 
mission. 

October 11. Ordered that Fort Hamilton be 
completed. 

1728. Imports of sugar into England from Antigua 

for 7 years from X'mas 1721 to X'mas 1728, taken from 
the Inspector Generals Office, Customs House, 16 April 
1730:— 

£ £> 

1721-2 . 80,067 1725-G . 67,678 

1722-3 . 149,361 1726-7 . 96,112 

1723-4 . 119,367 1727-8 . 187,260 
1724-5 . 149,421 

1728-9, January 2. The snow the " Martha and 
Elizabeth," bound to Pennsylvania from London- 
deny, Captain James Willock, commander, with 150 
passengers, has been driven here by stress of 
weather, and they are short of provisions. A supply 
ordered for them. 

February 28. Robert Freeman and Stephen 
Blizai'd, Esqrs., to be Assistant-Justices of the Court 
of K.B. A writ to be issued for St. John's Town on 
account of the death of Mr. Nathaniel Crump. 

The following to join Troop of Carbineers under 
Colonel Gunthorpe : — 

Rob. Martin. Jas. Crawly. Jas. Fleming. 

Jn" Manwaring. Rich. Kirwan. W™ Wood. 

Rich. Oliver. Tho. Brooke. Arth. Dabron. 

Bayer Otto Bayer. Tho. Crafford. Jn" Dun, Jun^ 

W" Paynter, Sen'. Philip Crump. Jn° Harris. 

W™ Smith. Sam. Archibald. Geo. Jenings. 

Rob. Arbuthnot. Tho. Morris. Flem. Ward. 

W" Wickham. W™ Johnson. W™ Richards. 

Rob. Christian. Hen. Warner. Jas. Walker. 

Jn° Jones. Hen. Browne. Edw. Gregory. 

March 6. The following also to join, viz. : — 

Jn" Cheny. Jas. .Senegate. Jn° Hamilton. 
Jonas Langford, Rob. Glover, Sen. Jn" Nibbs, son of 
Jun''. Jn" Nibbs, mill- Jer. Nibbs, de- 
John Libert. wright of New ceased. 
W"° Richards. North Sound. 

March 8. Several of Colonel Crump's slaves 
found guilty of conspiracy were executed. 

March 20. Thomas Stephens returned for St. 
John's Town. 

1729, March 25. George Jennings takes the oaths 
as a Master and Examiner in Chancery and Notary 
Public. 



April 26. Ashton Warner now Speaker vice 
Samuel Martin, who has gone to England. Robert 
Arbuthnot sworn in as a Judge of the Court of 
Admiralty. The King's soldiers are paid 2s. per 
diem besides their diet. 

April 29. Richard Lucas, Esq., Colonel of the 
King's regiment, has been found guilty of corrupt 
practices in defrauding the men of their pay. 

Sep. 12. Dy'd in the Island of S' Christopher's, Thomas 
Pitt of Woodcote in the County of Dorset, Earl of London- 
derry in the Kingdom of Ireland, Governor and Captain- 
General of the Leeward Islands. 

(' Historical Register,' p. 53.) 

September 14. General William Mathew writes 
to their Lordships from St. Kitts that His Excellency 
the Earl of Londonderry died there on the 12th inst., 
that Petitioner had been in the second post of this 
Government for fourteen years, and hopes they will 
nominate him as Captain-General. 

Oct. 18. About this Time came Advice of the Death of 
Capt. John Smith, Commander of his Majesty's Ship the 
" Saphire," who dy'd at Antigua the 19"" of August last. 

(' Historical Register,' p. 58.) 

November 12. John Burk, merchant, petitions 
on behalf of Peter Papillon of Boston, merchant, re 
the sloop " Catherine." 

November 22. George Lord Forbes' commission 
as Captain-General is ordered by the King to be 
drawn iip. The Assembly has already spent £1250 
sterling at English Harbour. (£900 currency=£600 
sterling.) 

November 26. Stephen Blizard is appointed 
Judge of the Court of Admiralty. 

December 3. Draft commission for Lord Forbes 
to be Captain-General of the Leeward Islands. 

In a manuscript account of St. Lucia prepared 
for their Lordships it is stated that Sir Thomas 
Warner settled the West Indies in 1626, and 
appointed Major Judge Deputy-Governor of St. 
Lucia. All the Islands were in 1627 granted to th& 
Earl of Carlile, who settled St. Lucia in 1635 and 
1637 by English from Bermuda, and in 1638 by a 
colony from St. Kitts, and in 1640, 1644, and 1645 
by people from Barbados. Reference is made to the 
' History of Pere du Tertre,'* printed in Paris 1667,, 
also to Purchas' ' Travels ' and Pere Labat'sf 
' History.' 

Dec. 5. Many Merchants at London petition against the 
payment of so large a salary to the Gov^ They state that 
the former salary of the Capt.-Gen' was £700 st. a year- 
which was increased in 1704 by £500 to £1200. GoV 
Hart in 1721 received in addition £1500 a year settled on 
him by Antigua, £2000 a year by S' Christophers & £500 a 
year by Montserrat. Lord Londonderry received in 1728 
£1500 a year from Antigua, £500 a year from Nevis, £2000 
a year from S' Christophers & £600 a year from Mont- 
serrat. All which is about thrice the value of the salary paid 
by the Crown. This state of things impoverishes the- 
Islands. 

* 'Histoire Generate des Antilles habitees par les franoois,' 
5 vols., 4to, printed at Paris 1667. 

t 'Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de I'Amerique,' 2 vols., 4to^ 
printed at the Hague 1724. 



XCVlll 



THE HISTORY OE ANTIGUA. 



1729. List of Inhabitants at Antigua. 





White Inhabitants 




Free 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


persons 


136 


83 


53 


59 


8 


102 


78 


62 


42 


31 


108 


80 


23 


39 


83 


148 


87 


59 


71 


12 


110 


86 


45 


57 


6 


35 


37 


21 


20 


13 


74 


64 


47 


46 


26 


95 


53 


35 


44 


79 


32 


17 


7 


1 


23 


26 


11 


8 


5 


4 


59 


47 


35 


33 


70 


21 


8 


6 


7 


1 


391 


445 


162 


137 


175 


1337 


1096 


563 


561 


531 



449 


1726-7 


. 2183 


584 


1727-8 


. 1365 


430 


1728-9 


. 284G 



Division. 
Old North Sound . 
New North Sound 
Nonsuch 
S' Johns 
Falmouth 
Popeshead 
Belfast . 

Bermudian Valley 
Dixsons Bay . 
Willoughby Bay . 
Old Road 
Five Islands . 
S' Johns Town . 



During the nine years 1721 — 1729 there were at 
St. John's 568 christenings and 1025 burials. 

Between 5 January 1726-7 and 5 January 1729-30 
the value of alcoholic liquors imported amounted to 
£8788, which included 2668 pipes of Madeira and 
9987 dozen of beer. 

The following slaves were imported : — 

1720-1, Dec. 25 251 1725-6 . 1645 

1721-2 . 
1722-3 . 
1723-4 . 
1724-5 . 

1729-30, January 26. Mr. Nevine the late Agent. 

1730, May 20. A new seal for the Leeward 

Islands to be struck with this inscription : — 

" GEORGIUS II. D.G. MAG. BRI. FR. ET HIB. REX. F.D. 
BRUN. ET LUN. DUX. S.R. T. ARC. TH. ET PR. EL." 

August 24. Jacob Thibou returned for St. John's 
Town vice Christopher Stoodly resigned. 

An Act was passed on 24 August confirming the 
" constant and antient usage of this Island," by 
which, for the prevention of concealment of crimes, 
the value of slaves executed for felonies was paid 
out of the Treasury to their owners. 

On 8 December 1730 an Act was passed appoint- 
ing for the use of the gimners and matrosses all that 
twenty-five acres at St. John's Point which Colonel 
James Vaughan granted to His Majesty by deed 
dated 12 October 1680, and on which James Fort 
had been built. 

1731, Antigua, March 28. There is a great want of 
Rain, little Sugar, and many Ships waiting for it ; and if 
Rain dont fall, there ■will be no Crop next year. The young 
€anes are much burnt. The Crops are very short at Nevis 
and Mountserrat. The. Ponds are almost dry : and Water so 
scarce, that a Pail of Cistern- Water is sold for 3«. 

('Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 219.) 

May 11. Draft commission for William Cosby 
to be Captain-General and revocation of that to 
Lord Forbes. 

June. Letters from all parts of the West Indies mention 
a great Drought, and particularly at Antigua, at which Place 
a Pail of Water, containing about 3 gallons, had been Sold 
at 7s. that Country Money, or 4s. 8d. Sterling. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 265.) 

July 2. Lieut. -General William Mathew having 
gone home, Michael Smith, President of Nevis, is 
now Commander-in-Chief. 

July 14. Colonel Edward Jessup now Provost- 
Marshal. 

July 26. The Antiguan merchants complain 
that the illicit trade carried on between Boston and 



Rhode Island with the French Islands is very detri- 
mental to them. 

October 9. William Smith is appointed powder 
officer. 

December 2. The practitioners of physic having 
done no duty for a long time are to attend as 
follows : — 



D' Crump 
D' Williams 
D' Cressy 
D' Lavington 
D' TuUideph 
D' Husband 
D' Young 



D' Buckthorne ) 



D' Sydserfe 
D' Boyle 
D' Carron 
D' Michaelson 
D' Mignan 
D' Sheffield 
B' Webb 
D' Scott 
T>' Dunbar 
D' Archbould 
D' Boylestone 
D' Cbardovoine 
D' Pringle 
D' Turnbull 



To attend the Chief Gov'. 
To attend Col. Crump's Reg'. 
To attend the Gov''" Reg'. 
To attend Col. Sawcolts Reg'. 
To attend the Troop. 



1 



■ To attend as Troopers to be summoned. 



To choose where they will appear whether 
in Foot or Horse in the space of one 
month. 



December 10. Robert Weir is now Colonel of 
the Forts. 

1732, June 5. Drs. George Crump and Walter 
Sydserfe certify as to the fitness of Mr. James Pemble 
to practise surgery, etc., and he is accordingly 
licensed. 

June 26. John Morris, Esq., takes his seat at 
the Council. 

August 10. John Duer, Esq., takes his seat at 
the Council, and Joseph Buckshorn is returned for 
Falmouth vice Henry Warner, deceased. Josiah 
Martin writes to the Speaker tendering his resigna- 
tion. 

Sep. 4. 

Rob. Addison. 
Pat. Cusack. 
Nich. Poor. 
Sam. Brooke. 



Sam. Lyons. 

Jn° Marlow Jeffer- 



son. 
Steph. Baker 



Dav. Tullideph. 
Hen. Bonnin. 
Chas. Goor, tojoin 
Troop. 



September 26. Two of the oldest Council books 
are in such bad order that they must be transcribed. 

October 18. Black scurvy, which is on theincrease, 
is contagious, and has attacked several white families. 

The Moravian Brethren sent missionaries to Antigua to 
preach the gospel. (Southey.) 

1732-3, February 4. William Yeamans resigns 
his seat for Old North Sound. 



Sam. Meyers. 
Ephraim Jordain. 
Tbo. Turner. 



March 10. 
Mich. Lovell. .... Chardavoine, 

Sam. Redhead. to join Troop. 

Jn" Stephens. 

1733, April 3. Draft commission to be pre- 
pared for William Mathew, Esq., to be Captain- 
General, etc. 

May 23. John Murray, Esq., who is going to 
England, resigns his seat. 

October 31. His Excellency William Mathew's 
commission as Captain- General was read. 

By a Bill passed this year in the House of Commons it 
was enacted that " After 25 Dec. 1733, 9d. per Gallon is to 
be paid for Rum and Spirits made in the American Planta- 
tions not belonging to his Majesty, on Importation to the 
British Plantations ; 6^. per Gallon for Molasses and 
Syrups ; and 5s. per C. weight for Sugar and Paneles, to be 
paid in British Money. No Sugars, Paneles, Syrups, or 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



XCIX 



Molasses of the British Plaatations to be imported into Ire- 
land, unless shipped in Great Britain. Duties paid for 
Sugar or Paneles imported from the British Plantations after 
24 June 1733, to be repaid on Exportation within the year. 
An Allowance of 2s. per C. Weight moi-e than formerly to 
the Exporter for Sugars refined in Great Britain. Sugars 
may be imported from the Spanish or Portuguese Dominions 
as formerly. ('Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 257.) 

English Harbour being " by nature a port of the 
utmost safety " against hurricanes, etc., the Legisla- 
ture had built a wharf there, also a fort at the 
entrance, and His Majesty had caused storehouses to 
be erected besides supplying cannon and warlike 
stores. In return for which favours an Act was 
passed 8 February 1733 providing for the construction 
of two brick cisterns 40 feet by 10 feet by 10 feet, as 
also a platform of 100 feet square for conveying 
water into them for the purpose of furnishing good 
water to H.M.'s ships. Charles Alexander, Gent., 
was appointed Commissioner of the Works, and Tho- 
mas Kerby, John Bui-ke, Jacob Thibou, Richard 
Oliver, and Edward Chestei-, Esqrs., were nominated 
a sub-committee by the House of Assembly for pur- 
chasing materials. 

1734, April 8. Colonel John Burton to be gunner 
at Monk's Hill on account of his misfortunes and good 
service. 

April 27. Edward Thomas, Esq., is sworn as 
Collector at Parham. 

May 9. Carried unanimously by the Assembly, 
that Mr. Secretary Wavell Smith had exceeded the 
fees as settled by General Codrington in 1703, 

June 5. Petition of William Smith, Esq., Clerk 
of the Assembly, for a year's salary amounting to 
£102. 

The powder duty for the 10 years, 1725—1734, 
amounted to 74,753 lbs. or £4179. The public taxes 
for the like period were £61,932. 



There were this year 377 



whites and 24,408 
(Southey.) 



negros. 

1734, July 2''. New Sessions. 

Geo. Jenings, Esq. Jn" Burke. Esq' ) 

Tho.Kerby, Esci' '. S' Johns Town. 

Tho. Stephens, Esq' j 

Jac. Thiijou, Esq' ] 

W" M'Kinnen, Esq' | Dickensons Bay 

Jac. Morgan, Esq' | Division. 

Tho. Watkius, Esq' | Popeshead Divi- 

Jonas Langford, Esq' ( siou. 

Jas. Parke, Esq' | 

Ben. King, Esq' | 

Rich. Oliver, Esq' | 

Sam. Byam. Esq' I 

Era. Delap, Esq' 

Hen. Lyons. Esq' 

John Fryp. Esq' 

Kow. Williams, Esq' 



Giles Watkins, Esq. 
Isaac Royall, Esq. 
Hon. Nath. Crump, Esq. 
Geo. Jenings, Esq. 
Hen. Lyons, Esq. 
Hen. Webb, Esq. 

Hen. Webb, Esq. 
Hon. Geo. Lucas 

Hon. Geo. Thomas 

John Lightfoot, Esq. 

Hon. Geo. Lucas 



Belfast Division. 
S' Johns Division. 



I Nonsuch Divi- 

I sion. 

I Old Road Divi- 

I sion. 

T-i /^ti T> •• T? , I Bermudian Valley 
Edw. Otto-Baijer, Esq' , ^^ ^-^^ Islands 

Jos. Buckshorne. Esq' | Falmouth Divi- 

Rol). Freeman. Esq' 

Steph. Blizard, Esq' 

John Tomlinson. Esq' 

Edw' Byam, Esq' 

Nath. Gilbert, Esq'. 

Rob. Christian, Esq' 



I sion. 

/ New North Sound 

I Division. 

I Old North Sound 

I Division. 

I Willoughby Bay 

I Division. 



Tho. Kerby is chosen Speaker. 

July 12. Hen. Douglas elected for Willoughby Bay. 

July 23. A list of guns on the island good & bad. 

Good, 
i: 



Fort James 
Hamilton Fort . 
Dickinsons Bay 

High Point 
Byams Fort 



9 



1 four-pounder bursted. 1200"". 

1 eight-pounder y' muzzle broke. 
2.500"'". 



Mersers Creek . 

Mudrlicove Guard 
Reef Guard 
Pigs Point 
Neck of Land . 
Half Moon Bay 
Williams Fort . 
Chalkhill Point 
Barkley Fort . 
Georges Fort 
Codrington Battery 
Charles Fort . 
Rendezvous Bay 
Old Road Fort . 
Cades Bay 
Johnsons Point 
FuUertons Point 
Hawks Nest Valley 
Galleys Bay 
Cripple Gate 
Train Guns 
Drue's Hill 
W- Nibbs . 
Parham 



Good. 



1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

.5 

2 

12 

33 

r> 

10 
1 
8 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
7 
5 
1 
2 
1 



2 five A: a half pound Sakers spiked 
& honeycombed. 2000"". 



1 Saker has no trunnions. 2000"". 



1 bad. 2200"". 

2 bad 2000 each. 



4000"". 



1 bad four-pounder. 1200"=". 



1 bad. 2000"". 

2 bad Falcons. 1000"='. 

1 bad nine-pounder. 3500"". 



143 in all. 
13 bad. 



130 good. 

August 29. Thomas Watkins, Ste^jhen Blizard, 
and Robert Fi-eeman, Esqrs., are sworn as J.P.'s. 

December 20. William Byam is nominated 
Treasurer vice George Byam, deceased. 

1734-5, January 9. The death of the Hon. Fran- 
cis Carlile is announced. Captain John Harris, store- 
keeper and armourer at Monk's Hill, receives £98 a 
year. 

January 16. Edward Thorn, Robert Lampley, 
Alexander Shuttleworth, William Droope, Mr. Harry 
Webb, John Chalmers, and Vict. Looby to join the 
Troop. 

February 22. All gun-carriages are made here 
of the heart of Black Gregory called white wood. 

March 6. Colonel Nathaniel Gilbert resigns his 
seat. Experience in the late wars in Flanders 
having proved a bayonet to be a very useful weapon, 
it was this year ordered to be used by the Militia by- 
Act of 15 March 1734. 

1735, May 30. Robert Freeman, Esq., Assistant- 
Judge of the Court of K.B., being now so sick John 
Tomlinson is nominated in his jjlace. Hon. Colonel 
Archibald Cochran is granted twelve months' leave. 

June 18. Josiah Martin presented his mandamus 
as a Councillor, dated 9 April 1735, signed by the 
Secretary of State. Samuel Byam resigns his seat 
for St. John's Division. 

July 1. Edward Home returned for Old North 
Sound vice Nathaniel Gilbert. Dr. David Purviance 
is licensed to practise. 

July 5. Robert Freeman and Joseph Buckshorn, 
Esqrs., resign their seats. 

August 16. Black leprosy and joint evil are in- 
creasing so much among the blacks that cases must 
be isolated for the future at Bird Island. 

August 23. Ashton Warner was returned for 
St. John's Division, and Nathaniel Gilbert and John 
Yeamans for Falmouth and Rendezvous Bay. 

December 10. William Richards and Anthony 
Bezune, being too poor to serve in the Troop, are 
dismissed. Mr. Darby's tenements adjoining the 
Guard-house are to be hired for the public, and he is 
paid £200 for two years' rent of the Court-house. 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



W" Read. 
W-" Bird. 
Sam. Morgan. 



Dec. 20. 

Jn° Richardson. 
Hen. Hancock. 
Jas. Mackie. 



Jn" Dnncombft. 

Tho. Hanson, 

to join the Troop. 



1735-6, Jimuarj 16. The j^oor passengers to 
Pennsylvania, whose ship put in here, are to be 
allowed 1 lb. of beef and 1 lb. of bread daily, and 1 lb. 
of butter weekly for three weeks. 

February 11. Dr. John Davis is examined by 
Drs. William Young and Sydserfe, and is duly 
licensed. The Governor reports that there were 
13,917 men between the ages of fourteen and sixty, 
besides 1889 soldiers on the French Caribbee Islands. 

1736, April 30. By His Majesty's decree all 
Surveyors-General of the Customs shall sit and 
vote as ex officio Members of the Council Extra- 
ordinary. 

July 5. Edward Otto-Baijer resigns his seat, as 
he is off to England. 

July 15. John Tomlinson, Esq., one of the Puisne 
Judges, will not further attend, and Giles Watkins 
being incapacitated by old age and imj)aired con- 
stitution and mind Edward Home is appointed. 

Fast ordered for the blast and dry weather. 

July. A printed letter was forwarded to their 
Lordshij)S from a " considerable person at S* Kitts " 
containing complaints of the Governor's doings, and 
stating that he purchased a sloop of Mr. Gerrish in 
1735, armed her, and then captured several French 
sloops within a league of the shore. 

August 3. Dr. William Mercer is licensed. The 
Council report that Secretary Smith has omitted to 
record many administrations, etc., and the Council 
unanimously agree to petition His Majesty through 
their Agent to remove liim. 

October 15. Nathaniel French, Dr. Grant, Owen 
Arnold, Captain Richard Nicholas, and Abraham 
Kedwood to join the Troop ; on 23 October, George 
Francklin, Martin Blake, and Samuel Lavington ; 
and on 15 November, Philip Nibbs, James Watson, 
Dr. Purviance, Mr. Bradford, and Dr. Mercer. A 
writ to issue for St. John's, John Burke being lately 
deceased. 

Extract of a Letter from Antigua, Oct. 24 (1736). 
Here has been a general Stop to all Business, occasion'd 
by the Happy Discovery of an accursed Negro Plot, which 
should have been perpetrated on the 11th Instant, the Anni- 
versary of the Kings Coronation, on which Day the General 
usually gives a handsome Ball to the Gentlemen and Ladies 
of the whole Island, but this was postponed to the 30th 
Instant, upon Account of the Death of the General's Son at 
S' Christopher's some little time ago. This was the only 
preservative of our Lives. The Plot was thus, viz.. One 
Court, a Negro Man, belonging to Thomas Kirby, Esq., was 
the chief Person in this Aifair ; Tomboy, a Negro Man, 
belonging to M'' Thomas Hanston ; and Hercules, a Negro 
Man, belonging to M"' John Christophers, were to have been 
this King Court's Generals, and while the Gentlemen and 
Ladies were diverting themselves at the Ball, which was to 
have been held at M"' Christopher Dunbar's new House, they 
were to convey a great Quantity of Gun-powder into the 
Cellar, and blow the House up : At the same Time this 
King Court, Tomboy and Hercules, were to lead a Party of 
400 Men each, one from the East End of the Town, one 
from Otter's Pasture, and one from Morgan's Pasture, all 



arm'd with Cutlasses, and to fall on all the Whites in the 
Town, Men, Women and Children, without Reserve, at the 
same Time that the House blew up, which was to be a 
genei'al Signal to the other Parts of the Island (for they 
were to look out on several Eminences, which with a Fire 
they were to make at each Place was to convey the Signal 
thro' the Island) ; then the Negroes of each Plantation were 
to rise and destroy all the Whites in their respective 
Districts, and so have made themselves Masters of the whole 
Island. Court, Tomboy and Hercules, being suspected for 
former Crimes and High Misdemeanors, were taken up, and 
after some strict Examination sufficient Cause was found to 
commit them; and still more and more Evidences appearing 
against them, they were at length convicted on the 19th 
Instant at Night. The Day following King Court was 
brought np to the Place of Execution, and so lay basking in 
the Sun for the full Space of an Hour and a Quartei', when 
he begg'd leave to plead, to which the Justices gave their 
Assent, and he acknowledged every Thing, that was 
acknowledged against him, and what his General Tomboy 
had confess'd in Prison the same Morning. At last, about 
Noon, King Court was broke on the Wheel, as were Tomboy 
and Hercules ; Four more were burnt the same Day in 
Otter's Pastui'C, and To-morrow will be 7 more, and so 
many as they can find leading Men in this Plot. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 59.) 
From Antigua, Jan. 15, 173G-7. That they contiuued 
executing the Negroes concerned in the Plot to murder all 
the white Inhabitants of that Island, and subvert the Govern- 
ment ; that G9 had been executed, of whom five (one of 
whom in case they had succeeded was to have been made 
their King) were broke on the Wheel. Six were hung in 
Chains upon Gibbets, and starved to Death (of whom one lived 
nine Nights and eight Days without any sustenance), their 
Heads then cut off and fixed on Poles, and their Bodies 
burnt ; and 58 were at several Times chained to Stakes and 
burnt; and above 130 remain in Prison. {Ibid., p. 187.) 
November 1. John Murray returned vice Burke. 
At Antigua, Monk's Hill Fort, of 30 guns; a fort of 
14 guns at the mouth of St. John's River ('? Harbour) ; 
and seven other batteries for the defence of so many 
landing-places, in all mounted with 26 guns. 

(Southey.) 
November 18. Four Justices sign a warrant for 
seven negros to be burnt at the stake at Otto's 
pasture for conspiracy, one to be hung up alive in 
chains, there to die of famine. 

November 29. Eight more negros to be burnt. 
Frederick Cope, Merrick Turnbull, Charles 
Mathews, and William Dunin to join the Troop. 
The Treasurer to borrow .€500 at ten per cent. 

December 9. The guard at English Harbour is 
in great distress, the allowance of 9d. per diem not 
being sufficient at such a cold post to buy more than 
warm liquor. Rum there costs them 6d. a pint and 
bad sugar 6d. a lb. Ernest Lewis Terticon having 
petitioned for a licence to practise physic, he was 
ordered to lodge with the Secretary his testimonials 
from the Prince of Hanault and the Surgeons' Hall 
in Amsterdam. 

December 20. Twelve more negros condemned 
to death, Benjamin King and John Murray are 
sworn as J.P.'s. 

1736-7, January 8. A negro who stabbed himself 
after his conviction had to be broken on the wheel, 
and ten more were sentenced to death. From various 
depositions from eye-witnesses and informants it 



GEOKGE I. GEORGE II. 



ci 



appears that a very wide-spread plot had been formed 
by the blacks to blow up the house in St. John's 
where the Governor and the principal inhabitants 
were going to attend a ball. Had the plot succeeded 
all the whites on the Island would have been 
massacred. The slaves used to meet at night in the 
woods, and over 2000 of them were present when one 
of their number was crowned king. The conspiracy 
was, however, fortunately discovered in time, and 
prompt and severe measures taken to punish the ring- 
leaders. Up to 24 January 1736-7, 47 slaves had been 
executed and 37 banished, and it was agreed that no 
more should be arrested. By the Island laws all 
slaves executed were paid for by the public, their 
owners being recompensed the full value, so that 
in the present instance the carrying out of justice 
was a great expense to the tax-payers. 

? 1736-7. A letter of recall was sent to Governor 
Mathew, one year's leave granted to Gilbert Fleming, 
and the seals ordered to be handed over to Lieut. - 
Governor Edward Byam. The Governor had been 
accused of making rapacious captures of French 
vessels. 

1737, March 31. Samuel Byam's mandamus as a 
Councillor was dated 12 April 1735, and he takes the 
oaths and his seat this day. 

Complaint is made that the negros which were 
banished in 1729 to the Spanish Coast are still kept by 
Colonel Edward Jessup at his plantation at St. Kitts. 

May 20. Henry Knight was returned vice Colonel 
Jacob Morgan, who resigned. 

July 13. Thomas Kerby the Speaker, about to 
depart for England, resigns, and Stephen Blizard is 
chosen in his place. James Parke resigns his seat. 

1737-8, February 1. The following to join the 
Troop : — 

W"» Byam. Cha. Reed. Geo. Bladen. 

Tho. Dunning. Ebenez. Grant. Rob' Lovie. 

Jn° Taukerd. Jn" Semiue. Miles Topping. 

Jn" Ayres. M'' Brooks, at the Rob. Bannister. 

Hen. Osborne. Road. Jos. Sims. 

Adam Dining. Geo. Horsford. Hen. Cyler. 

Jos. Weston. Tho. Phillips. Jac. Morgan, Jun. 

Geo. Hurst. Tho. Years. Rob' Baker. 

W™ Chapman. Sheers Stephens. W" George. 

Jos. Merry. Jn" Bannister. Jn" Taylor. 

Edw. Looby. Edw. Davy. Jn" Fowler. 

Cha. Goore. Tho. Dewitt. D' Ben. Benware. 
Edw. England. 

Willoughby Byam is licensed to practise Medicine, 
etc. 

February 15. Ebenez. Grant struck out of Troop. 

1738, April 6. Eichard Oliver resigns his seat 
for St. John's Division. Henry Wallace was returned 
for Belfast vice James Parke resigned. 

April 21. Edward Williams is returned for St. 
John's Division vice Richard Oliver resigned. 

April 28. Dr. John Rutherford is licensed to 
practise. George Crump and Frederick Cope, Esqrs., 
are sworn as J.P.'s. 

May 13. On account of the low value of sugar, 
etc., an Act was passed reducing the public rate of 
interest from ten to six per cent. Edward Byam, who 
is going to the Northern Colonies, is granted twelve 
months' leave. 



June 1. William Maxwell is licensed to practise 
Medicine and Surgery. 

October 3. John Gunthorpe, Esq., takes his seat 
at the Council, and Warner Tempest and John 
Lightfoot are sworn as J.P.'s. 

October 10. It is agreed that as soon as 400 fit 
soldiers are here they shall receive the following 
extra pay, viz. : — 

Lieut. 15'', Ensign 12'', Serj' Gi^, corporal & drummer 4'', 
private S"". 

November 29. John Teamans resigns as Agent. 

1738-9, March 1. Edward Byam, jun., resigns. 
The Leeward Islands Regiment costs the home 
Government £9775 a year. 

March 3. Rev. Francis Byam takes his seat at 
the Council vice Samuel Byam, deceased. 

March 16. John Frye, jun., resigns on account 
of health. Harry Webb was returned for Dickinson's 
Bay vice. Henry Knight deceased, and John Wickham 
for Old North Sound vice Edward Byam resigned. 

1739, March 29. Rowland Williams' seat is 
vacant by his death. 

April 12. The following to join the Troop : — 

John Duer. John Rutherford. D'' Jas. Boyle. 

John Lightfoot. Chr. Knight, Jun. John Fogo. 

Sam. Martin, Jun. D'' Maxwell. D'' Mackland. 

D'' Gab. Rankin. Rich. .Jackson. Nath. Humphreys. 



Pat. Wilson. 
John Blaine. 



Phil. Ledeatt. 
W"" Redhead. 



D" Carter. 



April 26. James Boyle, Gent., is licensed to 
pi'actise Surgery and Medicine. Hon. John Gun- 
thorpe and Hon. Francis Byam appointed J.P.'s. 
Two buoys are to be fixed to the head and tail of 
Warrington Rock off St. John's Harbour. 

May 18. Walter Sydserfe and Henry Wallace, 
Esqrs., granted twelve months' leave. 

July and August. The following to join the 
Troop : — 

Jas. Gordon, Esq. Math. Christian. W"" Furlong. 

W"' Mackinen, Jas. Thennell. Jas. Penthony. 

Esq. Jos. Davison. Tho. Burton. 

Jas. England. Hugh Shewcraft. Fra. Roseman. 

Sam. Hopkins. Theo. Walrond. Ben. Wickham. 

Jas. Cooke. John Hurst. Jos. Wickham. 

John Libert. Sam. Lindsay. John Tankard. 

John Bolan. Pet. Lavicount. Rich. Reddey. 

Rob. Glover. Nath. Lewis. .... Godfrey. 
John Martin, Jun. 

August 1. Thomas Watkins' seat vacant by his 
removal to the Council Board. 

August 21. William Boon returned for Popes- 
head vice Thomas Watkins. William Smith, jun., 
Nisbitt Darby, Dr. Cherry, Dr. Lewis Jenticou, Tho- 
mas Redhead, and Samuel Wickham struck out of 
Troop. 

September 13. William Smith and Walter TuUi- 
deph are sworn as J.P.'s. James Penthony struck 
out of Troop. 

September 29. Samuel Mayer, Dr. Chovat, John 
HoUiday, Francis Hanson, John King, and James 
Langford are to join the Troop. Dr. Forgus presents 
his diploma from the Faculty of Physicians of Anglers 
in France, and is licensed. 

October 8. The mandamus for Benjamin King, 
Esq., to be of the Council vice Sir William Codring- 



Cll 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



ton was dated at Kensington J 5 June 1739, signed 
by tbe Secretaiy of State ; also that of William 
Mackinen, Esq., vice John Duer resigned. 

October 25, George Moncrief, Henry Hodge, and 
Henry Livingstone to join the Troop. 

October 30. Nicholas Collins was returned for 
Belfast vice Benjamin King. 

November 10. Mr. Webb having been guilty of 
rude behaviour in refusing to carry a message from 
the Governor is struck off the list of J.P.'s. 

December 9. The Council complain of the want 
of a cage, pillory, ducking-stool, stocks, and whip- 
ping-post. 

December 18. The Assembly has been successful 
in their opposition to Wavell Smith in the matter of 
fees. Martial law for four days at Christmas to be 
proclaimed on account of the usual riotous behaviour 
of the blacks. 

1739-40, February 15. Hon. Samuel Watkins 
appointed Chief Justice. 

March 7. Two more companies of the King's 
troops desirable. 

1740, April 10. Henry Wallace, the member for 
Belfast, is dead. 

April 24. Thomas Elraes was returned vice 
Wallace deceased. 

April 30. Letter sent to the Governor announcing 
the declaration of war against Spain, and that 
the fleet is going out under Edward Vernon, Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue, with the land forces under Lord 
Carteret. 

May 1. Thirty hogsheads of coal and 100,000 
bricks are to be ordered from England for building 
the new barracks, towards which His Majesty has 
granted £2000. 

May 19. 131 recruits have arrived. Rat Island 
was finally selected as the best site for the erection 
of new barracks, which would afford accommodation 
for eight officers and 240 men. 

June 17. The estimate for the barracks was 
£4275. Major George Lucas was much opposed to 
Rat Island on account of the facility for desertion ; 
the swamp on one side, the negro burial-ground, 
rum shops, and disorderly houses being close at 
hand. All the Committee denied this, and his 
opinion, which subsequently proved to be correct, 
was overruled. Some years afterwards these barracks 
were deserted for more healthy and suitable ones. 

December. A hurricane has done prodigious 
damage at Antigua and Martinico, many ships being 
drove on shore ; the French and Spanish Fleets (as 
reported) suffered much, and two of the former are 
lost. (' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 622.) 

1740-1, February 16. Mercy Dewitt struck off the 
Troop. Hon. Major Lucas, Commanding Officer of 
the six companies of General Dalzell's regiment, gives 
the returns as : — 12 commissioned officers, 37 non- 
commissioned officers, 12 drummers, and 352 privates, 
or a total of 413. 

March 5. The Assembly paid this day £380 
currency to the executors of Phillip Darby as two 
years' rent of the Guard House and Court House. 



It was presumably in the latter building where they 
held their meetings. 

1741, March 31. On account of the scarcity, 
68 barrels of flour and 36 of beef from Monk's Hill 
are distributed among the necessitous, and a fresh 
stock of provisions ordered for the fort. 

April 24. There is already great mortality among 
the I'ecruits. An Act was this day passed for fortify- 
ing Rat Island and building barracks thereon. 

April 30. Rat Island is the property of Slingsby 
Cressy. 

May 8. And. Lessley, Esq., resigns. 

May 26. Dr. Fargus, Mr. Dacent, Mr. William 
Sawcolt, Mr. Falton, and Mr. Conyers to join the 
Troop. 

June 11. Fast appointed for want of rain. Dr. 
Walter Sydserfe not returning, his seat is declared 
vacant. 

October 30. The Assembly sign a petition com- 
plaining that Mr. Charles Dunbar has been illegally 
receiving fees of £400 a year. 



1741-2, March 12. New Sessions. 



Steph. Blizard, Esq. 
Geo. Crump, Esq. 

Ashton Warner, Esq. 

Hon. Geo. Lucas, Esq. 

Jas. Gamble, Esq. 
Hen. Douglas, Esq. 

Jn° Lightfoot, Esq. 

Hon. Sam. Watkins, Esq. 

Hon. Tho. Watkins, Esq. 

Hon. Geo. Lucas, Esq. 

Sam. Harman, Esq. 
W" Lavington, Esq. 



Steph. Blizard, Esq' 
Jas. Nibbs. Esq' 
Harry Webb. Esq' 
W" Furnell, Esq' 
Tho. Shephard, Esq' 
Tho. Hanson, Esq' 
Ashton Warner. Esq' 
Jn° Murray, Esq' 
Dan. Mathew, Esq' 
Era. Delap. Esq' 
Jn° Tomlinson 
Hen. Doufflas, Esq' 
Edw. Williams. Esq' 
Nath. Gilbert, Esq' 
Jn" Wickham, Esq' 
Jas. Weatheril, Esq' 
W" Mackinen, Esq' 
Jonas Langford, Esq' 
Tho. Gravenor, Esq' 

Kob' Christian, Esq' 
Jn» Dasent, Esq' 

Nich. Collins, Esq' 
Sam. Elliot, Esq' 
Tho. Elmes, Esq' 
Sam. Harman, Esq' 



( New North 
I Sound. 



' S' Johns Town. 



■ S' Johns Division. 



I 

[ Willoughby Bay. 

Five Islands. 
I Old Road & Ber- 
!' mudian Valley. 

I Old North Sound. 

I Dickinsons Bay 

i Division. 

I Popeshead Divi- 

I sion. 

1 Falmouth & Reu- 

V desvous Bay Di- 

I vision. 

> Belfast Division. 

[ Nonsuch Divi- 
) sion. 



Steph. 
Clerk. 



Blizard chosen Speaker and M'' Edw'' Gamble 



British Ships taken since the War. (' London Magazine,' 1742.) 

Carried to 

1740 July 16 Dorothy, Douglas master, Antego 

to London . . . . S' Sebastians. 
1740-1 Feb. .... Drummond master, Carolina 

to Antigua . . . . S' Augustine. 
And another . . . . S' Augustine. 

1741 Oct. Speedwell, Montgomery master, 

Antigua to Virginia . . Cape Francis. 

1741 Nov. Antigua Mer, Stanny master, 

Antigua to London . . Bilboa. 

1741 Nov. Sea Nymph, Geare master, 

Antigua to Liverpool . . S' Augustine. 

Each ship worth one with another 3.500/. 

1742, April 26. James Gordon takes his seat at 
the Council, his mandamus being dated 31 December 
1741 at the Court of St. James. James Doig petitions 
for payment of £126 for nine gun-carriages. 

July 30. The merchants and traders of St. John's 
Town petition against the bill prohibiting hawking, 
signed by : — 



Pat. Wilson. 
John Blane. 
Jas. Doig. 
Hugh Holmes. 
Arch. Cochran. 
Tho. Moore. 
Hen. Bracken. 
Jas. Birkett. 



Dune. Grant. 
Geo. Walker. 
W" Dunbar. 
Kob. Baker. 
Rich. Sheepshanks. 
Jn" Bohiu. 
Gab. Thibou. 
Rob. Addison. 



Geo. Rooke. 
Luke Daniel. 
Arch. Johnson. 
E. Ferriss. 
Laur. Nihil), Jim. 
Hugh Shewcraft. 
Rob. Brown. 
Tho. JafFiay. 



GEORGE I. GEORGE 11. 



cm 



Geo. White. Jn° h. Sp'' Spe. Mich. Lovell. 

Rich. Sherwood. Rossiiigton. Tho. Redhead. 

Rich. Maitlaud. Pet. Sciirratt. Jn" Bannister. 

Sam. Martin. Nisbit Darby. Math. Christian. 

Jn" Holliday. Tho. Flattarty. Alex. Martin. 

Pat. Lynch Joseph. Jas. Delap. Rich. Hungerford. 

Rob. Gray. Jn° Chalmers. Jn° Wise. 

Nath. French. Jn° Martin. Rich. Lee. 

Merrick Tnrnbull. Alex.Shuttleworth. .In" Dunn, Sen^ 

Jas. Anderson. Hen. Livingston. Jas. Barton. 

W"' Hillhoiise. Jn" Haws. Hen. Sinnot. 

Cha. Mathews. Edw. Gregory. W'" Williams. 

Joshua Lawson. Edw. Trant. Edw"! Tyley. 

Pet. Nihil. Hen. Bowers. Edw" Murphy. 

Cha. Murray. Jn" Napier. Jos'' Davison. 

Tho. Phillips. Jas. Thibou. Sliugsby Cressy. 

Edw. Cliester Jas. Hanson. Jn" Leacraft. 

Bendall. And. Lessley. Dav. Gillespie. 
Sam. Symous. 

Extract of a Letter from New England, from a Captain to 
his Friend at Barbadoes, dated Aug. 1742. 
I Sail'd from this Port the 4th of Jan. last, bound to 
your Island, but fell in with three large Spanish Ships of 
60, 40, and 32 Guns all full of Land Forces, so that I was 
obliged to strike directly. They sent my Ship to Porto 
Rico ; but kept me in the 60 G. Ship. A few days after we 
met the Antigua Station Ships the Eltham and Lively, 
one of 40 Guns, the other of 20. They came up with the 
Spaniards and fought them very bravely, notwithstanding 
the great Odds, and the Commodore in whose Ship I was, 
would have struck several times, the English fir'd so fast on 
them, but an Irish Laud OflBcer on board, desir'd and 
insisted that the Captain should not strike ; but if he did 
not cliuse to fight, to give the Command to him, which 
hinder'd the Captain from striking. The English kill'd 
between 6 and 700 Men, and tore the Ship all to pieces, so 
that it was with great Difficulty they were kept up ; and had 
there been one Hour more Day ; or could the English have 
come up in the Morning, they must have taken all the three. 
They were oblig'd to make the best of their Way to Porto 
Rico, and it was with no small Difficulty they reached that 
Port. They had a vast Quantity of Bale Goods on board, 
and a great Sum of Money to pay the Soldiers. They were 
reckon'd the richest Ships that sailed from Spain this Year. 
(' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1743, p. 161.) 

September 6. The following to join the Troop: — 

Nath. Gateward. W™ Yearaans, Jun. Jn" Alpin. 

Edw. Tyley. Ben. Steele. .... Hungerford. 

Dan. Warner. Hen. Parker. Sam. Messett. 

Isaac Jacobs. Row. Oliver. Jn° Brooke. 

Drewry Otley. Jn" L. Spranger. David Algoe. 
Rob. Gray. 

December 15. Edward Byam takes his seat at 
the Council, his mandamus bearing date 7 May 1742, 
vice his great-uncle Governor Edward Byam, deceased, 
and also takes the oath as a J. P. 

The Old Fort that covers S' Johns is strengthen'd 
with a horn work lately finished, has Twenty three pieces of 
Cannon mounted & Six of his Grace the Duke of Montagues. 
Barracks for Seaventy men. Monks Hill 9 acres very 
weak, 32 cannon, and barracks for 200 men. There are 
3441 Christians and 24,695 Negros. The 7 companies 
of Gen' Dalzells Reg' number 411 men, the Militia 
Reg'^ contain 1300 men, saylors from the shipping would be 
about 150, and armed negros 1018, giving a total armed 
force of 2939. 

1742-3, February 14. The Duke of Newcastle 
writes that Mr. William Lavington's friends have 
applied for his appointment as Chief Justice when 
Samuel Watkins, now of very advanced age, dies. 
Mr. Lavington is to be at once appointed to the 
honorary post of a Puisne Judge. 



March 7. To join the Troop : — 

Jn" Lynch. Stap. Dunbar. D'' Jliller. 

Anth" Lynch. Sam. Lyons. Coll" Jn"Dowg!ass. 

W" Denbow. Dora. Lynch. Byam Crump. 

Abra. Chovett. D'' Jn" Richardson. Jas. Birkett. 

Edw. Gamble. Rich. Holmes. Hen. Denning. 

Tho. Warner. D'' Geo. Crump. 

March 7. John Brooke elected for Old Eoad 
vice Edward Williams, who resigned on 24 January. 

March 8. John Vernon writes from Saumur this 
day resigning his seat at the Council. 

? 1742-3. Lieut. -Colonel George Lucas, writing 
about the late expedition to La Guyra and the attack 
on the Castle of Puerto Cabello, says that Lieutenant 
John Osborne and Ensign Mark Dyer dying there of 
fever he posted the " Eldest Ensigne Hamilton 
Kerby to be Lieut, and two yong Gentlemen to be 
ensignes who have carried Arms in the Ranks these 
two years past, viz' M'' Lambert Witherell and 
M'' William Allicock being Young men of Merit and 
Spirit." He proceeds to say that the attack on 
Puerto Cabello took place at night, the forces were 
successfully landed, but one of the advance guard 
while overpowering a sentry fired off his musket. 
The main body of the English then fired in the dark 
on their own advance guard, thinking that they were 
being attacked by the enemy. The batteries and 
castles also opened fire, and there was a stampede and 
general rush to the beach, the officers being unable 
to rally their men. Colonel Lucas's regiment had 
been for some years stationed at the Leeward Islands 
and many of its officers and men were Autiguans. 
(America and West Indies, No. 54.) 

1743, March 28. William Buckley petitions for 
£126 for building part of the Guard House at John- 
son's Point. 

April 3. Josiah Martin is now President. 

June 7. A gentleman writes from S' Kitts " The 
Commodore in the Suttblk, with the Burford, Eltham, Scar- 
borough, Lively, and Otter Sloop, are arrived at Antigua 
from Porto Cavallo, where they met with as bad Success as 
we did at La Guyra." (' London Magazine,' p. 398.) 

July 25. About 50 of the Highlanders confin'd in the 
Tower were put on board a Ship bound to Antigua. 

(Ibid., p. 358.) 

August 3. Complaint was made that the Regis- 
ter's Office near the shore was so dangerously situated 
that it might be captured by privateers 

October 31. Daniel Mathew, Esq., took his seat 
at the Council, his mandamus having been dated 
2 June last at Whitehall, vice Valentine Morris 
deceased ; so that by his promotion and the resigna- 
tion of John Dascent two vacancies were created in 
the Assembly. 

November 4. Adam Byrne, Gent., presents his 
certificate from Dublin University, and both he and 
Henry Byam, Gent., are licensed to practise Medicine 
and Surgery. 

November 9. Major George Lucas appointed 
Lieut.-Governor. 

December 6. Edward Bendall, White Lacy Rum- 
sey, and George Walker, Gentlemen, to join the Troop. 
James Simon Sevine, who was born of Protestant 
parents under the Elector of Brandenburgh in the 



CIV 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



City of Berlin, desires to become an inhabitant. 
John Watkius was returned for St. John's Division 
vice Ashton Warner. 

1743-4, March 21. A letter was received from 
John Teamans, dated 9 February at Boston, New 
England, resigning his post as Agent, which he first 
held sixteen years ago, and recommending Samuel 
Martin, jun., the Deputy, as his successor. 

Ships captured on both sides. (' Clentleman's Magazine.') 

November 27, 1743. An Antigua Brig, Cap' John 
Doggett, taken in sight of Antigua, and of an English Man 
of War, by a Privateer Sloop of S' Domingo with 75 Men, 
who set ashore on an Island the Captain, two of his Men, 
with the Master of another Vessel taken a Month before and 
one of his Men, gave them 2 Pieces of Beef and 20Ib. of 
bread. They were taken off the Island by a Vessel bound 
to S' Thomas, and 2 Days after meeting with the Lively 
Man of War and an English Privateer, both went in quest 
of the Spanish Privateer, who upon their coming up, run 
into Shoal Water. The Lively fired 350 Shot and the 
Privateer 170, by which 3 Spaniards were killed and as many 
wounded ; the Rest seeing the English man all their Boats, 
quitted their Vessel, after running her ashore, and the 
English destroy'd her. 

Jan. 25, 174-f. The two Friends, .lubber, from London 
and Cork for Autigua, taken about 60 Leagues to Windward 
of Antigua, but afterwards retaken by the Comet Bomb 
(which sprung her Mast, else she had taken the Privateer) 
and carried into Antigua. 

June 16. The Penelope, Reynolds, from Antigua, taken 
off the Lizard, and car. into Granville. 

May 23. The Mercury, Dewai', from Antigua for Lon- 
don, taken & sent into Brest. 

May 15. An Antigua Sloop, Daniel Smith, taken by 
the Huming bird Privateer. 

Aug. 16. The Mary, Serjeant, from Antigua for Lo., 
taken by a Fr. Privateer, carried into Granville. 

Sep. A 2d privateer of great force from Martinico, 
carried into Antigua, by the Warren privateer, Capt. Caius. 

Nov. The Newbury brigantine, Charles Byrne, from 
Dublin to Antigua, carried into Guadalupe by a French 
privateer. The Betsey, Barter, from Autigua for London, 
carried into Bourdeaux by a French merchant man. 

The Friendship, Neale, from Cork for Antigua, taken by 
a priv. of S' Sebastians. 

The Flower de Luce, from Boston for Antigua, and a 
ship from Guiney for Antigua, taken liy the French, and 
carried into Martinico. 

From the ' London Gazette.' 

List of Prizes, the three first Spanish, the other French, 
taken by his Majesty's Ships stationed at the Leeward 
Islands, under the command of Capt. Warren and Capt. 
Knowles, between the 12"' of February and the 12"' of 
June 1744. 

Ascension, bound to La Vera Cruz, 500 Tons, 24 Guns, 
124 Men, laden with all Sorts of rich Merchandize. 

S' Antonio de los Animos, cruizing, 90 Tons, 10 Carriage 
and 14 Swivel Guns, 96 Men ; a Privateer. 

Santissima Trinidada, cruizing, 110 Tons, 10 Carriage 
and 12 Swivel Guns, 44 Men ; a Privateer. 

L'Aimable, for Leogan, 150 Tons, 10 Guns, 38 Men; 
400 Negroes, 163 Ounces of Gold, and 116 Elephants Teeth. 

Dolphin, for Guardaloupe, 200 Tons, 6 Guns, 23 Men ; 
Beef, Flour, Cordage, etc. 

Marquis d'Antin, for Martinique, 180 Tons, 8 Guns, 29 
Men ; Beef, Flour, Wine, Brandy, Cordage, etc. 

S' Martin, for ditto, 150 Tons, 14 Guns, 19 Men ; ditto. 

S' Firmin, for Bayonne, 110 Tons, 16 Men; Sugar, 
Coflfee, Cocoa, Tobacco, 12,450 Dollars, and 45 Pistoles. 



La Fortune, for Marseilles, 100 Tons, 6 Guns, 12 Men ; 
Cocoa, Roquo, and Coflfee. 

La Garonne, for Leogan, 120 Tons, 23 Men ; Beef 
Flour, etc., Wine, and dry Goods. 

L'Aimable .Julie, for Bourdeaux, 150 Tons, 6 Guns, 19 
Men ; Sugar, Coflfee, and Tobacco. 

Le bien Aime, for Martinique, 600 Tons, 24 Guns, 43 
Men ; Wine, Provisions, and dry Goods. 

Neptune, for ditto, 380 Tons, 14 Guns, 43 Men ; Wine, 
Oil, Brandy, Soap, etc. 

La Francoise de Cherbury, for ditto, 184 Tons, 8 Guns, 
24 Men ; Wine, Beef, Candles, Cordage, etc. 

La Princesse Anlope, for Roclielle, 130 Tons, 8 Guns, 
24 Men ; Sugar and Coffee. 

Union Brig, for Canada, 120 Tons, 14 Men ; Rum, 
Sugar, Molasses, and Coflfee. 

Junio Sloop, for Cape Francoise, 100 Tons, 4 Carriage 
and 6 Swivel Guns, 18 Men ; Wine, Beef, Flour, Butter, etc. 

Le Croyant, for Bourdeaux, 230 Tons, 10 Guns, 39 Men ; 
Sugar and Coffee. 

L'Aimable Teresa, for Martinique, 90 Tons, 4 Guns, 11 
Men ; Snuff and Tobacco. 

A Sloop, for Cape Breton, 100 Tons, 8 Guns, 14 Men ; 
Sugar and Rum. 

Le Patriarche Abraham, for Port Louis, 300 Tons, 12 
Guns, 45 Men ; 650 Negroes. 

L'Aimable Catherine, cruizing, 80 Tons, 8 Carriage and 
12 Swivel Guns, 76 Men ; a Privateer. 

A new Sloop, cut out of S' Martins, 80 Tons. 

The taking so many Prizes was the Cause, that at Mar- 
tinico, Bread rose to twenty Pence a Pound, Meat to thirty 
Pence, Wine 200 Livres a Barrell, and Flour 150, and 
scarce any to be had at that Price ; so that the Governor of 
Martinico had issued out Orders for turning a certain Pro- 
portion of all Cane- Lauds into Provision-Ground, for Plant- 
ing Manoac, and other kinds of Grain for Bread. 

(' London Magazine,' 1744, p. 409.) 

1744, April 10. Tho. Kerb^' is appointed Agent 
vice Yeamans resigned. 

May 8. John Tomlinson, Esq., is appointed Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer. 

May 29. Robert Waller is sworn a J. P. 

June 1. William Teamans, being infirm, is struck 
out of the Troop. 

July 24. Eowland Ash and Edward Otto-Baijer 
are appointed Chief Bai-ous of the Exchequer. 

July 31. John Tod presents a certificate from 
William Wood, Chirurgeon and Apothecary at Edin- 
burgh, and is licensed. 

August 15. Duncan Grant, Charles Alley, John 
Sedgwick, Jacob Tbibou, John Brown, and Thomas 
Tew to join the Troop. 

August 28. William Miller, Gent., is licensed to 
practise Medicine and Surgery. 

September 12. Samuel Lavicount, John Blane, 
and John Hawes to join the Troop. 

1744-5, January 3. Walter Sydserfe returned to 
the Assembly vice Samuel Eliot. 

January 31. The Hon. Charles Dunbar's house 
to be rented for the public use for three years, at 
£170 cui-rency yearly. 

February 28. Thomas Gravenour resigns his seat. 

March 6. Edward Home returned vice John 
Tomlinson. 

March 15. Thomas Warren returned for Popes- 
head. 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



cv 



March 23. Returns of Lieut. -General Robert 
Dalzell's regiment : — 23 officers, 29 Serjeants, 30 cor- 
porals, and over 300 privates. 

1745, April 23. At a Court Martial held to try Cha. 
Dunbar, Esq., for cowardice there were present : — 

Hon. Col. Niith. Gilbert, President of the Court. 
Col. Tho. Watkins. L' Col. Josiah Cap. James Sal- 

Col. Steph. Blizard. Martin. mond. 

Col. John Murray. Maj; Mart in Blake. Cap. Rob. Addi- 
L' Col. John Gun- Maj' John Wat- son. 

thorpe. kins. Cap. John Blizard. 

Cap. Nich. Collins. 
Cap. Row. Ash. 

The prisoner was found guilty and sentenced to be 
severely reprimanded. 

May 20. By H.M's orders of 7 March last past 
absentees' estates are not to be doubly taxed. 

The following extract is from a letter by the Rev. 
W. Smith, Rector of St. John's, Nevis : — 

About two months before I left the West-Indies, I took 
a little trip up to Antigua, which is a fine Island, though it 
has not one single Spring of Water in it ; And as it was in 
a time of great drowth, the whole face of the Country looked 
dismally enough. All their Ponds were then quite dry, and 
their Cisterns almost empty ; so that they were obliged to 
fetch their fresh Water from Guardaloupe, a French Island, 
and Montserrat, an Englisli one, which was afterwards sold 
for Eighteen Pence a Pail-full. The Capital is called 
St. John's, and is by far the most regular Town I saw in the 
West Indies, close to the Houses whereof is the best and 
most commodious Harbour, belonging to our English Lee- 
ward Islands : They were then building a stately Church, 
which I since hear is compleatly finished ; and I am satisfied 
is the finest Building of the kind by much, we have under 
the Government. And as for the Inhabitants, they (like our 
other Settlements) were remarkable for Hospitality and 
Civility to Strangers. (' A Natural History of Nevis and 
the rest of the Euglish Leeward Charibee Islands,' by the 
Rev. W. Smith, p. .305.) 

At Antigua they have small, but well-tasted Oysters, that 
stick to Mangrove-trees that grow close to Creeks. 

{Ibid., p. 210.) 

The population of Barbuda was estimated at 1200. 

(Southey.) 
Extract of letters from Antigua. 

The Weymouth man of war, on Feb. 1 6 last struck on a 
reef, near Sandy Island, just without S' John's Road, 
Antigua. This accident was enquired into by a court 
martial, where the Capt. Calmady was acquitted, but Lieut. 
Crispe, who had the watch, was mulcted 6 months' pay, the 
master declared incapable of ever serving in the navy, and 
the pilot sentenced to be sent to England to suffer two years 
imprisonment in the Marshalsea, and never to serve in that 
quality more. 

May 28, Antigua. Commodore Leigh in the Sufiblk, 
and Dreadnought man of war, with a fleet of merchant 
ships is arrived here from England. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' pp. 275 and 391.) 

1745-6, January 26. Hon. William Lavington is 
sworn as Chief Justice of the Courts of King's Bench 
and Common Pleas. 

February 11. John Tomlinson takes his seat at 
the Council. Thomas Watkins, Esq., is dead. 

February 20. James Weatheril is dead, and John 
Tomlinson in the Council, so that there are two vacant 
seats in the Assembly. Rowland Ash is sworn a J.P. 

1746, March 26. Dr. William Jarvis is licensed 
to practise Medicine, etc. 



May 1 6. Forty-two merchants petition the King 
against the inactivity of the men-of-war, and state 
that within these few months fifty vessels from 
Europe and the Northern Colonies to these Islands 
have been captured by French privateers. 

July 23. At the Court of Kensington a man- 
damus was signed for Andrew Leslie to be of the 
Council vice Thomas Watkins deceased. 

Extract of a Letter from Antigua, July 23. 

French privateers are so thick about this island, from 
the indolence of his majesty's ships, that people dont care 
to send out their boats ; the country have fitted out a guard 
de costa, whicli three days ago (being the first day of her 
going out) brought in a row-galley that lay off Popeshead, 
with 25 hands, close under shore, but came out and gave 
chace in hopes of a prize. We are in a miserable condition, 
and in great danger of starving, by the French taking so 
many of our provision vessels ; and they at the same time 
in the greatest plenty ; and all for want of our men of war 
being properly and constantly employ'd in cruizing to wind- 
ward of our islauds, for the protection of trade ; which 
would they but do, the tables would be turned, and we 
should live in plenty, and the enemy would be starved. 
9 or 10 sail of English men of war are on the stations of 
Barbadoes and the Leeward Islands, but pretend that they 
cannot sail well enough to catch the privateers ; but all the 
world knows, that they can sail well enough to protect and 
retake the merchant ships, if they would keep cruizing in 
proper stations. (' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 575.) 

July 31. Petition to the King signed by the 
Council and Assembly, stating that over 100 ships 
have been lost since 29 October last, and that the 
Hon. Fitzroy Henry Lee, the commanding officer, is 
greatly to blame. 

August 12. Samuel Harman writes to resign his 
seat. 

August 19. William Thomas and Joseph Farley 
to join the Troop. 

September 16. William Skerrett, Esq., elected 
vice Samuel Harman. 

September 25. Hon. Benjamin King, Edward 
Byam, and John Tomlinson are sworn as J.P.'s. 
Extract of a Letter from Antigua, dated Nov. 9, 1746. 

We have just now the agreeable News, that S' Bartholo- 
mew, an Island ten Leagues to the Northward of S' Chris- 
topher's, is taken by two Privateers belonging to this Island, 
called the " Fitz-Roy " and the " Knowles." They have 
secured about 300 Negroes, 200 of which are this Moment 
arrived here in the two Sloops. A Fortification is already 
made on the Island, in order to keep and secure it, and 70 
Men are left in it. There is a very good Harbour in the 
Island, from whence the Enemy greatly annoy'd our Trade, 
and have taken since the Commencement of the War, above 
50 sail of Merchant Ships, and carried them there till they 
could have an Opportunity to carry them to Martiuico ,- 
and constantly fitted out and refresh'd themselves in this 
Port. The Privateers had on Board, when they attack'd 
it, only 185 Men ; yet they have made near 400 White 
People Prisoners, 140 of whom are fit to bear Arms. The 
French were so suddenly attack'd, that they had not time 
to defend themselves; two of the Privateers Men were 
kill'd and one wounded ; of the Enemy only one was 
wounded. ('London Magazine,' 1747, p. 52.) 

November 10. Josiah Martin is still President. 

November 17. At the Court of St. James' a 
mandamus was signed for John Tomlinson, Esq., to 
be of the Council vice Daniel Mathew resigned. 



CVl 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



November 24. The Hon. Colonel Benjamin 
King's privateers have captured and plundered the 
French Island of St. Bartholomew. 

Extract of a Letter from Antigua, Nov. 28, 1746. 
Complaint on a Com . . . . e (commodore). 
As for iirotection by the men of war in respect to our 
trade, the same neglects complained of by our council and 
assembly are not only continued, but 1 tliiiik in my con- 
science, the c .... e, to shew his contempt of us, our trade, 
and our comphiints, gives us less protection than ever, and 
this you'll find true, when you receive letters from those 
who are better acquainted with mercantile concerns than 
I am, fill'd with expressions exclaiming against the per- 
nicious conduct of our men of war, who (sonic few instances 
excepted) are generally far enough to leeward neither to be 
able to hear or help us ; and this in expectation of meeting 
with some very rich Spanish vessel, notwithstanding the 
very little success that has constantly attended this cruize, 
and for what reasons I know not. The whole duty of our 
squadron seems to be center'd in the merit of taking prizes, 
and the protection of our trade pish'd at, as not being part 
of the errand the men of war came out on. By what 
strange direction of providence it happens, we land-men 
cannot say ; but so it is, that the two poles are as likely to 
meet, as a British man of war and a French one in these 
seas, tho' it's well known that the French put into the same 
roads and harbours, and steer the same courses as formerly, 
and sometimes but two, three, or four together. I dont say 
they never did meet this war, for ad .... 1 T .... d (Town- 
send) met three of them, but as that had no bad effect on 
the French men of war, and the merchant ships could be 
taken without taking them, prizes were taken, and tliat's 
the chief end of war at sea. So you see what sort of 
annoyance the enemy suffers from men of war, under the 
encouragement of the Prize Act of 17 George II. And 
whether this act answers its ends, the makers may know if 
they enquire into it. I can hardly stop, this subject affording 
so great a field for animadversion, and will only add, tliat had 
the ports of Martinico and Guadaloupe been attended to, there 
might have been fifty captures and recaptures by the men of 
war, in the opinions of many who understand the affair, to 
one made by the old wandering course upon the Spanish main. 
Nobody blames any of the sea-commanders, but the head of 
them only, for there is no reason to find fault with those 
for acting as tliey do, since they act by compulsion of the 
c . . . . e. Our trade here is ruined. 

('Gentleman's Magazine,' 1747, p. 75.) 

Ships taken on both sides. (' Gentleman's Magazine.') 

1746, January. A Fr. man of war of 36 guns, capt. La 
Touch (who made a descent on Anguilla), tak. by an English 
man of war, and carried into Antigua. 

Mar. Tlie Florinella, from Bristol to Antigua, taken 
by the French in sight of that Island. The Priscilla, Shea, 
from London for Antigua, carry'd into Brest. The Olive, 
Jones, from New England for Antigua, taken by a French 
privateer. A sloop, Capt. Hall, fi-om Jamaica for Antigua, 
carry'd into Martinico. 

May. A Spanish register ship, outward bound, valued 
at 40,000/., taken by his majesty's ship the Lyme, Capt. 
Tyrrel, and carry'd into Antigua. The Olive, Bush, fi-om 
N. England for Antigua, carry'd into Guardaloupe. The 
Postboy, Smith, from Antigua for London, car. to S' Maloes. 

June. A large ship, coming out of Martinico, with 
1300 hogsheads of sugar, taken by the William priv., Capt. 
Eichards, of N. York, and a priv. of Boston, Capt. Bass, 
sent to Antigua. 

July. The Hunter, Hammond, of Jamaica, from 
Madeira to Antigua, carried into Guardaloupe. The Nancy, 
Street, from Antigua to London, taken near Antigua by a 
French privateer. The Prince Charles, Taylor; and the 



i'annouth, ]\Iontgomery, both from Boston for Antigua, 
carry'd into jMartinico. The Lyon, Woodward, from Cork 
to Ai;tigua, taken off the Island by a French privateer, in 
company of two other vessels, one of which ran ashore, and 
the other got in. 

Oct. A Fr. priv. sloop taken by a priv. brigantine 
of Antigua of but half its force, after an engagement of 
5 hours, in which the French lost many men. 

Nov. The Lydia, Thompson, from Antigua for Cork, 
car. to Brest. The Byam, Buckley, one of the fleet from 
Antigua for London, taken by a Fr. priv. The Duke of 
Cumberland, Burton, from Antigua ; the Charming Nancy, 
Pipon, ditto, taken by French priv. after the separatiion of 
the W. India fleet. 

Dec. The Charlton, Wheelwright, fi-om Cork for 
Antigua, taken by a Fr. priv. The Fox, Hewiston, from 
London for Antigua, and a brig, from Antigua, car. into 
S' Maloes. 

Ships taken on both sides. (' London Magazine.') 

A French Ship from Leogaune taken by his Majesty's 
Mast-Ship, the Bnname, and carried into Antigua. The 
Antigua Packet, Lesley, carried into Brest. The Warren, 
Clark, from New England for Antigua, carried into Cape 
Francois. The Young Samuel, Tuke, from Dublin for 
Antigua, taken by the French. The Leviathan, Warner, 
from Antigua, carried into Dieppe. A large French Ship of 
30 Guns, bound home from Jlartinico, taken by his 
Majesty's Ship Lyme, Capt. Tyrrel, and carry'd into Antigua. 
The New Ipswich, Hayes, from Antigua, carry'd into Bilboa. 
Two Ships from the American Colonies for Antigua, carried 
into Martinico. The Fanny, Haldwind, from Jamaica for 
Antigua, carried into Martinico. The Samuel, from Lan- 
caster to Antigua, taken by a French Privateer. The 
King George, CoUingwood, from Rhode-Island for Antigua, 
carried into Martinico. The Anguilla, Brown, for Antigua, 
carried into Guardaloupe. The Aldborough Frigate, 
Wilson, from .\ntigua to Piscataque, taken by a small 
Privateer of Cape Francois. 

1 746-7, Jan. 27. Major Robert Waller complains 
of the badness of the passage to Rat Island. The 
gallows are so offensive at the top of the town that 
they are to be removed to leeward of the negro burial- 
ground. 

1747, April 29. George Martin, William Warner, 
and Thomas Freeman to join the Troop. The trial 
of Captain Lee, R.N., was very disappointing to the 
inhabitants. 

May 12. Commodore Edward Legge has been 
ordered to hold a Court-martial on Captain Lee. 

June. A Court House to be built and £2000 
borrowed for that purpose. The site chosen was the 
old market-place. 

July 17. Thomas Shephard resigns his seat. 

August 14. James Doig returned for St. John's 
Town vice Thomas Shephard. 

August 20. Patrick O'Hara, Captain of H.M.S. 
" Gosport," receives the thanks of the legislature. 

August 22. George Pocock, Captain of H.M.S. 
" Sutherland," is ordered by the Hon. Mr. Legge to 
send the " Suffolk " and " Lyme " as a convoy. The 
trade sailed but twice a year. The Leeward Islands 
fleet of merchantmen of 120 sail, which sailed from 
St. Kitts on 26 August convoyed by H.M.S. "Lyme" 
and " Suffolk," experienced a heavy gale on 15 Sep- 
tember. The " Lyme " and most of the fleet 
foundered, only 35 vessels arriving in England, and 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



cvu 



there were passengers on board all the missing 
shijjs. 

October 30. Nathaniel Gilbert, jun., returned for 
Old North Sound vice Nathaniel Gilbert, sen. Lieut.- 
Colonel George Lucas, Lieut. -Governor of Antigua, 
died at Brest, being taken in an Autiguan ship. 

Ships taken on both sides. (' London Mag-azine.') 

1747, Feb. A French Privateer Sloop, taken by a 
Privateer Brigantine of Antigua of but half its force, after 
an Engagement of 5 Hours. The Diamond, Evans, from 
Carolina to iVntigua, carried into Guadalunp. The Lnely, 
Crumb, from Antigua for London, carried into S' Malo's. 

March. A French Privateer, taken by the Hester 
Brigantine of New York, and carried into .\ntigua. The 
Adventure, Gibson, from Dublin for Antigua, carried into 
S' Malo's. Tlie Sally and Fanny, Nevine, from Antigua for 
London, taken by 2 French Men of War. The Eleanor, 
Geheen, from Dublin for Antigua, carried into S' Jean de 
Luz. 

April. The Fanny, Beuret, from Antigua for London, 
taken by the French. The Mary and Sarah, Atwell, from 
North Carolina, and the James Kite, from N. England, both 
for Antigua, carried into Martinico. Tlie Antigua Packet, 
Gardiner, from Liverpool and Cork for the Leeward Islands, 
carried into Martinico, where they had above 70 English 
Prizes brought in. The Black Prince, Wilson, from Antigua 
for London, carried into Martinico. The Lark, Heysham, 
ft'om Lancaster for Antigua, carried into Martinico. The 
Seahorse, Ross, from Antigua for London, carried into Vivero. 

June. Six French Privateers, taken by the Fitzroy and 
Knowles, two Privateers of Antigua. The William and 
Mary, Stilson, from New England to Antigua, carried into 
Guardaloupe. The Betty, M'^Elvanny, from Antigua for 
London, carried into Cherbourg. 

Ships taken. (' Gentleman's Magazine.') 

April. The Elk, from Dublin for Antigua, retaken (ijy us). 

May. The . . . ., Euston, from Bermudas for Antigna, 
carry'd into Porto Rico. The Lesley, Stevens, from London 
for Antigua, car. into Martinico. The Lewis snow, from 
Ireland to Antigua ; the Sarah, Hobson, from Dublin for 
Antigua, retaken. 

June. The Molly, Glegg, arriv'd at Antigua from Liver- 
pool, taken and ransom'd for 600/. The Sarah, Morris, from 
Falmouth for Barbadoes and Antigua, taken by the Barbara 
pr. of Bilboa. 

July. The Charming Nancy, Crawford, from Antigua 
for London, car. to S' Sebastians. The Andrew, Bodkin, 
from Gallway to Antigua, carried to Martinico. The 
Victory, Brown, from Africa for Antigua, with 400 negroes, 
carried into Martinico. The John and Jane, Fenwick, from 
London to Antigua, taken by the French and ransom'd. 

Aug. The brig Globe, Rees, of Philadelphia for Antigua, 
carry'd into Martinico. The Peter and Mary, Pitton, from 
Antigua for Dublin, taken July 31 off the Isle of Man. 
A sloop, Habbla, from Connecticut to Antigua. The . . . ., 
Smith, from Long Island to Antigua, & the Faithful Friend, 
Waite, from Boston to Antigua, car. to Martinico. The 
Greyhound, Gilmore, from Dublin for Antigua, carry'd into 
Guardaloupe. The Mary, Maitin, from Antigua for Phila- 
delphia, taken off the capes of Delawar. 

Oct. A French Privateer, and a Martinico ship, car. by 
the Dreadnought into Antigua. The Dispatch, from Dublin 
for Antigua, carried into Martinico. 

Nov. The Success, Oliver, from Boston for the Leeward 
Islands, car. to Hispaniola. The Endeavour, Northcote, 
from Antigua for London, car. into S' Augustine. 

Dec. The Ballance, Gill, from Antigua for London, 
carry'd into Rochelle. The Langford, Oliver, from Antigua 
for London, carr. to Martinico. The D. of Cumberland, 



Clark, from Antigua for Isquebo, & Dolphin, Gardiner, from 
Boston to Antigua, carry'd to Martinico. The Charming 
Fanny, M=Namara, from Antigua for London, car. into 
Bayonne. 

1747-8, January. Edward Otto-Baijer, Esq., has 
been appointed to the Council by Governor Mathew. 

February 13. William Furnell resigns his seat 
in the Assembly, because he is going with his family 
to North America. 

February 23. Walter Tullideph returned vice 
William Furnell. 

March 8. Stephen Blizard being sick, John Mur- 
ray is chosen Speaker p7-o tern. 

1748, April 14. Francis Delap resigns his seat in 
the Assembly on account of ill-health and private 
business. 

May 19. Eichard Oliver, Eowland Otto, Joseph 
Lyons, William Lyons, Francis Fry, sen., George 
Pry, jun., Richard Tuit, James Bogle, John Sawcolt, 
and Andrew Ii-win to join the Troop. 

May 27. Many complaints having been made 
against Colonel Benjamin King, the Judge of Vice- 
Admiralty, the Governor removed him from the 
Council for extortion. 

June 2. Walter Sydserfe and Jonas Langford 
have resigned, and John MuiTay has been removed 
to the Council. 

By Act of 9 June it was ordered that the Court 
House, now building, should be used as a jjlace of 
meeting for the Council and Assembly, as Courts of 
Justice, and also contain the offices of the Provost- 
Marshal and Secretary. A new market-place was 
laid out abutting on Church Street. 

June 17. John Jeaffreson is returned for Belfast 
vice Walter Sydserfe. 

June 24. Edward Otto-Baijer and Henry Doug- 
las to be of the Council vice Richard Oliver and 
James Gordon, who have been absent several years 
without licence. 

June 30. At the Court at Whitehall a mandamus 
was signed for Gilbert Fane Fleming to be of the 
Council vice Charles Dunbar. 

July 22. Perdinando John Paris writes home 
saying that Governor Mathew had suspended Ben- 
jamin King, Esq., for extortion, and appointed his 
relative Mr. John Gunthrop in his place. 

August 25. George Moncrieff returned for St. 
John's Division, and Robert Hunter sworn a Notary 
Public. 

September 1. Shute Shrimpton Teamans present 
as a Councillor. Dr. James Russell is licensed. 

September 19. Samuel Redhead returned for 
Willoughby Bay vice Shute Shrimpton Yeamans. 
Peter Glass, James Brown, George Savage, John 
Trotter, John Lindsay, William Livingston, James 
Bolan, Dennis McMahon, Theodore Walrond, James 
Barton, and Dr. Bogue to serve in the Troop. 

October 10. By the royal instructions seven 
Members of Council must be always on the Island. 
Richard Tyrrell takes his seat at the Board and is 
sworn as J. P. 

November 10. James Brebner, Esq., takes the 



CVIU 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



oaths as a Practitioner of Law. Joseph Lyons being 
dead, his seat for Willoughby Bay is vacant, also 
Henry Douglas', he being now a Councillor. 

December 8. John Stevens, Esq., returned for 
Old Eoad vice Henry Douglas, and Martin Goble for 
Willoughby Bay vice Joseph Lyons. The Planters' 
Club in London is referred to. 

1748. Ships taken ou both sides. 
(' Gentleman's Magazine.') 

Jan. A Frencli privateer carry'd by an English man of 
war into Antigua. The Charming Betty, Smith, from New 
Hampshire for Antigua ; the Warren, Ashur, from Antigua 
to Barbadoes ; the Speedwell, Ashwell, from Antigua, all 
car. to Guardaloupe. 

Feb. A French shij), one of the outward bound West 
India fleet, taken by the Anne and Mary, Johnson, and 
sent into Antigua. 

Mar. The Philibert, from Quebec to Martinico, taken 
by the S' Stephen, Williams, car. into Antigua. The 
Amitie, Reine Hester, Prelada de Comerat, La Coronne de 
Havre, L'Es[jerance, S' Pierre, La Felicite, and Triton, 
from France to Martinico, taken by the Captain, Dread- 
nought, Dragon and Ludlow men of war, and carry'd into 
Antigua. The I'Amitie, for San Domingo, car. into Antigna 
by Capt. Johnson from Liverpool. The Charming Molly, 
Young, from Antigua for London, and the Peggy, Vavasor, 
from Cape Faro for Bristol, retaken by the English sailors 
left on board, and carried into Antigua. The Industry, 
CoUinson, from Cape Fear for Antigua, car. into Guada- 
loupe. The Bermudian, Mansell, from the Madeiras for 
Antigua, car. into Porto Rico. The Frederick, Woolaud, 
from Antigua for Nevis, car. into Martinico. 

April, zi rich Spanish register ship, and several S' 
Domingo men, car. by the Antelope priv. to Antigua. The 
ship of Capt. Magdale, from Philadelphia for Antigna, taken 
by the French. The Rebecca, Benson, from Cork for 
Antigua, taken by a French privateer. 

May. A Spanish sloop of 200 tons, with great treasure, 
taken by a sloop of war near Antigua. The Oporto Mer- 
chant Brigantine, Wilson, from Antigua to Ireland, taken by 
the French. The John and Mary, Crawford, from Antigua to 
London, car. into Guardaloup. The Bracelet, Woodhouse, 
from Lancaster to Antigua, car. into Bayonne. The Tryal, 
from Maryland to Antigua, retaken by us later. 

June. Extract of a Letter from Sylvanus Carr, Com- 
mander of the John and William of Boston :— " On Dec. 20, 
14 leagues to windward of Antigua, about half after 12, we 
engaged with a French privateer sloop of 8 carriage, 14 
Bwivel guns, and 120 men, who after an hour and half 
boarded us with 60 odd hands, and then sheer'd off on 
receiving three round and two double-headed shot from ub, 
besides 3 shot between wind and water, leaving the 60 odd 
men aboard us, with musquets, pistols, cutlasses and pole- 
axes. We then took to our close quarters, and had work 
■enough till between 8 and 9 at night, when they call'd for 
quarter, having seven kill'd and many wounded ; the fight 
had been shorter, had the 2ud mate done his duty in the 
forecastle ; but he and 4 men with him never fired a gun, 
nor blew off his powder chests, but, on the contrary, cry'd 
out for quarters, hove over all his powder out of one of the 
ports, and suffer'd the French to cut the half deck thro' 
•with their poleaxes. The Frenchmen made oath before the 
judge of the Admiralty at Antigua, that they had above .30 
men kill'd and mortally wounded ; our ship was much 
damaged, but we had not one man hurt." The Ranger, 
Kilner, from Lancaster to Antigua, the Martha, Adams, & 
the Leeward Islands Packet, Hilton, from S' Kitts to 
Antigua, taken by the French. The Martha, Oliver, from 
Boston to the Leeward Islands, carry'd into Martinico. 



The Scarborough, Murphy, from Antigua, ransom'd. A 
large ship, 18 guns six pounders, and 36 men, from Pisca- 
taqua to Antigua. The Ceres, Laverance, from Dartmouth 
for Antigua, taken by a Spanish privateer. The Molly, 
Walker, from London for Antigua, car. into Martinico. 
The Rosewin, Atwell, from Bristol for Antigua, car. to 
Guardaloupe. The William, Slone, from Dublin for Antigua, 
car. to Martinico. The Charming Rebecca, Hartley, from 
Piscataqua for Antigua ; the Dephight, Stewart, from Cork 
for Antigua ; the Christian, . . . ., from S' Croix for Antigua; 
the Dolphin, Sandford, from New Loudon for Antigua ; the 
Seaflower, Oliver, from Boston for Antigua, car. into 
Guardaloupe. 

July. A Martinico ship, with cotton, coffee, etc., car. 
into Antigua. The Swan, Robinson, from Virginia for 
Antigua, car. to Martim'co. The William and Sarah, 
Stephens, from Antigua for Boston, taken by a French priv. 
of 20 guns and 150 men. The Amsterdam, Blackadore, 
from N. England for Antigua, car. into Martinico. The 
Kenly Frigate, Portland, with some others, from Ireland 
for Antigua. 

Aug. Tiie Prince of Orange, Turner, from Rhode 
Island; the Charlotte, Veizie, from N. York; and the 
Carolina, Combes, from Boston, all for Antigua, car. to 
Martinico 

Sep. The Welstead brigantine. Wood, from Antigua 
for Boston, taken by a French priv. The George and 
Fanny, from Africa and Antigua for Jamaica, car. into 
Hispaniola. 

1749, June 1, Patrick Malcolm presents his 
diploma from Surgeons' Hall and is licensed, also 
Mr. Fraser, who had a certificate from Dr. Alexander 
Fraser, and Dr. John Dunbar. 



July 
Harry Webb 
Dan. Warner 
Jn" Hart 
Walt. Tullideph 
Jas. Doijr 
Jn° Brooke 
Jn" Stevens 
Rob. ChriBtian 
Fra. Farley 
Sam. Redhead 
Ham. Kerby 
Tho. Elmes 
Martin Goble 
Xich. Collins 
Jn" Jefferson 
Nath. Gilbert, Sen. 
Nath. Gilbert, Jun. 
Row. Ash 
Steph. Blizard 
Tho. Warner 
Tho. .Tarvis 
W"' Mackinen 
Geo. Weatherill 
Jn" Watkins 
Edw. Home 



25. New Sessions. 



S' Johns Town. 



Five Islands. 



Old Road & Bermudian Valley. 

Falmouth & Rendesvous Bay. 

Willougfhby Bay. 

Nonsuch. 

Belfast. 

Old North Sound. 

New North Sound. 

Popeshead. 

Dickinsons Bay. 

S' Johns Division. 



Stephen Blizard chosen Speaker. 

The late earthquake has injured the Magazine 
and James Fort. Mr. Ashton Warner, who has a 
diploma from Surgeons' Hall, and Mr. James Boag 
are licensed to practise Medicine and Surgery. 
William Syms, Henry West, John Graham, Dr. 
Byrne, Patrick Malcolm, Samuel Harman, jun., and 
.... Saunderson, jun., to join the Troop. 

July 25. The new Court House will be completed 
by 1st March next. 

1750, March 29. Stephen Blizard is appointed 
Chief Justice vice William Lavington resigned. 
Governor Mathewhasthe King's licence to be absent 
for twelve months. The Rev. Francis Byam, who 
formerly sat at the Council, is to again have his seat 
as the youngest member. 







View of Ihe, ^nlra rrc^. ^ /. „ ;^j^ Tfar Jot^r <^??-tiQtj.a.. 

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t>' 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



cix 



April 12. Hon. Edward Byam resigns his seat. 
Rowland Oliver, Esq., appointed a Puisne Judge of 
of the Court of Common Pleas vice Hon. William 
Lavington resigned. Charles Dunbar^ Esq., the Senior 
Member of Council, is on account of his age, deafness, 
and other infirmities incapacitated to act as Presi- 
dent and is asked to resign, which he refuses to do. 
Many complain of his litigious and oppressive spirit, 
and say that he had been court-martialled for dis- 
couraging the people from entering into the defence 
of the Island. 

Api-il 18. Dr. Archibald Ramsey, having a proper 
certificate, is licensed. Hon. Charles Dunbar has 
been suspended. Nathaniel Gilbert, sen., and Daniel 
Warner take their seats at the Council. William 
Patterson, Esq., is the new Surveyor-General of the 
Customs. 

April 26. Charles Dunbar returns his answer, 
denying the said charges : — States that he is only 
turned 66, that the late John Yeamans, Esq., was 
equally deaf and also used like artificial help, and does 
not know why he was removed from the Surveyorship 
of the Customs. He was court-martialled for having 
put up a notice on his house in French, when several 
of their ships were running down the coast, promising 
that he would ransom his house and stores should 
they be captured. He submits to the wishes of the 
Council and Assembly, but sends a remonstrance to 
the Governor, who, however, struck his name off the 
Council. English Harbour was at this time secured 
with a boom. 

May 14. Thomas Lessly is returned for St. 
John's Town vice Daniel Warner, and Joshua Crump 
for Old North Sound vice Nathaniel Gilbert, sen. 

October 11. Stephen Blizard sends his Letter of 
resignation. 

October 30. Samuel Martin is returned for New 
North Sound vice Stephen Blizard, and is elected 
Speaker. 

November 17. Ralph Payne, Esq., writes to 
Governor Fleming that the President of the Spanish 
part of St. Domingo was on his way home with 
£200,000 sterling on his galleon, that her convoy was 
dispersed by a storm and she driven ashore in North 
Carolina, where he hired two sloops to take him 
home. Some villains, however, sailed off with one of 
them and took all the treasure to Norman's Island 
near Tortola, where they buried it, which place 
belongs to the heirs of Colonel Phipps. Their secret 
having been divulged people from Tortola dug up the 
treasure after the pirates' departure. The Spanish 
Governor demands restitution. On receiving the 
above news Governor Gilbert Fleming himself went 
down to Tortola, but he was not successful in recover- 
ing more than 20,428 dollars besides £7514, which 
certain of the inhabitants were allowed to retain. 
(America and West Indies, No. 55.) 

A Memorial was forwarded to the Lords Com'issioners 
of Trade & Plantations stating that the best negros come 
from AVhydaw & the Gold Coast. The Bristol & Liverpool 
chuse to go to Calabar, Angola, & the Bite, because they 
are cheaper there but inferior. We shall be ruined for want 



of Caramantee, Fantee & Poppa negros. By the failure of 
the African Co. our rivals now have the trade. 

1751. The papers sent home this year are 
apparently missing. 

1752. July 28. Permission was given at White- 
hall this day for Governor Fleming to have one year's 
leave. i 

November 10. Samuel Nibbs returned for Dick- 
inson's Bay vice George Weatherill resigned. Rowland 
Hamilton is Lieut. -Colonel of all the forts, Hon. John 
Gunthorpe powder-offiicer, Hon. John Tomlinson 
President. Sherrington Talbot writes that the 
barracks should have been built on Denning's Hill, a 
small eminence a quarter of a mile from the town, 
which with 50 acres was afterwards purchased by 
Walter Nugent, Esq., for only £400 sterling. Benja- 
min King, Esq., forwarded a memorial to His 
Majesty stating : — that he fitted out privateers at a 
cost of £15,000, destroyed French ships and took five 
privateers when he captured St. Bartholomew, and 
complains that he has lost £25,000 through the 
Governor's action. 

1753. The new style commenced this year at 
Antigua. 

Feb. 7. 
Jer. Nibbs. Jos. Farley. 

Sam. Home. Jas. Furlong. 

Bap. Looby. Jas. Bridges. 



Sam. Warner. 
Geo. Byam. 
Edw. Burke, 
to join Troop. 



March 19. Hon. James Emra to be powder- 
officer. 

April 11. Edward Otto Baijer takes his seat at 
the Council by a mandamus from the Right Hon. 
the Lords Justices. 

April 27. Hon. Andrew Lessly signs as President. 

July 2. The commission of His Excellency 
George Thomas, Esq., Captain-General, etc., was this 
day read. 

July 17. Dr. William Mushet, who has a degree 
from Cambridge University and a testimonium from 
the College of Physicians, petitions for a licence to 
practise. 

August 10. Rowland Oliver, Esq., is appointed 
to the Council vice Charles Dunbar resigned, and takes 
his seat. 

1753. A List of the Inhabitants of the Island of 
Antigua taken by the Order of His Excellency George 
Thomas, Esq"', Captain-General and Governour-in-Chief of 
His Majesties Leeward Charibbee Islands in America. 
The Town of S' Johns. 



Familya. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boya. 


Girls. 


Isaac Anderson 


2 


1 


1 


1 


John Grice 




2 


1 




John Murphy . 








3 


Aaron Ward 










Cath. Canham . 










John Lang'ley . 










.John Leycraft . 










James Townsend 










John Jacobs 










Geo. Glover 








2 


John James 






1 


1 


Zach. Fowler . 








3 


John Wills 






1 




W™ Griffith 


not able 1 








Marg' Wells . 










John Ireland . 










John Thibou . 






1 


- 


Rob. Glover 


1 








Dan. Warner, Esq' . 


2 




9 


3 


Hen. Griffith . 










Cha. Murdell . 


1 









ex 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Familys. 

Dav. Watson 
Neil Campbell 
Tho. Stevens 
Pet. Thibou 
Jas. Rattan 
Mary Woodall 
Sarah Crook 
Rose Poole 
Rich. Welch 
Phil. Cook 
Ralph Waite 
Tho. Chafing-s 
Abig. Winthroope 
W» Moore . 
Elinor Stone 
Eliz. Noye 
W*" Bogrers 
Ja. Thibou 
Eliz. Scatliffe 
John Fosut 
John Williams 
Jas. Watson 
Sarah Hughes 
Jos. Hall . 
Afie Taylor 
Hen. EUyatt 
Tho. German 
Dav. Haycocke 
\V" Thorney 
Elinor Thurloe 
Hen. Thompson 
Marg' Athy 
Abig. Duncombe 
W" McDonald 
Ann Higgins 
Abra. Lafarte 
John Thibou, Sen, 
Jane Lawrence 
Phillip Hall 
Penel' Halliday 
W" Brunsell 
Jas. Watkins 
W" Lessley 
Jn" Payne 
Jn" EUyatt 
Cath. Dunstan 
Jas. Davis 
Rob. Johnson 
Joan Murphy 
Tho. Elliott 
Jos' Harrison 
Thos. Poole 
Ju" Bickford 
Geo. Pollixfin 
Gus. Hamilton 
Sarah Addison 
Martha Mills 
Jn° Burton 
Jas. Hanson 
Jane Bowen 
Sarah Wilson 
Ann Gorman 
Alex. Crawford, 
Jas. Furlong 
Mich. FoUin 
Cha. Kerr . 
Mary Felton 
John Stuart 
AmVirose Torke 
Jn° Jenkins 
Tho. (Jross 
Jn" Martino 
Eliz. Montero 
Jos. Lee . 
Ann Duncombe 
Jas. Franklyn 
Geo. Reed . 
Mary Dixon 
W" Fielding 
Eliz. Salter 
Tho. Bridges 
J. G. Browne 
Jn" English 
W" Topham 
Edw" Jones 
Jn° Yeamans 
Sime" Worlock 
Rich. Danbow 
Arch'' Cochran 
W" King . 
Nat. Kenslow 
Mary Roberts 
Jn° Ives . 
W" Flower 
W" Keeling 
Do. Douglas 
Hen. Byrne 
Jas. Brenan 
Mary Denning 
Mary Glover 
Duncan Grant 
Geo. Harney 
W" ? .irtino 
Cha. r.ryant 
Jn° I' imilton 
Sam. vVatkins 



Esq' 



not able 



Men. 
1 
2 
1 
1 



Women. 



Boy3. 



not able 



lirls. 


Familys. 






Men. 


Women. 




Anth" Garnett .... 1 


3 




Jn" Hillhouse . 










2 


Ben. Stutely 










1 


Rebecca JIasou 
D' Sam. Young 
Lewis Stevens . 










2 


Law. Nihell 
Ambrose Curtle 
Eliz. Nibbs 
Geo. Flower 
W- G. Hillhouse 
Rich" Hillhouse 
Mary Strong . 
Sam. Hoskius . 
Jn" Chalmers . 
W" Anderton . 
Peter Guicheneat 
Ann Lenine 
Cath. Barnes . 
Mary Whitfield 








[blank] 
2 

2 

1 
2 
1 


1 


Ann Crawford . 
Joseph Jaggers 
Eliz. McSweeny 
Simon Fishwyke 






1 
1 


1 
2 




John Tom 






1 


1 




Ann EUyatt 








1 




Ann Sampson . 








1 




Jn" Parry . 






1 


i 




Rich. McCartney 






2 


1 




Tho. Hanson . 






3 


4 




Lydia Butler . 








1 


1 


Jn" D. M urphy . 






1 






Peter Denap 






1 


1 




John HalUday . 






3 


2 


1 


Mary Devereux 
Rachael Boone . 








3 

2 


1 


Jn° Haycocke . 
Sam. Boone 






1 
1 




1 


Sarah Griffith . 
Elinor Gauthony 








1 
1 




Jn" Budden 






1 


2 




Rob. Merchant . 






1 


1 




And. Lessley, Esq' 






3 


1 


1 


Cath. Elsinore . 
Ann Dugan 








1 
1 




Rob. Iiambert . 






1 


1 




Jos'" Lynch 






1 


1 


1 


Jer. Skerrett 






1 


1 




Jn" Winstanley 






1 


1 




Rob. Mears 






1 


1 




Sam. Smith 






1 






Lear Levingston 






1 




2 


Ann Smith 
Dan. McClanegan 
Rob. Butler 
Mary Bryan 






1 
1 


1 
1 




Edw. Richards . 






1 


1 




Eliz. Bryant 








1 


1 


Marg' Salmon . 






1 


2 




Mart" Soper CuUy 






1 


1 




Nath. Messum . 






2 






Rob. Cullen 






3 


1 




Eliz. Stevens . 








2 




Jn* Fenley 






1 






Sarah McCoy , 








1 


1 


Marg' Baker 
Geo, Lingan 
Geo. Lavicunt . 
Mary Prior 
Judith Leote . 
Mary Read 
Dennis McMahon 
Tho. Bell . 






1 

1 

1 
1 


1 

I 

1 
1 




Jos'' Weston 






1 


2 


2 


Sarah Purvis . 
Jn" Watson 






1 


1 




Jn" Paterson (Joinei 


) 




3 






Faith" Fitzgerald 








1 




Pat. Byrne 






3 






Jn° Paterson (Shoerc 


laker 


) 


1 






Sarah Peller . 








2 




George Jenkins 






1 


1 




Eliz> Young 








1 




John Supple 






1 


1 




Sarah White . 








2 




Ja* Russell 






1 






Ja'* Clinch 






1 


1 




Tho- Osborne . 






1 


1 




Jn" Hazlewood . 






1 






Fran' Garrick . 






1 






Tho" Gorm.an . 






1 


1 


1 


Anthony Fletcher 






2 


3 




Ja* Howison 






4 


1 




Sam' Lyons 






1 


3 




Ann Tanner 








1 




Mary Nowell , 








1 




Jane Ronan 








1 




D' Nicholson 






1 






John Hall 






1 






Eliz" Pearce 








1 


1 


Mary Crockett . 








1 


2 


Alex' Shipton . 






1 


1 




Tho" Nichols . 


. 2 


not < 


ible 5 


1 


1 


Geo. Rapper 






1 


1 




W" Mills . 






1 


1 




Dinah Christian 








1 



Boys 



Girls. 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



Faniilya. 
Sarah Ball 
Sam' Lovely 
W" Dickinson 
Jn" Reynolds 
Jn" Scandrett 
Rob' Poole 
W™ Buckley 
D' Ashton Warner 
Tho» Lillie 
EdW Monteigue 
Dan' Lillie 
Sarah Dooly 
Eliz. Watkins . 
Mary Godfrey . 
Ulrick Fickleshire 
Jos'' Monteigue 
Tho' Donalson . 
Peter Welcker . 
Rob' Cochran . 
Elinor Mason . 
Jos'" Borroughston 
John Simms 
Mary Martin 
Geo. Roberts 
And^^' Bodkin . 
Eliz" Millar 
Margt. King 
Tho- Caddie . 
Mary M'Dougal 
Tho' Hughes . 
Mansfield Orde 
Rich'' Morley . 
Jn" Morrison 
W' Walker 
Era- Elliott 
Rob. Paul 
Gregory M^CuIper 
Jn" Bannister . 
Jn" Williams . 
Rebecca Christopher 
Jn" Nethercutt . 

Sarah Denbow . 
Geo. Walker 

Ralph Walker . 
Tho" Kidder . 

W'" Warner 
Jn° Lindsay 

Isaac Caton 

Nath. Redhead . 
Jn" Monteigue . 

And'*' Phinnick 

W'" Simms 

Rich'' Hillhouse 

Henrietta Bezune 

Fran" Brinchoff 

Fran" Smith 

Sarah Crispin . 

Tho» Lessley. Esq"' 

Tho" Smith 

W"" J3arnes 

Geo. Manly 

W"' Furlong 

Henry Johnson 

W"' Hudson 

Rich'' Barnen . 

Henry Langley 

Rich" Wells 

Jos'" Hawes 

Eliz. Licorish . 

Marg' Jones 

George Baker . 

Jn" Dring . 

Jos'" Pediar 

W'" Pullf-n 

David M'CuUum 

Ja" Bailey . 

Rebecca Booth . 

Elinor Mathews 

Merrick Turnbull 

Jn° Smith 

Mary Weeds 

Russell White 

Geo. Foreman 

David Scott 

Rich'' Southwell 

Henry Darcus 

W-" White 

W" Revely 

Carter Stevens 

Jonas Brakell 

W"" Monro 

Rich'' Vallence . 

W"" Clenston 

Judith Williams 

Rich'' Ottley 

Peter Norton 

Ja* Knewstubb 

Alex' Fraser, Esq' 

John Birkett . 

Rob. Townsend 

Ann Redmond 

Marg' f 'ow'in 

Joanna Slaney 
Mary Oneal 

Ja* Kelley 

Nich' Power 



not able 



Men. 

1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
5 
1 
2 
1 
2 



not able 1 



Women. 
1 
1 
4 
2 

2 
2 
1 
2 
3 

1 
1 
1 



Boya. 



Girls. 



1 

2 
1 



Familys. 
Tho" Adshead 
Tho' Williams 
Henry Allen 
Jn" Iremain 
Cath. Phillips 
Timothy Henry 
Tho" Hicks 
Warner Tempest 
David Fogo 
W" Patey . 
Sophia Blizard 
Ja' Kelley 
Jn" Phillips 
W"" Correll 
Jn" Meany 
Jn" Harris 
Richard Ryllion 
Tho" Cochran . 
Marg' Saunders 
Jn° Martin, Jun' 
Jn" Perry . 
D' W" Gordon 
Jn" Sprainger 
Tho" Moore 
Henry Bonnin 
Jn° Smith, Juu' 
Rob' James 
Jn" Stevens 
Jn° Tough 
Jn" Parr . 
Benj" Mecom 
Ja" Birkett 
Ja" Butler . 
Ja" Reeves 
Jn" Ruby . 
Bridget M'^Cabe 
Lydia Bendall 
Mary Whitell 
Ja" Barren 
Geo. GriiBth 
Sam' Martin 
W"" Evans 
Cha* Dunbar, Esq' 
Ja" Doeg, Esq' 
Jn" Lind.'ay, Esq' 
Edw* Burke 
Patrick White 
Hester Combett 
W"" Cassen 
Rich'' Graham 
Jn" Dunn . 
Ann Boudinott 
Geo. Savage 
Eliz" Colsworthy 
John Blane 
W-" Forbes 
Sarah Wilson, G. T, 
Eliz. Johnson 
D' Jas. Dewar 
John Rule 
EdW Bull 
Hugh Hext 
Elinor Prinn 
Jn" Gillchrist 
Rich'' Lee, Esq 
Chas. Martin 
Patrick Higgius 
Benj" Walker 
Geo. Dalzell 
Joseph Merry 
W'" Campbell 
Jas. Walker, Jun' 
Cath. White 
EdW" Stevenson 
Cath. Webb 
Marg' Payne 
Eliz. Sherwood 
Era" Weir . 
Jas. Boag . 
Gawen Montgomery 
Martha Martin 
Michael Darvey 
Mary Harrox . 
Cath, Carty 
Jn" Hoskius 
Geo. Swan 
James Cook 
Sam' Gunthorpe 
W"' Bird . 
W" Denning 
Cath. Weatherill 
Mary Rjnan 
Sarah Johnson . 
Mary Morris 
Eliz. MuUaire . 
Marg' Bruster . 
W" Dunbar, Esq' 
Mary Pritchard 
Edw' Warner, Esq' 
Robert Baker . 
Jeremy Blizard 
Geo. Hilton 
Ebenezer Hughes 
Eliz. Pritchard . 
Henry Dunstan 
W" Wardsworth 



not 



Men. Women. Boys. 



CXI 

Girls. 



able 



1 



[blank] 
[blank] 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 
2 
1 



CXll 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Familys. 
Henry Kirtland 
Eliz. Abraham . 
Gertrude Soper 
Mary Hamilton 
Gertrude Hamilton 
Eachael Armstrong 
Marg' Merchant 
Simon Minikey 
Mary Antrobus 
Jn" Humphries 
Joseph Pedlar . 
Capt. W" Gordon 
Jn° Hawes 
Fra" Portavine . 
Maria Browne . 
Mary Bennett . 
Jn^ Scaunal 
Rebecca Hubbard 
John King, ReW" 
Eliz. Nibbs 
Alex' Stuart 
Harry Webb, Esq' 
Mary Warden . 
Henrietta Soper 
Jas. Walker, Sen' 
Era' Andrews . 
Grace Lightfoot 
Prudence Gregory 
Ann Seymour 
Eliz. Lowrey 
Mary Howard 
Sam' Carty 
Henry Smith 
Eliz. Mathews 
Alex' Proctor 
Ann Martin 
Tho" Eraser 
Letitia Lockhart 
Sarah Portavine 
Marg' Cooke 
Rachel Browne 
Peter Delanoy 
Tho" Lessley 
Geo. M'^Dougal 
Jane Hawes 
Simon Day 
Simon Aska 
Sarah Ankittle 
Sarah Reynolds 
Cath. Murray . 
John White 
Sam' Husbands 
Tho" Berry 
Patrick Barry . 
W'" Cane . 
Henry Burke . 
Nath. Lucas 
Cressey Bryan . 
W"" Strong 
Christopher Ceely 
John Hart 
Cha" Wager Mann 
Edward Tyley . 
Jn" Conyers 
Jn" Walven 
Geo. Bingham . 
Nath. Gilbert, Jun' 
Jonathan Chandler 
Tho" Hart 
Thos. Martin . 
Hen. Guicheneat 
Mich. Lovell 
Anna Stevens . 
Eliz. Knight 
Jn" Knight 
Elias Ferris 
Geo. Fleming . 
Mary Crump 
Cath. Falkner . 
Hen. Bingham . 
Jn" Foster 
Eliz. Glanville . 
Hannah Vollard 
Marg' Mascall . 
Richard Irwin . 
Ja" Storrick 
Alex' Tavlor 
Tho" May . 
Marg' Chamberlain 
Eliz. Burton 
Geo. Morgan 
Jos'' Manwaring 
Marg' Carty 
Jane Nibbs 
Peter M'^Adam . 
Eliz. Delap 
Tho" Maddox . 
W"" Geo. Crabb . 
Marg' Mahany . 
Elinor Hazlewood 
Ann Alien 
Tho" Hazlewood 
Anth. Jones 
W"" Denbow 
Tho' Sawcolt . 
Jacob Huyghue 



not 



Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Pamilya. 


1 


1 






Mary Sawcolt . 




1 
1 


1 


3 

1 


Arch'' Hillhouse 
Daniel Parke . 




1 

1 
1 

2 


1 


1 


Lucy Dunbar Parke 
Anne Keynell . 
Marg' Toole . 
Jacob Fletcher 


1 


1 

1 




1 


Joyce Hillhouse 
Eliz" Bradshaw 


1 








Ann Lambart . 


1 








Era" Traverse . 


1 








Elinor Denbow 


1 


3 

1 
1 
1 


3 


1 


Charl' Thomson 
Eliz" Fletcher . 
Jn" Ellyatt 
Anth" Young . 


e 1 








Cath. Scott 




2 


1 


1 


Era- Tuffe . 




2 


3 


1 


Dorothy Crabb . 




1 






Jn° Gallwey 


1 








Fra" Rain . 


3 


1 






Jn" Manwaring 




1 


1 




John Risby 




1 




1 


Eliz. Rawlins . 


3 


1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 






Rich. Peters 
Eliz" Darlow . 
Tho" Evans 
Rachel Reynolds 
Tho" Curry 
Eliz. Carnegy . 
Rich'' Hudson . 


1 








Jos'" Davison . 


1 


1 
1 






Alex' Willock . 
Ann Hardtman 


2 


1 
3 






Eliz. Yates 
Mary Mead 


1 


2 


1 




Arthur Wilkinson . 




1 


2 


2 


Mathew Donning 




1 






Era" James 




1 






Esau Ramsay . 




1 


1 




Ann Peller 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Mary Hughes . 


1 








Anth" Bezune . 


1 


1 






Alex' Ramsav . 
Eliz. Alihaud . 


1 


1 






Rich'' Sheepshank 


1 


1 


5 


2 


Rich'' Lee . 




1 


1 




Mary Blowers . 




1 






Edw' Green 




4 






W'" Bailey 


1 


1 






Mary Ann Oliver 


1 


1 






Sarah Dugdull . 


1 








Edw" Reed 


1 








Eliz" Warner . 


1 








EdW^ Welch . 


1 








Jn" Nicholson . 


1 








Eliz" Wearum . 


1 


1 






Jn" Tidhope 


1 








Jn" Stokes 


1 


2 


1 




Jos'" Buckley . 


2 




1 




Ja" Buwey 


1 








Sarah Smith . 


2 




1 




Magnus Cooper 


1 








Marg' Reed 


1 








Jacob Alihaud . 


,S 


1 






Jn" Wise . 


1 


1 


1 




Lucy Gibbons . 


1 








Ann Godsell 


1 








Rich" Toppin . 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Ann Dempsey . 


1 


i 






John Gattley . 


2 


3 
1 


1 


2 


Eliz" Parker . 
Mary Murray . 




2 


1 




David Allen 


1 








Joanna Griffith 


1 








Sarah Sedgwick 


1 


2 
1 






Rebecca Horton 
Nath. Booth 
Mary Saville . 


1 








Sarah Roach . 


1 








Mary Nitell 




2 


1 




W'" Shervington 




1 




1 


Eliz. Fontaineu 




1 




2 


W"'Day . 


2 


1 






Ca;sar Roach . 


1 








Eliz" Kidd 


1 








Gabriel Thibou 


1 








Susan'' Nibbs . 




1 




1 


Eliz. Copleman . 




2 


2 


7 


Tho" Huyghue . 


1 


2 


1 


1 


Cath. Slaney 


1 


1 






Ja" Nihpll . 

Jn" Watkins. Esq' . 




3 


•1 


1 


Cha" Wignole . 


1 








Sarah Scannall 




1 


2 


4 


EdW Gamble . 


1 


1 




1 


Hugh Sliewcraft 


1 


[blank] 






Ja' Barton 
Rebecca Cheney 




2 


1 


1 


Tyrrell Herbert 




1 




1 


EdW Home, Esq' . 
Lawrence Nihell, Jun 


1 


1 






Caroline Claxton 


2 


4 




1 


Tho» Barry 


1 








Mary Brenan . 


2 


2 


2 


3 


W" Mussett 



not 



able 



Men, 
3 
4 
1 



Women. 
2 
1 

1 
1 

2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
3 
2 



Boys. 



Girls. 
I 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



cxm 



Fttiuilys. 






Men. 


Womeu. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Familys. 




Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Gir 


Charity Jervis .... 


1 




10 


Samuel Massett ... 4 


1 


1 




Ja' Alley . 














John Addis 


1 


2 


1 




Jn" Green way . 








1 




1 


Eliz. Douglass . 




2 






Eliz. Stevens . 








1 




1 


W'" Burton 


2 








Fra» Andiens . 








1 






Phillip Ronan, Jun' 


1 




3 


1 


Baptist Looby . 














Eliz" Carroll . 


1 








Marg' Clerk 








1 






Marg' Salnarve 








1 


Mary Allen 








1 






Ann Williamson 








1 


Weavil Smith . 














W'" Reynolds .... 


1 




2 


3 


Jn" Warren 








1 




2 


Geo. Thomas, Jun', Esq' . 


1 








Jane Osborne . 








2 






Eliz" Watson . 






1 


7 


Jane Fisher 








2 




1 


Samuel Hawse . 


1 








G. F. N Pearce . 














James Brebnar . 


1 






1 


Sam' Franks . 










1 


1 


Phillip Jones . 


1 




2 


1 


Jane Leary 








1 






Phillip Ronan . 


4 




2 


1 


Lucy Goodall . 








1 






John Ronan 


3 




1 




Tho- Lynch 














Nicholas Jackson 


1 








John Smith 








1 






Edm'' More Masoal . 


1 




1 




Alex' Simms 








1 






Eliz" Scott 








1 


Ja' Winchester 








1 






Ann Wilson 








1 


Mary Sawcolt . 








1 






Parham Plantation . 


9 


3 


2 


1 


Sarah Martin . 








2 




1 


Bethells D> . . . 


4 








Jn" Graham 














Edward Byams 


4 








Jn" Martin 








1 


2 


1 


Jn" Wickhams, now Freemans 


4 


3 






Alex' Dean 






2 


1 


1 




Langfords 


1 


1 






Jane Irwin 








1 






Arthur Freemans 


3 








Mary Ann Surges 








1 






Col. Cochrans . 


2 


2 


1 




Mary Claxton . 








1 


1 


1 


Gov' Martins . 


2 








Henry Lee 






1 


1 






Judge Gordon . 


5 




1 




Rob' Browne . 






4 


1 




2 


Ham. Kerby 


2 


2 




1 


Jn° Evans . 






1 








John Duer 


5 








Tho" Barty 






1 






1 


S' W"' Codrington . 


17 




1 




Tho* Pouusford 






1 






1 


W"' Gunthorpe . 


1 


1 


1 


2 


Nath' Monk 






1 








John Pare 


2 








Tho» Bartlett . 






1 








Shute Shrimpton Yeamans 


2 


2 


1 


2 


Rich'' Pearce . 






1 
1 








John Sanderson 


2 


2 






Jn" VoUard 






















Arch'' Campbell 






4 

1 








Total . 


104 


52 


22 


24 


W"' Mathews . 












Elinor Finch . 








[blank] 






New North Sound 


Division. 






Jane Andrews . 
Jos'' Dewberry . 






1 




1 




Shepherds Estate 
Jeremiah Nibbs 




2 
1 


1 






Eliz. Richardson 
Ann Lynch 










2 




Barry Nibbs 

Tho" Gravenor, Esq' 

Hamilton Kerby, Esq' 




2 
3 


2 
4 


1 


2 


Jn° Bromtield . 
W" Welch 
Ann Paynter . 






1 

1 




1 






4 


1 




1 












Rowl'' Otto Bayer . 
General Thomas's 




3 

4 


1 
3 


2 




Eliz. Vickers 














RowP Ash. Esq' 
Doctor Frazier . 




3 


3 


1 


2 


Judith MuUins 
















2 








Geo. Stacpoole . 






1 






2 


Hamilton's Estate . 
Nichol's . 
Gov Tomlinson's 
Arthur Williams 




2 
2 
8 
2 


1 


2 




Familys 701 


594 


622 


222 


230 












1 


S' Johns Division. 






W"' Meredith . 




2 


4 


3 


4 


Walter Nugent 
Charles Dunbar 
John Lindsay . 
Jonas Langford 
Abram. Redwood 






8 
4 
1 
4 
1 


5 
1 


1 
1 

3 


1 
1 


Powells Estate . 
Carlisles . 
Giles Blizard . 
W'" Blizard 
James Grigg 
Frances Elliott 




2 
6 
4 
3 

1 


1 

4 
1 
1 


3 

2 


2 


John Tomlinsou 
Edward Williams 
Thomas Dwitt . 
Nath' Gilbert . 
Tho" Warner . 
Tho" Parker 
Richard Kirwan 
John Sawcolt . 
Tho" Peige 
Benj" Ard 
M'" Desilven 
James Keeling . 
George Harton 
Rob' Jacobs 
John Marchell . 
M" Blizard 
W- Young 
M"" Nan ton 
George Byam . 
W-" Horn' . 






5 
5 

1 
2 
6 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
.S 
2 
2 
4 
2 

6 


5 
2 

1 

2 

1 
3 
3 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
7 


1 

1 

2 

2 

1 
1 

1 

2 
3 


2 
3 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

2 
1 


W" Jarvis 
Peter Guilliat . 
Mathew Williams 
Stephen Blizard, Esq' 
Henry EUiat . 
Christ' Blizard . 
D' Jn" Richardson . 
Wintrops . 
Jos'" Williamson 
W" Wel.-h 
Rich" Buckley . 
Jos'" Guilliat 
Sarah Taxter . 

Nibbs 

Simon Atkinson 

Artey 

Col. Gunthorpe, Esq' 
W'" Byam . 
Ja" Nibbs, Esq' . 

Total 




6 
1 
1 

7 
1 
1 
2 

2 
'. 1 
1 
4 
2 

1 

7 
7 
6 


1 

2 
2 

2 
1 
1 
3 

1 

1 
4 
3 
1 
1 

1 
3 

2 


2 
1 

3 

1 
1 

2 
1 


I 
i 
3 

1 
2 

2 

1 


Edward Horn . 


106 


56 


25 


26 


Edward Hamilton 
W"- Allen 
John Host 






3 
3 
2 


1 
2 
3 


1 
3 




Popes I 










IKAD Division. 






Peter Kirwan . 






3 


3 






Tho' Jarvis, Esq' ... 2 


1 


2 


1 


Rowland Oliver 






9 


3 




2 


James Hudson . 












W'" Dunbar 






2 


1 






John Bird 






1 


1 




George Lucas . 






4 


2 






Jn° Darvill 






1 






Nath' Gilbert . 






3 


1 






Nal' Humphry . 






1 


1 


1 


Isaac Thibou . 






6 


3 


4 


4 


Sam' Jones 






1 


1 


1 


Rob' Nibbs 






2 


2 


1 




Na' Knight 






1 


1 




Merrick TurnbuU 








3 






Jn" Coppin 






1 






Edw" Otto Bayer 




• 










Jn" Treasher 












Jn" Weeks 








1 




1 


Barny Poole 












John Otto Bayer 






11 


8 


3 


3 


Tho' Burton . 






1 


1 




W'° Williamson 














W'" Cameron 












Dan' Mathew . 








1 






Rich" Ball 












John Lightfoot 








2 






Tho" Richey . 






1 




1 


George Clerk . 








2 






W'" Cisson 






1 






Margaret Paynter 








1 






Nat' Lavicount 






1 






Rob' M'^Laughliu 














Mary Hill . 






1 






W" Redhead . 








1 






Isaac Hughes . 






1 






Robert Bannister 






a 


2 


1 


2 


Giles Wilcox 






1 


1 




Catharine Nugent 








1 






Peter Wilcox, Jun' . 






1 






John Knight . 






3 


2 




3 


Sam' Hilton . 






1 






Joseph Greenway 






1 


1 




1 


Geo. Hilton 













CXIV 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Familya. 
Tim. Clarkley . 
Jn" Williamson 
W" Buirn . 
Tho" Soiies (not able) 
Dennis Ferrell . 
Bethel Clarkley 

Total . 



John Jeflreson 
John Nibbs 
Jos'' Todman 
John Mayer 
John Todman 
Peter Lavicount 
Kob' Mallam 
W" Garratt 
Benj" Steel 
Eob' Parry 
Ann Lowry 
And"' Martino 
Peter Addjitt 
Tho" Spencer 
EdW Willson 
Patrick Grant 
Jos'' Parker 
Mart" Laricount 
Ben]'" Wickham 
Jos'' Wickham . 
Mary Lideatt . 
John Irwin 
Sam' Lavicount 
Thos. Urlin 
W'° Mackaile . 
Nich» Collins . 
James Archer . 

Total 



Men. 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Women, 



Boys. 



Girls. 



28 



16 



Belfast Division. 
3 
1 
1 

2 
1 
3 
2 
3 



48 



37 



Falmouth Division. 



Rich'' Hoser 
Nat' Marchant 
Cath. Hughes 
Mary Bower 
James Irwin 
Mary Cockrom 
Eliz" Hale . 
Eliz" Bailey 
Marg-' M''Clashley 
Kich'' Nanton 
Jos'" Miller 
Eliz" Franks 
Cath. Brunan 
W'° Jones . 
Peter Jenks 
Jona" Nunn 
W'" Croziu 
Ja" Ware . 
W'° Davies 
Ja" Coakeley 
Tho' Morris 
Cha" Morris 
W"' Thompson 
Rebecca Mills 
Barbara Taylor 
Eliz" Taylor 
Mary Willson 
Rob' Carpenter 
Andrew Hiks 
Geo. Thomas 
W" Pajje . 
Rich'' PufEord 
Jn° Martin 
Rev. Rob' Davidson 
Tho' Freeman 
Peter Bawn 
W- Pike . 
Christ' Skelton 
Mary Stinson 
Eliz. Oysterman 
James Barton 
W"" Gaul . 
W" Barton 
Arch'' Ramsey 
Hamlyn Martin 
John Dawley 
W'" Great rix 
Jos'" Green 
Rowl^ Nanton 
Rob' Braokstone 
Sam' Winthrop 
John Martin 
Jos'" Green 
John Abbott 
Geo. Bladen 
Geo. Horsfort 
John Tankard 
Ja' Barter 
Rich" Tyrrell 
Gales Estate 
Hen. Warner 
Tho" Bodkin 
Jos'" Farley 
Jn° Yummons 
Rich'' Glover 



[blank] 



2 


2 


1 


1 


4 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 



1.5 



3 

20 



3 


1 


1 


1 




1 




1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


2 


1 



Familya. 
Dudley Sweeny 
W" Maxwell 
Cath. Horsfort 
Sweets Estate 
Corintons Ho. 
John Grant 
James Doe^ 
Daniel Mathew 

Total 



Meu. 


W 


omen. 


Boys. 


Girls 


1 




1 


1 




8 




1 
3 




1 


2 










1 










10 




1 






4 










2 











100 



67 



WiLLOUGHBY BAY DIVISION. 



Francis Delap . 
W" Thomas 
Est. Archib'' Cochran 
Rowland Frye . 
Martin Blake 
Vallence Morris 
Eliz. Looby 
John Lyons 
Steph. Lavinifton 
Rob' Christian . 
Jane Webb 
John Duer 

Totall . 



John Brooks, Esq' 
Stephen Lynch 
Jn" Darm" Nanton 
Roger Astley 
Geo. Halleron 
Tho' Byshop 
Sam' Marchant 
Jn° Francis 
Mary Swan 
Pat"* Cusack 
Lidia Trant 
Rich" Collins 
Valen. Browne 
Oliver Kirwan 
Marg' Ailhaud 
W"' Trant . 
Josiah Wipton 
Cajsar Trant 
W"' Torvat 
Rachel Farley 
Jas. Ailhaud 
Mary Francis 
Tho" Tracey 
Cath. Jacobs 
Rich" Nanton Wiptoa 
Jn" Cane . 
Rich" Chapman 
Theo. Greatrick 
Joshua Gittons 
W" Phillpot 
Jn" Smith . 
Jas. M'^Intier 
Paf* Arnold 
Edw" Stainner 
Sam' Franklyn 
Isaac Jacobs 
John Kidd 
Ju" Jordain 
James Welch 



31 



20 



Old Road Division. 



48 



44 



43 



10 



And"' Lessley, 
John Frye 
Jos'' Weston 
Era" Frye . 
John Stevens 
John Bolan 
Rob' Brown 
Mary Celey 



Rob' Bro'wne 

Cha* Dunbar 
Ja" Manwaring 
Jn" Sedgwick . 
Nath' Webb . 
John Foster 
W" Allen . 
Rob' Martin 
Cap' Sam' Martin 
Col. Sam' Martin 
James Doeg 
W Smith 
Nesbit Darby . 
Mary Hanson . 
Walter TuUideph 
John Watkins . 
Sam' Jennings . 
Geo. Leonard . 



Totall 



Beemudian 'Valley & New Division. 
Esq' 



5 


2 


5 


3 


1 




3 


1 


3 


1 


2 




4 


2 



New Division. 

6 
2 
4 
3 
2 
1 
3 
2 



35 



4 


3 




3 


4 


4 




4 


2 


5 


1 


5 


1 


2 




2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


6 


6 


G 


1 


2 


4 






1 


1 






1 








1 








1 


1 






1 


2 






1 


1 






1 








1 









18 



4 


2 
2 


1 
1 


2 
2 


23 


11 


7 


6 



2 


1 

1 




2 


55 
23 


29 
11 


16 
7 


15 
6 


78 


40 


23 


21 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



CXT 



Familys. 



Men. Women. 

Dickinsons Bay Division. 



W" Mackinnen 
Ja' Emra, Esq' . 
Widow Evanson 
Ju" Hillhouse . 
Mathew Christian 
Nat' Knight, Esq' 
Sam' Xibbs, Esq' 
Thos. Watkiiis, Esq' 
Rob' Gray," Esq' 
John Dunbar, Esq' 
Sam' Jones 
Brister Russell . 
Thomas Cross . 
Fort Hamilton . 
Corbesons point Fort 
James Brenan . 
Coll' Otto . 
Ja" Gambel 
Doct' Sydeshorf 
Ja" Barton 
Eph"" Jordon . 
Ja' Smith . 
Dan' Grant 



Total 



20 



Merceks Creek Division. 



Col. Nat. Gilbert 
Fra" Farley, Esq' 
George Crump, Esq' 
Sam' Redhead, Esq' 
Jn" Greenway . 
Edward Evanson 
Edw. Byam, Esq' 
S' W" Codrington 
Rich" Tuite, Esq' 
S' W"' Codrington 

Totall . 



24 



13 



Nonsuch Division. 



Boya. 



3 


4 




1 


4 


2 


1 notable 


2 


4 


3 


1 




1 








2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 






1 








2 


1 




1 


3 


1 


2 


1 



Rob' Moncreif 








1 






Tho" Elmes 








. 5 






Sam' Harman 








5 


2 


5 


W'° Murray 








3 


1 




W" Hunt . 








3 


2 


1 1 


Rob" Yille . 








2 






Martin Goble 








4 


1 




Jos'" Archbould 






3 






Ja' Hector Lony 






1 


1 


1 2 


Anth. Browne . 






1 


2 




Coleman Heyns 






1 






Cornel. Mineham 






1 


1 




W™ Sheriflf 






1 






Rowl'" Hamilton 






3 


1 


2 


Hen. Harding . 






1 


1 


1 


Hen. Symes 








3 


1 




Rich"" Cole 








2 


1 




John Hunt 








1 






Ma. Walrond 








3 


2 


i 


Sarah Pike 










2 




Cha. Williams 








2 






Sa. Symes . 










i 




Ben. Merchant 






■ 


1 






Eliz. Parry 










3 




Fra" Lyons 










1 




Pat" Cusack 








4 


2 


.5 


Geo. Reynolds 








1 


4 


3 


Ja' Anderson 








4 






Richard Clow 








1 






W" Lyons 








3 


I 




Rachel Kipps 










1 


1 


W" Bowin 








2 






Jn" Col burn 








1 


2 £ 




Tho' Malcher 








2 


1 1 




Marg' Harding 










1 


1 


W" Wallis 








3 


1 


2 


Jn" Holmes 








1 


1 




Hen. Kipps 








1 


1 1 




W" FoUiott 








1 


1 


3 


George Hopson 








I 


2 1 


2 


W" Hamilton 








2 


2 ^ 




Tho- Ryce 








2 


1 


1 


Rob' .^myth 








1 


1 1 




Paf" Wliite 








1 






Thos. Wilcocks . 








1 


1 




John Barber 








1 






Barbara Carey . 










1 




Sarah Symes . 










4 




W" Ossbistone . 








2 


1 1 


3 


Total . 


81 


.5.-) 21 


32 



Totall of Inhabitants in the Island of Antigua. 
Divisions. 



S' Johns Town . 


.594 


622 


222 


230 


S' Johns 


129 


78 


31 


29 


Old North Sound 


104 


52 


22 


24 


New North Sound 


106 


56 


25 


20 


Popes Head . 


28 


16 


8 


4 


Belfast 


48 


37 


15 


20 


Falmouth . 


100 


67 


43 


35 



Divisions. 
Willoughby Bay . 
Old Road .... 
Bermudian Valley cfc New 
Division .... 
Dickinsons Bay . 
Five Islands 
Mercers Creek 
Nonsuch .... 

Totall =3261 



Men. 
31 
48 

78 
42 
20 
24 
81 



Women. 
20 
44 

40 

17 

8 

13 



Boya. 
4 

18 

23 
8 
3 

5 
20 



Qirll. 
6 

18 

21 

9 

5 

7 
32 



1433 



1123 



439 



266 



1754, January 15. Edward Warner, Esq., is 
sworn as Deputy Provost-Marshal. 

April 8. Edward Otto Baijer had been appointed 
to the Council in 1748, but his name had been 
omitted from the new lists because it was thought 
that he would not return to Antigua. Their Lord- 
ships now require the Governor to restore him to his 
former rank and precedency. 

June 21. This day a patent was signed at 
Kensington for Harry Webb to be Attorney-General 
of the Leeward Islands. By Act of 11 December 
1754 provision was made for the erection of a new 
church at Parham Town in place of the old parish 
church of St. Peter. The ancient burial-ground in 
this parish is situated about two miles from the town, 
and it is probable that the old church was adjacent 
thereto. 

July 3. Petition of the churchwardens and 
vestry of St. Peter's for leave to bring in an Act to 
build a new church. 

July 18. Dr. James Stevenson, who has a cer- 
tificate from Sui-geons' Hall, Dr. James McKittrick, 
and Dr. William Campbell, are all licensed. 

The following are ordered to join the Troop : — 
Jn" Braham. Jn" Jenkins. Cha. Manning. 

W'" Buckley. W"' Campbell. Jn° Nethereott. 

Isaac Caton. Pat. Maxwell. Rob. Nibbs. 

Alex. Crawford. Robarts Merri- Rich. Pears. 
Jn" Inglese. field. Rich. Sheep- 

Elias Ferris. Josiali Martin. shanks. 

W"i Garrett Hill- Chas. Martin. Jn» Sherrifife. 

house. Jn° Muir. Carter Stevens. 

Jn° Harvey. Alex. Munro. Tho. Winter. 

£9000 was voted for the completion of the new 
barracks. 

September 12. Mr. John Sharpe, the Agent, is 
instructed to apply to the Crown for £4000 towards 
the barracks. 

On the 13* of September was a violent hurricane at the 
Leeward Islands, in which 15 vessels were run on shore at 
Montserrat and Antigua, and 5 at S' Kits, which had 
received great damage. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 529.) 

December 10. Walter Tullideph, having been 
called up to the Council, vacates his seat in the 
Assembly. 

1755, January 9. Thomas Jarvis, having been 
called up to the Council, vacates his seat in the 
Assembly. Thomas Barry takes the oaths as Clerk 
to the Council, and John Halliday is returned vice 
Walter Tullideph. 

February 12. William Dunbar is returned for 
Popeshead. 

March 14. Eowland Ash, Henry Byam, Thomas 
Lessly, and James Emra, Esqrs., are all sworn as 

J.P.'s. 

May 13. The Admiralty is asked to repair the 
forts at English Harbour. 



CXVl 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



May 30. A writer says that they are erecting 
new barracks at Antigua for 700 men at a cost of 
£18,000 sterling or £30,000 currency, tbe old ones 
being so bad. £3000 or £4000 may be granted by 
tbe King. 

June 4. Alexander Fraser, a Captain in Colonel 
Duroure's regiment, is sworn a J. P. 

June 24. Mandamus dated at Whitehall for 
Thomas Jarvis to be of the Council vice John Gun- 
thorpe deceased. 

June 27. William Home resigns his seat for St. 
John's Division. 

July 11. William Young is returned for St. 
John's Division vice William Home resigned. Robert 
Bakei, Surveyor-General, has recentlj- sounded 
English Harbour because a report had been spread 
that no ship over 50 guns could get in there, and 
Carlile Bay, Barbados (an open roadstead with foul 
anchorage), had been suggested as a better naval 
station. Mr. Baker swears that the soundings are 
the same as in 1722 when he piloted in H.M.S. 
"Hector," and in 1748 when he published his map 
of Antigua. 

July 22. Bills for £400 sterling on Samuel Fry, 
Esq., and £400 sterling on Richard Oliver, Esq., are 
drawn by the Assembly as four years' salary due to 
Mr. Sharpe the Agent. 

September 9. Captain Thomas Morris, store- 
keeper of Monk's Hill, is to be paid £30 a year. 

October 14. Richard Buckley petitions for the 
payment of £80 for his negro, who was executed for 
knocking down John Hodgkiss and robbing him of 
his hat. 

December 4. By the death of Thomas Elmes 
there is a vacancy in the Assembly. 

1756, January 20. Main Swete Walrond is 
returned vice Thomas Elmes. 

April 8. Another seat in the Assembly is now 
vacant by Joshua Crump's death. The capture of 
the " Warwick " disastrous. 

The following to join the Troop : — 

Alex. Diichar. Byam Freeman. Chr. Nibbs. 

Tho. Ellis. Edw. Trant, Jun'. Adam Smart. 

Sam. Bean. Oliver Bnrke. Jos. Lynch. 

Jn° Forstor. Rich. Alleyn. Val. Brown. 

Hen. West. Sam. Simpson. W™ Mackaile. 

Dav. Potter. Jas. Connor. 

TV"' Walker. Ernest Udney. 

May 5. Thomas Freeman returned vice Joshua 
Crump. 

May 17. War* was declared against France. 
The negroes this year numbered 31,428. 

(Southey.) 

June 2. Thomas Warner takes the oaths on his 
appointment as Attorney-General, and Harry Webb 
resigns his seat for St. John's Town. 

June 9. William Warner returned for St. John's 
Town; Mr. William Home resigns the post of 
Treasurer and Collector of the Impost, and the Hon. 
Daniel Warner is appointed in his place, giving 
£4000 sterling security. 

* A copy of this Declaration of War was printed in the ' London 
Magazine,' p. 237. 



July 31. A gold-hilted sword was voted to 
Colonel Alexander Duroure on his departure for 
England. 

August 11. Dr. James Dewar claims £50 for 
attending the French prisoners. 

September 29. Thomas Downes is licensed to 
i^ractise Medicine and Surgery. Rowland Ash resigns 
his seat for New North Sound. 

October 12. Governor George Thomas writes 
that 32 privateers have been fitted at Antigua, St. 
Kitts, and Montserrat, and they have made captures 
to the amount of £60,000. 

1756. 





Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls 


S' Johns Town .... 


563 


619 


230 


235 


S' Johns Division 


12.5 


75 


33 


28 


Old North Sound Division 


105 


50 


24 


26 


New North Sound Division 


110 


53 


26 


24 


Popeshead Division . 


26 


16 


9 


5 


Beilfast Division 


46 


37 


16 


20 


Falmouth Division . 


94 


66 


44 


35 


Willoughby Kay Division . 


31 


19 


4 


6 


Old Road Division 


49 


44 


10 


17 


Bermudian Valley & New 










Division 


77 


45 


24 


20 


Dickinsons Bay Division . 


42 


17 


7 


8 


Five Islands Division 


20 


8 


4 


5 


Mercers Creek Division 


24 


12 


6 


7 


Nonsuch Division 


80 


56 


21 


32 


Total . • . . 


1392 


1117 


458 


468 



Geo. Byam. 
W"' An'dcrton. 
Jn° Barrel!. 



The number of inhabitants has decreased owing 
to a malignant fever the preceding year. There are 
18 forts and 14 guard-houses. Francis, Loixl Haw- 
ley, Lieut. -Governor of Antigua, does not reside 
there. 

October 25. William Jarvis returned for New 
North Sound. 

Nov. 17. 

W™Mackinen,Jun. Lewis Cusack. Sam. Masset. 

Jas. Denbow. Ben. M'^Sween. 

Rob. Hunter. Dav. AVeir, to join 

Rob. Harvey. the Troop. 

The Assembly offer a bounty of £5 currency for 
every man killed or taken prisoner on board a French 
privateer, provided the capturing vessel have cruized 
for 10 days in sight of this island, and the captui'e 
be effected within 30 leagues to the east and 10 
leagues to the westward. 

On 17 November it was enacted, for the pre- 
vention of abuses in the fishery, that every mesh in 
the bunt of each net should be 2^ inches, and that no 
fresh fish, excej^t turtle and jew fish, was to be sold 
over fourpence half-penny per lb. 

1756. List of Prizes. (' Gentleman's Magazine.') 

May. The S' Pierre, from Martinico for Marseilles, the 
Grand Duke, from Bourdeaux for Cape Francois, the Parteiu, 
with 280 slaves, & the Alcion, with 511, both from Aft'ica 
for S' Domingo; Le Infante de Bourdeaux, from Guardaloupe 
for Bourdeaux; Le Deaux Petits, from Martinico for Bayonne; 
L'Aimable, from Melimba, with 177 slaves, for Martinico, 
car. into Antigua by Commodore Frankland. (P. 261.) 

July. L'Aimable Katherine, fi-om Martinico for 
Marseilles, taken by the Winchester & car. into Antigua. 
(P. 360.) 

Aug. The Pacifique, from Bordeaux for S* Domingo, of 
400 tons, 40 men, & 16 guns, is taken by the Blandford man 
of war & car. into Antigua. (P. 411.) 

Sep. The Letitia, Curlet, from Antigua for London, 
was taken the 31st ult. by the Catt privateer off Bayonne. 
(P. 452.) 



GEORGE I. GEORGE II. 



CXVll 



Dec. The Ceres, from Piscatana for Antigua, is car. 
into Guadaloupe, The Thomas, Harris, from Boston for 
Antigua, The Patty, Lynch, from Maryland for Antigua, 
The Tryal priv., Thomas, of Antigua, of 10 carriage guns, 

car. to Maryland, a sloop, from Antigua for Boston, the 

Thatcher, from Antigua, car. into Guadaloupe. (P. 594.) 

1757, January 4. Henry Wilmot of Gray's Inn 
has been nominated Agent for Antigua vice Sharpe 
deceased. 

February 16. Thomas Walker is appointed 
Attorney-General of the Leeward Islands vice Harry 
Webb returned to England. 

May 18. John Halliday resigns his seat. 

July 6. Eighty or ninetj' hogsheads of public 
sugar, for which no freight to London can be 
obtained, are to be consigned to ionr houses at 
Bristol, La Eoach's and Devonshire and Reeves's, and 
the proceeds to go to Eichard Oliver of London, and 
to save the additional commission to the latter, Mr. 
Robinson Tudway and Mr. John Browning are 
nominated as factors. 

August 19. The Assembly are dissolved at their 
own desire. Robert Cholmondeley has succeeded 
Horace, Lord Walpole, as Surveyor and Auditor- 
General of all the revenue in America by patent 
dated 20 November 25 George. 

1757, Sep. 20. New Sessions. 
Hen. Byam, Esq' Jn° Watkins j 

w™ Warner SMohns Town. 

Bap. Looby I 
Sam. Nibbs, Esq' W™ Mackinen | r»;„i„- „ i}»„ 

Sam.Nibbs [ Dickinsons Bay. 

Hon. Tho. Jarvis Tho^Warner ' Popeshead. 

Hon. Steph. Bllzard Sam. Martin | j^^^ ^^^^^ g^^^^_ 



r 



Ham. Kerby 

Rob. Bannister, Esq' Rob. Bannister | 

Tho. Freeman | 

Jn" Jeaffreson, Esq' Fra. Farley I R if f 

Jn° Jeaffreson ( ^^''^^s''- 

Sam. Harman, Esq' Main S. Walrond j t^, , 

Sam. Harman, Jun. j J>* onsucH. 

Rob. Christian, Esq' Fra. Frye j 

Jas Brebner ) 

W'" Maxwell, Esq' Rob. Christian ( 

W" Maxwell | 

Hon. And. Lessly Jn° Brooke | 

Ju" Stevens ( 

Hon. Rowl* Oliver Jn° Conyers | 

Geo. Byam I 

Hon. Ed. Otto-Baijer W" Allen Five Islands. 



Old North Sound. 



Willoughby Bay. 

Falmouth. 

Old Road. 

S' .Johns Division. 



Samuel Martin is chosen Speaker and Edward. 
Gamble Clerk. Committee appointed to inspect 
forts. Commodore Frankland has been removed 
from the station by the Admiralty. 

December 6. Lieut. -General Gilbert Fleming is 
given 12 months' leave. 

1757. List of Prizes. (' Gentleman's Magazine.') 

The Hawk, Conolly, from London, the Henry, Graham, 
fi-om Bristol, both for Antigua, car. into Guadaloupe. A 
Dutch vessel, from Antigua for Barbadoes, car. into Mar- 
tinico. The Boyd, Boyd, from Glasgow for Antigua, taken. 

Feb. The Minehead, Forrest, fi-om Antigua for London, 
car. into S' Ouge near Bordeaux. The Betty, Quinlin, from 
Antigua for Limerick, car. into a small port near MorIai.\. 

June. The Charming Sally, Simple, fi-om N. England 
for Antigua, is car. into Guadaloupe. 

Oct. The Polly, Robinson, the Ceres, Rindge, & the 
Samuel, Warner, from Piscataqua for Antigua, are taken by 
the Fr. 

July. The merchantmen from the Leeward Islands, 
which are just arrived at the respective places of their 
destination, when they came from the West Indies, 



amounted to 175 sail, including those bound for different 
ports in America, and not a single ship of them is missing. 
There never were more pleasing countenances seen on the 
Royal Exchange of London, than when the news came of 
this fleet's safe arrival. It is at least computed to be worth 
2,000,000 sterling, very little of which was insured. 

Great damage to St. John's Harbour having 
arisen owng to persons discharging therein rubbish 
and ballast, an Act was passed on 24 November 
imposing a heavy penalty for so doing, and the east 
part of Rat Island, 20 feet above high-water mark, 
was appointed for the deposit of all refuse. 

1758, March. Captain Richard Tyrrell of H.M.S. 
"Buckingham," 70 guns, with H.M.S. "Cam- 
bridge," 80 guns, destroyed a fort and four privateers 
at Martinico. He also, with only his own ship, the 
" Buckingham," with 65 guns and a crew of 470 
men, came to action with a French 74 with 700 men, 
a 38 gun frigate with 350 men, and a 28 gun vessel 
with 250 men. The " Florissant," 74, struck to him, 
but afterwards escaped with the others. 

Thii-ty-eight shillings a day is agreed to be paid 
for supplying 580 gallons of water daily to the troops. 

July 13. George Byam resigns his seat. Thomas 
Warner is appointed Attorney-General. 

September 7. John Lightfoot takes the oaths 
and his seat at the Council. 

October 5. Septimus Nibbs, Christopher Hodge, 
Nicholas Kirwan, Andrew Browne, to join the Troop. 
Ai-thur Freeman is sworn a J. P. 

November 6. Thomas Warner to be Attorney- 
General of the Leeward Islands vice Thomas Walker 
deceased. Patent dated at the Court of Kensington. 

December 14. Simeon Worlock, Ebenezer Elliott, 
George Brebner, and William Whitehead, to join the 
Troop. Proposals to be obtained for the deepening 
of English Harbour. 

1758. From a letter from S' Eustatia in the ' Amster- 
dam Gazette,' dated 9 April 1758, it appears that the Dutch 
Merchants accused the English privateers of unjustly con- 
fiscating their ships, 30 or 40 of which had within 3 or 4 
weeks been condemned at Antigua on the most frivolous 
pretence. (' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 334.) 

1758. Prize List. (' Gentleman's Magazine.') 
The Tartar, of Antigua, has taken a Fr. sloop & sent her 
to Montserrat. A Fr. snow, with sugar and coffee, from 
Montserrat for France, is taken by the .Jennings priv. of 
Antigua. 

Plantation News. 
On the 28*'' of Oct. last Capt. White, late commander of 
the private sloop of war Tiger, Xat. Flin, Tho. Cole, Elias 
Atkins & Michael M'^Carroll, were tried at the court house 
in the town of S* John in Antigua, for piratically entering a 
Spanish snow in Jan. last about 4 leagues from the island of 
Mona, & for stealing & carrying away from on board the 
said snow divers goods of considerable value ; when, the 
evidence turned out so full against them that the judges, 
without much hesitation, sentenced them to be hanged, & 
Capt. White's body to be hung in chains ; & they all 
suffered accordingly, except Elias Atkins, who was reprieved 
by- his excellency the general. 

Feb. A Fr. Letter of Marque sloop, from Currasso for 
Montserrat, with warlike stores, le Feme priv. of 8 guns and 
the Grand Clamp of 12 ditto & 80 men, are taken by the 
Amazon & Antigua priv., & car. into Antigua. The de 

2 



CXVUl 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



Lorade priv. is also car. into Antigua by the Sturdy Beggar 
priv. of New York & the Antigua priv. The S' Francis, 
from Philadelphia for Antigua, is drove ashore. A Snow 
from Gambia, a schooner, Hendrickson, from Liverpool, the 
Swift, Strong, from Cork, the ... ., Hayes, the Susan, Hep- 
burn, the Anne, Talem, the Sally, Nicholas, & the Molly, 
Allen, all for Antigua, are taken. 

April. The Tomlinson, Farrell, from Antigua for London, 
is sent into Morlaix. 

June. The Flaming, Nichols, from S' Kitts, the .... 
Maclean, from Philadelphia, the Fanny, Hazlewood, from 
London, the Lamb, Nichols, from New York, & the Hazard, 
Warner, from Piscataqua, all for Antigua, the S' Andrew, 
Grey, from Antigua for Berbicea, car. into Guadaloupe. 

New York, June 19, Capt. Smith arrrived at Newhaven 
the 7"' inst., in 25 days from Antigua, & reports, that about 
a week before he sailed, Comm. Moore with 7 ships of the 
line, & 2 frigates, sailed from thence on some secret design, 
thought to be against S* Domingo. 

Oct. The Mary Ann, Call, from S. Carolina, & the 
Speedwell, Baldwin, from Newhaven, both for Antigua, car. 
into Martinico. 

1759, January 18. Mr. Hamlin Martin to be 
gunner and storekeeper of Monk's Hill vice Thomas 
Morris deceased. Trooj^s coming from Guadaloupe 
with dysentery are to be isolated at Rat Island 
barracks. 

February 20 Writs of mandamus were signed at 
tbe Court of St. James for Arthur Freeman, Francis 
Frye, Byam Freeman, and Valentine Morris, to be of 
the Council vice Benjamin King, Rev. Francis Byam^ 
and William Byam deceased, and William Mac- 
kinnen, who was appointed 17 June 1739 but hath 
never taken his seat. 

February 26. John Watkins is sworn a Master 
and Examiner in Chancery. Three hundred able 
negros are to be armed and sent to Guadaloupe. 
Commodore Moore is now on the station. 

On 1 May Guadaloupe* surrendered to General 
Barrington after three months' fighting in which 
Colonel Crump, an Antiguan, highly distinguished 
himself, and was left in command as Governor in June 
with three regiments. He died, however, in 1760. 
Commodore Moore's squadron in 16 months took 53 
French privateers, carrying 400 guns and 2600 
men. 

August 9. William Allen resigns his seat, and 
Francis Frye has been called up to the Council. 

September 6. Byam Freeman is called to the 
Council, and Nathaniel Gilbert, juu., is returned vice 
William Allen. 

September 19. Edward Home returned for St. 
John's Division vice Byam Freeman. A seat for Old 
North Sound is also now vacant by the death of 
Thomas Freeman. Andrew Lessly is still President. 

• For a full description of these proceedings see ' An Account of the 
Expedition to the West Indies against Martinico with the reduction 
of Guadeloupe and other the Leeward Islands Subject to the French 
King 1759, by Rich. Gardiner, Capt. of Marines.' 



1759. List of Prizes. (' Gentleman's Magazine.') 
The Lesley, Onslow, with 323 slaves, & the Salisbury, 

Sacheverell, with 179, both from Africa, the Carolina, 
Thompson, & the snow Bartram, from Newhaven, & the 
sloop . . . ., Bosden, from New York, all for Antigua, car. 
into Guardaloupe. The Pr. of Wales priv., from Antigua. 

April. Two priv., one of 12 guns & 130 men, the other 
of 6 guns & 50 men, car. into Antigua by the Antiguan sloop 
Varlo. The Grace, French, from Dublin for Antigua, 
taken. The Edward & Susannah, Mi^Namara, fi-om Bristol 
& Madeira for Antigua, the Polly, M'^Namara, from Dublin 
& Madeira, the Lucy, Eussell, from Madeira for Antigua, & 
a Brig from Boston, Ingram, master, & The London, King, 
from Glasgow for Antigua, taken. 

July. The Snow Esprite, from Martinico is sent into 
Madeira by Capts. Cookson & Allen, letters of marque, from 
Bristol for Antigua. 

1760, Jamiary 2. The Governor writes that 
" Col" Oliver has of late resided principally at Nevis," 
so has appointed James Brebner to the Council. 

Jan. 10. The King's sugars were sold in the long-room 
at the custom house, at the following prices, viz., Antigua, 
from 39s. dd. to 40s. 9rf., etc. Jeremiah Watkins, several 
years commander in the West India trade, & late supercargo 
of the Crump, William Turner commander, a letter of 
marque of 1 6 guns & 50 men, made oath that they sailed 
from London for Guadaloupe & Antigua last Aug., & in Oct. 
were taken by a Fr. frigate & car. into Brest, where they 
suffered very great hardships in prison. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 43.) 

February 21. John Jeaffresou has resigned his 
seat. 

March 27. The Assembly vote £400 sterling for 
a monument in St. John's churchyard to the late 
General Crump, their countryman ; also a present of 
£500 sterling to his widow, whom he has left in 
distressed circumstances. The Council refuse to 
agree to this, and recommend that 100 guineas 
would be sufficient for the monument, and £200 
sterling should be given to the widow. Samuel 
Elliott is retui-ned for Belfast. William Warner 
succeeds Daniel Warner as Treasurer and Collector 
of the Impost. 

April 17. Samuel Elliot returned for Belfast vice 
John Jeaffreson deceased. Mr. Nathaniel Gilbert, 
Speaker of Antigua, having joined the Methodists, 
preached to his slaves and formed a society of about 
200. (Southey.) 

April 24. The Assembly had suggested the pay- 
ment of £200 for General Crump's monument and 
£300 for his widow, but the Council object that the 
amount is excessive and the Island sufficiently in 
debt. William Livingston is returned for St. John's 
Town vice William Warner resigned. £11,000 to be 
raised for the current year. 

October 25. H.M.S. " Mermaid," of 24 guns, was 
wrecked at Barbuda and 50 of her crew drowned. 
King George II. died this day. 



GEORGE III. 
CHAPTER VIII. 



CXIX 



GEORGE III. 1760—1820. 



1761, February 12. John Halliday returned for 
Willong'liby Bay vice James Brebiier called to the 
Council by Governor Thomas. 

April 1. On the accession of George III. fresh 
commissions were issued to George Thomas, Captain- 
General, etc., Gilbert Fleming, Lieut.-General, Tho- 
mas Warner, Attorney-Genei-al, and Thomas Cottle, 
Solicitor-General of the Leeward Islands, also to 
Francis, Lord Hawley, Lieut. -Governor of Antigua. 

June 3. Governor Thomas has appointed Wil- 
liam Young to the Council vice Colonel Nathaniel 
Gilbert deceased. 

June 6. Lord RoUo landing from James Douglas' 
squadron captured Dominica. 

July 17. William Brunsel is licensed to practise 
Medicine and Surgery. 

July 24. Thomas Warner the Attorney-General, 

who has been eight years at Antigua, applies for 12 

months' leave. 

17(51, Auj?. 20. New Sessions. 

For what place 



Justices taliinfr 
the election. 
Ham. Kerby, Esq' 



Persons elected. 
Sam. Martin, Esq' 
Hamilton Kerby, Esq' 
The Rev's jjr David Jn" Hart, Esq' 
Hopkins 



elected. 
I New North 
f Sound. 

S' Johns Town. 



Baptist Looby, Esq' 

W'" Livingston, Esq' ( 

Tho. iShephard, Esq' ) 

Edw. Home, Esq' I 

Oliver Nugent, Esq' l' 

W" Mackinen, Esq' | 

Jer. Blizard, Esq' I 

Tho. Warner, Esq' I 

W"' Jarvis, Esq' I 

Sam. Byam, Esq' ( 
Rob. Bannister, Jun., Esq' ( 

Fi-a. Farley, Esq' | g ,f ^ 

Sam. Elliott, Esq' ) oeiiasE. 

M. S. Walrond, Esq' M. S. Walroud, Esq' | 

Sam. Harman. Esq' i 

Jn" Halliday, Esq' | 
Tho. Elmes," Esq' 
Rob. Christian, Esq' 
\V"" Maxwell. Esq' 



The Hon'ble W" 

Young, Esq' 
Sam. Nibbs, Esq' 

The Hon'ble Tho. 

Jarvis 
The Hon'ble Jn° 

Lightfoot 
Pat. Grant, Esq' 



Rob. Christian. Esq' 



S' Johns Division. 

Dickinsons-bay. 

Popeshead. 

Old North Sound. 



Nonsuch. 



The Hon'ble J. 

Brebner 
The Hon'ble F. Frye Jn° Brooke, Esq' 
Jn" Stevens, Esq' 



. Willoughby Bay. 

I Falmouth & Ren- 
f desvous-bay. 
Old Road Bermu- 
dian Valley, & 
New Division. 
Five Islands. 



Jn" Conyers, Esq' Nath. Gilbert, Esq' 

Sam. Martin chosen Speaker. 

August 21. Dr. William Tudhope licensed. 

November 18. Petition of Thomas Oliver, Deputy- 
Secretary, for £143 for salary and fees as clerk to the 
Council for six months. 

Dec. 1. Gov'' Thomas writes "1 had the honor to 
acquaint Y' L''ships that upon the Resignation of M'' Oliver, 
who is gone to reside at Nevis, and the death of M"" Gilbert, 
I had appointed M'' James Brebner & M'' William Toung 
Members of the Council of this Island, to make up the 
number Seven. Since that time M'' Lightfoot is also dead, 
and for the same reason, I have likewise appointed M'' Wil- 
liam Warner to succeed him." 

1762. On January 4 war was declared against 
Spain, and the same month Rear-Admiral Rodney 
with 18 sail of the line and 14,000 troops sailed 
from Barbados to Martinique which capitulated on 
February 4. The islands of Grenada, Tobago, St. 
Vincent, and St. Lucia also surrendered. 

March 18. Edward Byam was returned for St. 
John's Town vice John Hart deceased. 

April 22. William Warner i-ecommended to be 
of the Council. 



May 3. Thomas Oliver* now clerk to the Council 
and Depixty- Secretary. 

June 1. Governor Thomas writes that he has 
raised 400 negros at Antigua for the Expedition. 



17('>2, Aug. 12. New Sessions. 



Jer. Blizard, Esq. 
Rev. D. Hopkins 

Tho. Warner, Esq' 
Sam. Nibbs, Esq' 
Hon. T. Jarvis 
Row. Ash, Esq' 
Pat. Grant, Esq' 
M. S. Walrond, Esq' 
Rob. Christian, Esq' 
Hon. Jas. Brebner 
Hon. Fra. Frye 



Sam. Martin 

Jer. Blizard 

Bap. Looby 

W"' Livingston 

Ed. Byam 

Harry Alexander 

Ed. Home 

W'" Dunbar 

W'" Mackinen 

C. P. WeatherU 

Tho. Warner 

W"" Jarvis 

Rob. Bannister, Jun' | 

W"" Gunthorpe ) 

Fra. Farley | 

Sam. Elliot 

M. S. Walrond 

Sam. Harman 

Jn" Halliday 

Tho. Elmes 

Rob. Christian 

W'° Maxwell 

Jn" Brooke 

Jn° Stevens 



New North Sound. 

I S' Johns Town. 
I 
S' Johns Division. 

Diokensons Bay. 

I 



Popeshead. 

Old North Sound. 

Belfast. 

Nonsuch. 
Willoughby-bay. 



Hon. Byam Freeman Nath. Gilbert 
Sam. Martin chosen Speaker. 



Falmouth & Rendes- 
) vous-bay. 
j Old Road, Bermudian 
\ Valley, & New Divi- 
) sion. 

Five Islands. 



Augtist 13. The Havanna capitulated to the 
Earl of Albemarle and Sir George Pocock. Twelve 
ships of the line and booty to the value of £2,000,000 
were seized. 

August 19. Edward Gamble appointed Registrar 
vice Watkins deceased. 

October 21. Govei-nor Thomas writes that Mr. 
Young and Mr. William Warner, having gone to 
England, he has appointed Ashton Warner to the 
Council. Mr. William Warner's mandamios was 
dated 13 May. 

1763, January 1. A cessation of Arms to be pro- 
claimed. 

January 27. Mr. William Atkinson is sworn as 
Deputy-Secretary. 

February 10. By the Peace, signed at Paris with 
Spain and France, Guadaloupe, Martinique, Marie- 
galante, and Desirade, were restored to France, and 
Havanna to Spain ; Grenada, St. Vincent, Dominica, 
and Tobago, were ceded to Great Britain ; and St. 
Lucia to France. Many Antiguans took up lands in 
the ceded Islands. 

March 1 6. Ashton Warner recommended to be of 
the Council vice Andrew Leslie, who has been absent 
three years. 

April 28. Nathaniel Gilbert chosen Speaker vice 
Samuel Martin resigned. 

May 11. Christopher Hodge returned for New 
North Sound vice Samuel Martin, the late Speaker, 
resigned. 

July. The 38th Foot to be reduced to a peace 

footing. 

1764, February 16. John Lyons chosen for Old 
North Sound vice Robert Bannister, jun. 

• On 18 November 1762 he petitioned for payment of £143 for 
salary and fees as Clerk to the Council for six months. 



cxx 



THE HISTORY OE ANTIGUA. 



March 8. The 68th Eegiment, now in Ireland 500 
strong, is to relieve the 38th at Antigua. They 
arrived on the 31st May. 

October -i. William Byam, sen., Esq., Mr. James 
Farley, and Mr. John Yeamans, to join the Troop. 
William Salmond chosen for Popeshead vice William 
Jarvis resigned. 

1765, January 10. William Dunbar is expelled 
the House for being absent six times without excuse 
or leave. 

January 24. Charles Payne Sharpe was returned 
for St. John's Division vice William Dunbar expelled. 

February 7. An Act passed this day providing 
for the erection of a stone or brick-built Register's 
Office, where the Records were to be kept, much 
damage having been sustained from their storage 
in wooden buildings. 

March 14. George Mackenzie is licensed to 
practise Medicine and Surgery. James Thibou to join 
the Troop. 

1765, Mar. 23. List of the C at Antigua. 
Edward Otto-Baijer. 
Richard Tyrrell. 
Walter Tullideph. 

Rowland Oliver. Resigned & gone for England. 

Thomas Jarvis. 
Arthur Freeman. 
Francis Frye. 
Byam Freeman. 

Valentine Morris. Absent ever since his appointment. 
James Brebner. 

William Young. Commissioner at the ceded Islands. 

William Warner. 
Ash ton Warner. 

May 16. Martin Byam was returned for Popes- 
head vice William Salmond resigned. 

August 15. Nicholas Lynch was returned for 
Nonsuch vice Samuel Harman resigned. 

August 25. Valentine Morris Home was returned 
for St. John's Division vice Edward Home resigned. 

December 5. The unanimous thanks of the House 
were voted to William Mackinen on his retirement 
after his long and faithful services as a Member of 
the Assembly for 40 years. 

December 21. Governor Thomas writes that 
£2000 sterling worth of stamps deposited in the 
house of Mr. John Hopkins, the deputy at Basseterre, 
St. Kitts, were seized by the mob and burnt ; that 
Mr. William Tuckett was compelled by 500 people to 
resign his post as stamp distributor, but that Antigua 
was quiet and loyal. He is in a dilemma how to act. 

1766, January 16. William Millar was returned 
for Dickinsoia's Bay vice William Mackinen, and Oliver 
Nugent vice Charles P. Weatheril deceased. 

January 29. Governor Thomas writes that he 
has superseded the Hon. Arthur Freeman for running 
off with and marrying his daughter, and has appointed 
Lieut. -Colonel Josiah Martin of the 6Sth Resimeut 
in his place. 

March 13. The obnoxious Stamp Act was re- 
pealed by the House of Commons, and Mr. Secretary 
H. S. Conway writes to Governor Thomas to acquaint 
him with that fact. 

June 28. James Virchild, President of St. Kitts, 
writes that His Excellency Geoi-ge Thomas embarked 
for England on the 1st instant, and by H.M.'s 
instructions the government has devolved on him. 



July 11. Arthur Freeman petitions that he has 
been unjustly susjjended from the Council. 

July 12. Governor George Thomas writes that 
he left Antigua on 1st June and amved at Ports- 
mouth this day. 

October 13. William Woodley appointed Captain 
General, etc., vice Sir George Thomas, Bai-t., resigned. 

In Oct. a hurricane caused great destruction of life & 
property at Martinique, and at Antigua many plantations 
sufiFered, & some ships were lost. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 597.) 

1767, February 26. David MacRichie is licensed 
to practise Medicine, etc. 

May 15. Anthony Stokes recommended to be of 
the Council vice James Brebner appointed Chief 
Justice of the Southern Caribbee Islands. 

May 28. James Athill was returned for Nonsuch 
vice Nicholas Lynch. 

July 23. Samuel Redhead was returned for 
WUloughby Bay. 

July 29. Edward Otto Bayer, Thomas Jarvis, 
Arthur Freeman, Francis Frye, Byam Freeman, 
Valentine Morris, William Young, William Warner, 
Ashton Warner, Josiah Martin, jun., Oliver Nugent, 
and Ajithouy Stokes, are of the Council. 

July 31. Samuel Martin was returned for St. 
John's Division vice Charles P. Sharpe resigned. 
The last two years were good after several of drought. 

1 768, William Woodley arrived at Antigua from 
England leaving his wife and family at home. 

February 9. Alexander Willock was returned for 
St. John's Division vice Samuel Mai'tin resigned. 

February 29. Thomas Shephard was returned 
for Dickinson's Bay. William Maxwell retm-ned for 
Falmouth, resigns. 

April 18. Ashton W. Byam was returned for 
Falmouth vice William Maxwell resigned. 

October 13. George Redhead was returned for 
Old North Sound vice John Gilbert resigned. 

December 1. Nicholas Lynch was returned for 
Willoughby Bay vice Samuel Redhead resigned. 

1769, February 12. James Furlong was returned 
vice Harry Alexander. 

Februarj' 16. Thomas Martin was returned for 
St. John's Division vice Valentine Morris Home. 

June 29. Thomas Warner was chosen Speaker 
vice Nathaniel Gilbert resigned. 

July 20. John Lindsay was returned for Popes- 
head, John Dunbar for Dickinson's Bay, and De la 
Court Walsh for Five Islands. 

July 23. Richard Hawkshaw Losack, His Ma- 
jesty's Lieut. -General, has arrived. 

Sep. 20. Gov"' Woodley writes : — " I have Nothing par- 
ticular to comuuiuicate to your Lordship but the terrible 
Disaster that befel the Island of Antigua by Fire, upon the 
ly"" of last Month. Two thirds of the Town of S' Johns is 
in Ashes, and the Loss computed at upwards of Two 
hundred Thousand pounds Sterling. I have promoted a 
Subscription here, for the Relief of the unhappy Sufferers." 

October 26. John Dick is now Coroner. From 
a memorial presented by the Council and Assembly 
it seems that the fire at St. John's on 17 August 
rasred for 12 hours. The custom house, market 



GEORGE in. 



CXXl 



house, gaol, and arsenal were destroyed, and damage 
done estimated at £400,000 sterling. 

1 770, January 1 . Governor Woodley recom.mends 
Edward Byam to be of the Council. 

January 18. The King has granted £1000 bounty 
for the relief of the sufferers by the recent fire. 



1770. Feb. 8. New Sessions. 



\V"' Livingston 
Jas. Furlong- 
Bap. Looby 
Jn" Burke I 

Jn" Dunbar I 

W. Garrat Hillhouse 1 
/ 



, S' Johns Town. 



Dickinsons Bay. 



Popeshead. 

New North Sound. 



Tho. Warner 

Ju° Lyndsay I 

Jer. Blizaid | 

W» Millar | 

Jn" Brooke ) 

Jn" Stevens I 

John Lyons 

Geo. Redhead 

De la Court Walsh Five Islands. 

Jn° Mayer | 

Sam. Gunthorp 



Old Road, Bermudian Valley, & New Division. 
Old North Sound. 



Belfast. 



Nonsuch. 



Willoughby Bay. 



Falmouth & Rendesvous Bay. 



• S' Johns Division. 



M. S. Walrond 

Jas. Athill 

Tho. Elmes 

Geo. Leonard 

Bob. Christian 

A. W. Byam 

Alex. Willock 

Tho. JIartin ( 

Th(i. Warner was chosen Speaker. 

£346 is. (kl. was collected at Liverpool for the sufferers 
by the late fire. Exports from the islands to Great Britain 
£430,210 ; to N. America £35,551 ; to the other islands 
£229. (Southey.) 

May 4. Mandamus for Edward Byam to be of 
the Council dated this day. 

May 24. £12,888 c. to be raised for the current 
year. 

June 13. Bertie Entwisle, Esq., sworn as Deputy- 
Collector of St. John's Town. Jeremiah Lloyd and 
John Brooke take the oaths and their seats at the 
Council. 

July 9. E. H. Losack writes that General Wood- 
ley left on the 3rd instant, and he has assumed the 
government as Lieut. -General. 

August 2. Edward Byam takes his seat at the 
Council. 

August 26. Governor Woodley writes from 
(? Hendou) " that he landed at Plimouth Saturday 
Sennight very gouty." His next letter was from 
Hill Street on 16 November. 

November 1. John Horsford was returned for 
Falmouth vice A. W. Byam resigned ; Mr. John 
Scott is sworn Deputy-Comptroller of St. John's ; and 
a vacancy for Belfast has been created by the death 
of Samuel Gunthorp, Esq. 

Nov. 15. List of the C forwarded by L' Gen' Losack. 

Edward Otto-Baijer in England. 

Thomas Jarvis. 

Arthur Freeman in England, going out. 

Francis Frye. 

Byam Freeman absent. 

Valentine Morris in England. 

W" Young Gov' of Dominica. 

W" Warner. 

Ashton Warner. 

Josiah Martin, jun', resigned. 

Oliver Nugent absent. 

Anthony Stokes Chief Justice of Georgia. 

Edw. Byam 1 

Jer. Blizard > appointed by me. 

Ju° Brooke ) 

1771, January 2.5. Jeremiah Blizard is recom- 
mended to be of the Council, and on February 20 
John Brooke. The w.andamus of the former was 



signed on 6 February, and of the latter on 7 February 
at the Court of St. James. 

February 8. Philip Hicks, a barrister, is admitted 
to practise the law. 

April 25. Thomas Lynch who has a diploma from 
many physicians of the College of Aberdeen is 
licensed to practise Medicine, etc. 

May 8. £1 1,380 c. to be raised for the current year. 

May 10. Draught commission to be drawn out 
for Sir Ralph Payne, K.B., to be Captain General, 
etc., and the warrant issued on 15th. 

August 8. Eowland Burton returned for New 
North Sound vice William Miller resigned. 

October 3. John Gray returned for Belfast vice 
Samuel Gunthorpe deceased. 

October 31. Hon. Edward Byam is to succeed 
the Hon. William Warner as Treasurer and Collector 
of the Impost. 

1772, January 9. Hon. Eobert Christian is sworn 
Judge Surrogate of the Court of Admiralty, and John 
Hawes is licensed to practise as a Solicitor. 

January 13. Lieut.-General Losack writes that 
he has appointed Eobert Henville, Esq., of St. Kitts, 
to succeed William Warner deceased as Eeceiver of 
H.M.'s casual revenue. 

February 1. Governor Sir Ealph Payne writes 
that he has arrived at Antigua after a 10 weeks' 
passage. 

March 4. His Excellency i-ents Clarke Hill, the 
property of Thomas Warner, Esq., for £300 c. a year. 

April 2. Nathaniel Humphry was returned for 
Popeshead vice John Lindsay resigned. 

July 2. William Salmond takes his seat at 
the Council vice William Warner deceased by man- 
dattms dated 20 May last at the Court of St. James. 

Sept. 5. Sir Ralph Payne writes : — " On Thursday 
Night the 27"' of August, we had an exceedingly hard Gale 
of Wind, which continued for the space of 7 or 8 Hours, and 
then subsided without doing any very materia! Damage. 
On the Night of Sunday the 30'" of August, the Wind blew 
fresh .... & continued increasing till five in the Morning 

when it blew a hurricane from the N.E a melancholy 

Darkness prevail'd for more than an Hour after Sun rise. 
At eight o'clock the Fury of the Tempest in some Measure 
abated, but it was only to collect new redoubl'd Violence, 
and to display itself, with ten fold Terror, for the Space of 
i Hours .... Some Persons were buried in the Ruins of 
their Houses. Many houses were razed. The doors, windows, 
& partitions of the Court House were blown in, the interior 
completely wrecked, & most valuable papers destroyed. The 
Barracks are in a deplorable condition. At English Harbour 
deemed storm-proof tliere was a squadron under Adm' Parry, 
whose flagship* with others drove ashore, & the Hospital 
there was levelled to the ground crushing in its fall the 
unfortunate patients & attendants. My new study, with 
most of my papers, was blown away." 

September 10. £20,000 sterling to be raised on. 
account of the late hurricane. 

September 18. Montserrat suffered £60,000 loss 
by the hurricane which also caused much havoc at 
St. Kitts. 

* On 31 August H.M.S. "Chatham," Rear-Admiral Parry, and 
" Active" and "Seahorse" frigates, and "Falcon" sloop, were driven 
on shore by a storm in English Harbour. After the gale tliey were 
got off. (Southey.) 



cxxu 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



The Council and Assembly petitioned that £2,500 
sterling in the hands of the Executors of William 
Warner might be applied towards the reiJair of the 
barracks and hospital, which application was read by 
their lordships on 29 April 1773. 

1772. A List of Births and Funerals in the Island of 
Antigua from the 1^' of Feb. 1772 to the P* of Oct. 1772:— 





&.0 


o2 


I Fe 
1 Oct 

1 Ap 




Birth 


s. 


Funerals. 


In the Parish of S' Johns . 


43 


06 


.52 80 


In the Parish of S' Marj's . 


4 


4 


2 13 


In the Parish of Falmouth . 


6 


3 


8 9 


In the Parish of S' Peter . 


3 


7 


5 11 


In the Parish of S' Georpre . 


fi 


4 


4 2 


In the Parish of S' Phillips 


12 


9 


t; 5 


Total .... 


74 


93 


77 120 



One thousand two hundred and seventy six negros 
were imported from 1 February to 1 October 1772, 
and only 93 from 1 October 1772 to 1 April 1773. 

October 1. The 68th Regiment is to return to 
Europe, and the 2nd Battalion of the 60th from 
North America will relieve them. 

December 18. Lieut. -General James Adolphus 
Oughton was appomted Lieut.-Governor vice Francis 
Lord Hawley deceased. This post was a sinecure. 

1773, June. The legislature send an address to 
the Kins' thanking him for his donation of £2000 
towards repairing their losses. 

July 1. William Livingston is sworn a J.P. 
July 15. £13,150 currency to be raised for the 
current year. 

At Great George Fort there were 81 guns, 11 bad; at 
Fort James 3G guns ; Fort Berkeley 25 guns ; Fort Isaac 
9 ; Fort Charles 11 ; Old Road 14, etc. 

July 29. William Byam was returned for Wil- 
loughby Bay vice Thomas Elmes resigned. 

September 23. John Lyons was chosen Speaker 
jpro tern. 

November 25. Francis Farley, John Gray, and 
William Mackinnen are all recommended to be of 
the Council. 

1774. The shipping belonging to the Fort of S' John's 
included 3 ships, 2 brigs, 28 schooners & 21 sloops, total 
tonnage 1067 & 321 men. The population amounts to 
2,590 whites & 37,808 slaves. The ordinary expenditure 
is £14,000 c. & the extraordinary £30,000 c. 

List of public officers :— Chief Justice may get £400 a 
year, no salary only a few fees. Judge of Admiralty in 
War worth £1200 St. a year, in peace not as many shillings. 
Treasurer & Collector of the Impost on liquor £G00 c. a 
year, with extras £400 c. a year. Clerk to Assembly £l20 c. 
a year. Searcher of Customs £320 c. a year. Registrar 
no salary, £300 st. a year from fees. Powder Officer no 
salary, £180 st. a year fi-om fees. Steph. Bhzard is Col' of 
the Blue Regt., Rob. Christian of the Red, Fra. Farley Col' of 
the train of artillery, & Geo. Halloran Capt. of the Indepen- 
dent Company. 

April 7. John Taylor was returned for St. John's 
Town vice William Atkinson resigned. 

May 19. Thomas Jarvis, jun., was returned for 
St. John's Town vice William Livingston deceased, 
and Eobert JeafBreson for Old North Sound vice 
George Redhead resigned. 



June 4. John Ronan was returned for Belfast 
vice John Gray called to the Council. 

July 21. £6,952 to be raised for the current year. 

July 28. John Smith, jun., is appointed Coroner. 

1775, February 9. Lockhart Russell was returned 
for Old North Sound vice John Lyons deceased. 

March 23. £1000 currency voted for the purchase 
of a sword for Sir Ralph Payne. William Tizard is 
licensed to practise Medicine, etc. 

May 11. Robert Robertson is licensed to practise 
Medicine, etc. 

May 25. James Nibbs was returned for St. John's 
Division vice Thomas Martin vacated. 

July 2. The Lieut. -General to receive £300 a 
year. 

July 31. Craister Greatheed, President of St. 
Kitts, is now Commander in Chief, and William 
Salmond of New Bond Street, Agent. 

September 14. Richard Kirwan was returned for 
Dickinson's Bay vice John Dunbar resigned. 

October 12. Nicholas Taylor was returned for St. 
John's Town vice John Burke resigned. 







1773- 


-1775. 














Births. 






Fnncrala, 






^ 





^ 





^ 





• 


. 






"" ■* 




"** ui 


u 


*^ H" 





10 




o 







ss 





gg 





SE: 




*"* CO 


t-T-C 




t>. I-H 






I-" ■^ 


t^i-t 




OfrC 




£*^ 




o5 




or- 






-w t- 


^ 0. 




• a. 




* & 


*»t^ 


' Oi 




ci.'^ 


%.< 


d,'^ 


t>< 


6r* 


t< 


D.""* 


^< 




<1 


0^ 


< 


0^ 


< 


0^ 


< 


0^ 




-4 


.-( 


1—1 


.—1 


r-l 


rH 


,~i 




S' Johns . 


28 


31 


20 


24 


45 


61 


41 


"44 


S' Phillips 


2 


5 


7 


7 


5 


11 


5 


4 


S' Peters . 


3 


1 


3 





3 





7 


5 


S' Georges 


11 


5 


2 


ti 


3 


3 


3 


7 


S' Mary . 





2 


1 


3 


11 


10 


6 


1 


Falmouth . 


9 


8 


10 


4 


« 


15 


5 


10 


Total . 


53" 


52 


43 


44 


73 


100 


67 


71 


1 Ap. 


to 1 Oct. 1773 




. 188 Negros 


imported. 




1 Oct. 


1773 to 1 


Ap. ] 


L774 


. 163 


Negros 


imported. 




1 Ap. 


to 1 Oct. 1 


774 


. 


. 170 Negros 


imported. 




1 Oct. 


1774 to 1 


Ap. ] 


1775 


. 408 


Negros imported. 





1775. Captain John Parkings, of the briganteen 
" Manners " from London to Boston put into EngHsh 
Harbour this year, and reported that shortly after 
sailing, their passenger, one Charles Hobby, behaved 
in a very insulting manner towards the King's name, 
and suspecting him to be a rebel he ordered his 
mattress to be cut open, wherein they discovered 
many letters in cypher addressed to John Hancock, 
Samuel Adams, and John Adams, Esqrs., Generals 
Washington, Ward, Lee, and Putnam by favour of 
Captain Charles Hubbard. On accusing the said 
Hubbard on deck before the crew he (Hubbard) 
seized the papers and flung them into the sea. A 
boat was immediately lowered and they were recovered 
when Hubbard became very violent and abusive, and 
agaijr endeavoured to destroy the letters. President 
Jarvis having read all the correspondence at the 
Council proposed to send Hubbard to England in a 
man-of-war. 

1776, February 17. Sir Ralph Payne writes from 
Charles Street, and resigns the post of Captain- 
General. 

March. The American vessels are offering: high 
prices for warlike stores, so President Greatheed 
issues a public proclamation forbidding any such 
traitorous commerce. 



GEORGE III. 



CXXUl 



April 11. It was reported that Mr. William 
Jarvis, Captain and Gunner of James Fort, had rated 
one of his children, aged 5, as a matross, and had 
drawn the pay. All the other four gunners had done 
the same. 

August 15. Eobert JeafEreson and William Byam 
are sworn as Assistant-Justices of the Court of 
Common Pleas (of which Thomas Jarvis is Chief 
Justice) vice Hon. Robert Christian deceased and 
Hon. Francis Farley resigned. 

August 29. Mathew Christian was returned for 
Falmouth vice Robert Christian deceased. £5,917 
currency to be raised for the current year. 

October 31. William Mathew Burt appointed 
Captain-General vice Payne. (Southey.) 

November 14. John Bright was returned for 
Falmouth vice Mathew Christian who was unduly 
elected. 

1777. Petition of the owners of the privateer 
sloop "Reprizal," of ten guns and fifty men, which 
has captured several provision and lumber ships. 
Signed by Nicholas Taylor, Alexander Dover, Samuel 
Jeaffreson, John Otto-Baijer, B. Entwisle, Joshua 
Brown, Thomas Bell, and George Redhead. The 
Antiguan sloops have already taken sixty sail, in- 
cluding several American ships who trade to St. 
Eustatia for arms. The Governors of Martinique, 
St. Croix, and St. Eustatia oijeuly assist the rebels. 
A copy of the ' Antigua Mercury, or St. John's 
Weekly Advertiser,' 3 May 1777, No. 518, is inserted 
in vol. ii. B. T. 

February 6. Thomas Warner the Speaker resigns, 
and Rowland Burton succeeds him. 

March 13. Joseph Lyons Athill was returned 
for Popeshead vice Thomas Warner. 

June 19. The Council report as follows about 
the Records in the Registrar's Office : — 

Vol. 1, Liber S, 1722-24, Vol. 2, Lib. E, 1738-12, & 
Vol. 2, Lib. G, 1742-6, are torn & defaced & must be at 
once transcribed. The following are in bad condition & all 
require binding, Lib. A wills, 1728-43, Lib. B wills, 1743-56, 
Lib. A patents, 1668-1723, Lib. A Surveyors returns, 1681- 
1752, Vol. 1, Lib. L, 1709-12, Vol. 1, Lib. M, 1712-14, 
Vol. 1, Lib. N, 1714-16, Vol. 1, Lib. P, 1717-19, Vol. 1, 
Lib. Q, 1719-21, Vol. 1, Lib. R, 1721-22, Vol. 1, Lib. W, 
1727-28, Vol. 1, Lib. X, 1728-30, Vol. 2, Lib. F, 1739-42. 

Admiralty oflBce. It appears by letters received from 
Vice Admiral Young, dated Antigua, the lO"" of March, that, 
since his last account, the ships of his squadron had taken 
27 rebel vessels, and retaken 7 ships that had fallen into 
their hands. (' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 194.) 

November 1. Governor William Mathew Burt 
•writes that many ships have been wrecked at Bar- 
buda, and their slaves seized for salvage and racked 
on the wheel, by order of the late Mr. King, Attorney 
of Sir William Codrington, without trial ; some 
even were hanged by Mr. Redwood the Attorney. 

List of Militia. 

Carabineers 83 

Blue Regiment . . . . .416 
Red Regiment ..... 313 
Independent Company ... 79 
Train of Artillery 



Total oflBcers & men 



116 



1007 



1778, January 6. Governor Biu-t writes that 
ships are daily dropping in from England to New 
York, with coals, provisions, and recruits, from a 
desire of increase of profit by delay ; to sell jjrizes ; 
to distress the royal army ; and to aid the rebels. 
He suggests, and the Admiral agrees with him, that 
their charter-party should be forfeited. Mr. Bing- 
ham, the North American agent, resides at St. Pierre, 
Martinique, where he sells their prizes. Monsieur 
Pregent, owner of eleven French privateers, com- 
mands his own ship the " Revenge." The Governor 
of Guadaloupe refused to permit privateers to refit at 
his ports, but the Governor of Martinique, Marquis 
De Bouillie, receives fifteen per cent, commission 
from the Americans. 

February 24. The Governor again complains 
that a French 64 had convoyed six American vessels, 
who all hoisted French colours, and that there are 
22 ai-med French and American brigs at St. Pierre. 

August 5. Lord George Germain, principal 
Secretarv of State for America, advises Governor 
Burt that France is no longer to be considered a 
neutral power, and that hostilities have commenced. 
Governor Burt writes that the forts at Antigua have 
been ruinous for several years past, also that Count 
de Byland, Governor of St. Eustatius, since the 
French have acknowledged the Independence of 
North America, permitted rebel colours to fly under 
his suns. In order to bring him to his senses he 
has refused permission to the inhabitants of that 
island to fetch water from Old Road, St. Kitts, so 
that they can have but cistern or well water now 
owing to the absence of springs at St. Eustatius. 

Sei^tember 7. Four French frigates and twelve 
sloops attacked Roseau, the chief place at Dominica, 
and carried the fort. Governor Burt was at this 
time at St. Kitts, superintending the clearance of 
the forts ; trees and bushes having for several years 
been allowed to grow all round the rampants and 
trenches. Thomas Shirley, Governor of Dominica, 
was compelled to yield up that Island to the French 
before it was known that hostilities had commenced. 
He had been appointed on 5 February 1774 vice Sir 
William Young resigned. 

September 17. Jacob Jarvis was returned for 
Popeshead vice Nathaniel Humphrys resigned. 

September 24. Goat Hill near St. John's Harbour 
is to be fortified. 

September 30. Governor Burt writes from St. 
Kitts:— "19 out of 20 here are loyal." "I am 
truly sorry to say Sir Gillies Payne, now in England, 
was always deemed a strong North American Par- 
tizan." His Manager is an avowed supporter of 
that Party. 

October 4. An express was sent to the Governor 
acquainting him with the situation at Antigua, and 
the capture of Dominica by the French. 

October 8. Jacob Jarvis was returned for Popes- 
head vice Nathaniel Hvtmphrys unduly returned. 
Dr. Eobert Garroway is licensed to practise Medi- 
cine, etc. 

December. St. Lucia was captured by Major- 



CXXIV 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



General Grant and Admiral Barrington, who at the 
same time repulsed the vastly superior force under 
Count d'Estaing. 

1779, January. The inhabitants of Angviilla have 
captured the French part of St. Martins. 

January 30. Admiral Byron has joined Admiral 
Barrington. 

February. St. Bartholomew's captured by us. 

May 3. The present crops are destroyed by long 
drought, the cisterns and large ponds are empty, 
water is 18d. a gallon, and instead of 20 to 30,000 
hogsheads of sugar this year there will be but 4000. 
There is also great distress for provisions at the 
French Islands. 

May 7. Edward Otto Baijer and Colonel Francis 
Farley being dead, Mr. Jeaffreson a gentleman of 
family and fortune is appointed by the Governor to 
the Council. 

June 3. The Governor has appointed the Hon. 
William Leslie Hamilton Attorney-General vice Tho- 
mas Warner deceased. St. Vincent has been attacked 
by the French. 

On 16 June, owing to dissension between the 
planters and Governor Morris, and the cowardice and 
incompetency of Colonel Etherington, St. Vincent 
fell into the enemy's hands. Governor Valentine 
Morris (who was himself an Autiguan), with the 
officers and soldiers, retired to Antigua to be ex- 
changed for French prisoners. 

On 1 July an Act passed authorising the borrow- 
ing of £20,000 to be expended in provisions, of which 
owing to no crops, drought, and war, there was a 
great scarcity amounting almost to a famine. Bills 
for this sum were accepted by Government in October. 

On 3 July D'Estaing with 25 sail of the line and 
10,000 troops captured Grenada. After the surrender 
St. George Town was pillaged by the French troops. 
D'Estaing, to the gi'eat relief of the British Islands, 
sailed for North America after an indecisive action 
with Admiral Barrington's fleet. 

July 2-5. Grenada has capitulated to the French. 
On the 15th instant war had been declared against 
England in all the Spanish governments. General 
Grant has left the 4th, 15th, 28th, 40th, and 55th 
reofiments at St. Kitts. 

August. Governor Burt complains that General 
Prescott had refused to give him a list of the troops. 
Lord George Germaine replied that the Governor 
should always be supplied with such lists. About 
1000 troops were this year quartered on the island. 

December. Governor Burt having expressed a 
wish to review the troops Colonel Musgrave refused 
to allow him to do so. This led to great friction be- 
tween the two. 3382 hogsheads of sugar were exported. 
1780, February'. General Vaughan relieves 
General Prescott as Commander-in-Chief of His 
Majesty's forces. 

From 1 March 1779 to 29 February 1780 the 
legislature spent £4782 currency on the troops and 
£3000 for barrack repair. 

April 5. Thomas Hawes was returned for Old 
lioad vice Joseph Lyons Athill. Mr. Thomas Daniel 



is to have the rank of King's Counsel at the 
Autiguan Bar. Governor Burt proposes that the 
President of Antigua, not that of St. Kitts, should 
be always second in command, for this reason, that 
Antigua being poorer than St. Kitts most of the 
landed proprietors live on the island because they 
cannot afford to live in England ; whereas at St. 
Kitts there are mostly managers. 

April 17. Sir George Rodney with twenty ships 
fell in with the French and Spanish fleet, and fought 
an indecisive action. 

August 23. William Gunthorpe was returned 
for St. John's Division vice Alexander Willock. 

September 6. Rowland E. Williams was returned 
for Old Road vice Samuel Picart deceased. 

September 20. Baptist Looby was sworn an 
Assistant-Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. 

September 26. The Governor proposes to appoint 
James Nibbs, Esq., to be Assistant-Justice vice Main 
Swete Walrond. The hurricane which affected the 
southern islands and destroyed St. Pierre in Mar- 
tinique and Basseterre in Guadaloupe was not felt 
here. 

October 4. Charles Winstone was sworn Solicitor- 
General. The mandamus for John Duer to be of 
the Council bears date 25 June. Dr. Samuel Athill 
stated in his examination that nearly one-fifth of the 
negros had died of dysentery in 1778, 1779, and 1780. 

1781, January 31. Anthony Johnson, President 
of St. Kitts, writes that Governor Burt died at 
Antigua at 4 or 5 a.m. on Saturday the 27th instant, 
and that he has assumed the government. Reprisals 
are ordered against the States General. 

On the 3rd February, acting on secret instructions. 
Sir G. B. Rodney, with General Vaughan on board in 
command of the troops, made himself master of the 
Dutch island of St. Eustatius, St. Martins, and Saba, 
where he obtained booty to the value of £3,000,000 
sterling and over 150 sail. Much treasonable corre- 
spondence which fell into his hands shewed that 
British merchants settled there had been suj^plying 
both the French and Americans with war material. 
St. Eustatia had for some years been a centre for 
illicit trade and privateering. Sir G. Rodney de- 
spatched the naval stores to H.M.'s dockyard at 

Antigua. 

1781, Feb. 22. New Sessions. 



Jn" Taylor 

Tho. Jarvis I 

Nich. Taylor f 

Alex. Scott ! 

Phil. Hieks I 

Jas. Nibbs ) 

Jacob Jarvis | 

Jos. L. Athill ) 

Row. Burton I 

And. Lessly I 

Jos. Athill 

Sam. Picart 

W" Morson 

T. N, Kerby 

Rich. Kirwan 

Jn° Ronan I 

Bertie Entwisle I 

W™ M'I\ennin, Jun' \ 

Sam. .Jeaffreson i 

Jn° Dunbar 

Jas. Uurdon, Jun. 

Jn° Horsford / 

Sam. Athill 

Alex. Willock 

Tho. Daniell 



S' Johns Town. 



Dickinsons Bay. 
Popeshead. 

New North Sound. 

I Old Road, Bermudian Valley, 
I it New Division. 
I Old North Sound, Nonsuch, & 
I Parham Town. 
Five Islands. 

Belfast. 



Nonsuch. 



Willoughby Bay. 



, Falmouth & Rendesvous Bay. 
S' Johns Division. 
Rowland Burton chosen Speaker. 



GEORGE III. 



cxxv 



MarcL. Sir Samuel Hood and General Vaugban 
with three regiments were ordered to sail to the 
Leeward Islands. 

March 31. The death of Mr. W. L. Hamilton 
the Attorney-General announced. 

April 4. Colonel Shii-ley, late Lieut.-Governor of 
Dominica, is to succeed Governor Burt. Thomas 
Jarvis, Esq., is still President of Antigua. 

May 9. Governor Shirley takes the oaths. 

June 1. Tobago surrendered to a superior French 
force. 

August 27. Governor Thomas Shirley writes 
amiouncing his arrival at Antigua. 

Letter X.* Antigua, 3^ Nov^ 1781. 

Dear Sir, 

I sailed from S* Lucia, as was my intention, in 
the English West India Packet, and arrived in this Island 
in less than two days after I embarked .... 

The appearance of Antigua from the South is highly 
pleasing to the eye, as it consists on this quarter of a variety 
of hills of different form, in high cultivation, intersected by 
vallies and little Bays. In sailing along the coast in the 
afternoon, we struck upon a Sand Bank, from which, how- 
ever, the vessel got clear without sustaining any damage, 
and in about three hours afterwards we anchored in the 
Harbour of S' John's .... 

The Planters of this Island have exjjerienced a train of 
distressful events, the Cause of which may be attributed, to 
the nakedness of the face of the Country, hardly any trees 
being left standing. The populousness of the I.'sland and 
the equal surface of the Land, induced the proprietors to 
render every part of it as profitable as they could, by every 
where cutting down the woods. 

By this injudicious step, the fruits of the Earth are 
deprived of those periodical supplies of moisture from rain, 
which they experience in ahnost every other Island. Four 
or five successive years of dry weather will occur, scorching 
with heat almost the whole Island, excepting a small chain 
of mountains, which, from their superior elevation attract 
the passing clouds. 

The sugar plantations here preserve their vegetation & 
verdure, while those every where else exhibit a parched 
appearance. It is indeed astonishing that vegetables of any 
kind can grow, where heat predominates so powerfully and 
where the supply of moisture is so inadequate. The only 
refreshment of this kind which the Earth receives, is from 
the nocturnal dews, generated by evaporation from the 
ocean during the day .... 

The only water in this country fit for the Use of Men and 
animals, is that which is collected in Tanks or Cisterns of 
Mason-work sunk underground, over which a concave stone 
or brick cover is usually placed, to collect the rain when it 
falls, with a hole in the centre for it to run through. They 
have also on every plantation, large ponds lined with clay. 
When these reservoirs of water become from long drought 
nearly exhausted, the situation of the inhabitants must be 
deplorable. This, I am informed, was not long ago the Case. 
Property in this Island, which is subject to such striking 
inconveniences, must be reduced considerably in its value. 

Fortunately for Antigua it has lately been copiously 
visited with showers, which, together with the vegetation, 
have raised the drooping spirits of the planters. 

In order to give you an idea of the reduced situation of 
this Colony for want of rains, I shall mention to you a well 

• The above letter is one of twelve in the Author's possession, 
descriptive of " A Tour through part of the West Indies, containing 
a particular description of the Climate, Cultivation, and several of 
the Natural Productions of the Island of Tobago and other settle- 
ments in that quarter of the world," fos. 255, with no clue to the 
name of the writer of the MSS. 



authenticated instance of the difference produced by seasons, 
on the fertile Estates of a Gentleman of the most extensive 
property here. He received from his plantations in favour- 
able years, upon an average, a remittance of thirteen 
hundred hogsheads of sugar. The whole amount of the 
produce of these Estates last year, was eight hogsheads of 
sugar, and which that of the year preceding did not much 
exceed. Where there is so great a failure of yearly revenue, 
the expence of maintaining such a number of negroes as is 
necessary for cultivating these Estates, must be prodigious. 
The plantation unable to yield its accustomed quantity of 
vegetables is insufficient for the support of the negroes 
settled on it, and the owner must supply the deficiency by 
purchasing, which he is uidiappily necessitated to do, at a 
time when he can least afford it. 

Notwithstanding the nakedness of the Country, there 
are many j)leasant and romantic situations here, such as 
Five-Islands, the Valley, the Bead, Sir George Thomas's, 
Sir W™ Codrington's and several spots near Willoughby 
Bay. 

The Town of S' .John, the Capital of the Island, is 
situated upon its leeward or Western Side, which gently 
slopes to the Water's edge. The Barracks for the Troops 
built on the land immediately to Windward and adjoining 
the Town, is a pretty extensive structure of white stone, con- 
sisting of a center and two wings. The whole building is 
single, or not more than one room in breadth to render the 
apartments more cool and airy. It consists of a ground 
floor and upper story, and on the East or windward Front ^ 
Galary supported by stone arches, runs along the whole 
length of the building, and affords a cool and shady walk 
both to the oflBcers & men. The streets of the Town are 
judiciously laid out running from East to West, and from 
North to South, crossing each other at right angles. 
Several of the houses are built of brick, but by far the 
greater part are of wood. They are in general, clean, com- 
modious, and neat. 

The Court House stands in the Center of the Town, and 
is constructed of hewn stone, being two stories high, con- 
taining several large Apartments, which are appropriated for 
different uses ; those below forming the Court of Judicature, 
the Secretarys and Provost Marshal's Offices. The upper 
rooms are Chambers for the Use of the Council and assembly 
of the Colony. 

The Church is situated on an emiuence towards the 
North East side of the Town, is built of brick and orna- 
mented with stone. It is handsomely fitted up within, and 
contains a good Organ. 

The view from the rising ground on the windward side 
of the Town is strikingly singular, rich and picturesque. 
The Barracks, and the different houses appear in the Front 
ground, over which is seen the harbour, with ships, schooners, 
etc., lying at anchor, where a hill of considerable height 
called Rat-Island, rises from the water, having a row of 
Barracks upon its summit. The country on the North is 
very flat, and the sea runs a considerable way into the land 
forming a shallow Bay, which is separated from the sea on 
the West by a long neck, at the Southern extremity of which 
is placed James's Fort. The land on the South West side 
of the Harbour, is varied by abrupt and precipitous hills, 
although of no very great height, but the coast of the Bay 
is sufficiently bold, and is well contrasted with its opposite 
shore. Goats Hill, whicli is a round eminence containing a 
stone fort, terminates the Western extremity of the Harbour, 
at about four miles distance from the Town. The entrance 
to this Bay is not free from danger, as there are hidden 
rocks and banks of sand in different situations. The Town 
and Country above it, viewed from a vessel turning into the 
Bay, have an enchanting appearance. 

Parham, a small Town, on the North side of the Island, 
is about six miles from the Capital, and contains about fifty 

r 



CXXVl 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



■white families. It has a harbour, aud was a place of some 
trade before the American War. 

Falmouth, about ten miles from S' Johns, and half a 
mile from English Harbour, stands at the bottom of Monks 
Hill, upon a sloping Plain by the sea side. It contains 
several short streets, and is principally inhabited by Trades- 
people, and Artificers belonging to the Dock Yard. 

The lofty land immediately above Falmouth has a kind 
of Fortification extending around its summit, and is called 
Monks Hill. It is not very extensive, and contains a 
Barrack for the accommodation of some Troops ; A Company 
from one of the Regiments being generally stationed there 
for a month at a time. The situation is cool, pleasant, aud 
healthy, and the view of the circumjacent Country is rich 
and picturesque. The Fort is by no means in a very tenable 
condition, notwithstanding the boldness of its situation and 
the precipitous declivity of the mountain towards the sea. 
It contains very few Cannon, and these, from their antiquity 
and disrepair, would be of very little service in case of a 
siege. The ascent to Monks Hill on the North side is 
tolerably easy. 

English Harbour lies to the Southward of this Fort, and 
is surrounded on every side with lofty Hills, which defend it 
from the winds. On account of the depth and perpetual 
smoothness of the water, the narrowness of its Entrance, 
and some other advantages, it is the best harbour in any of 
the British West India Islands if we except Jamaica. On 
the West side of the entrance of this Harbour is a small 
redoubt, known by the name of Fort Barclay. It stands in 
a commanding situation, and is well calculated to annoy an 
Enemy, should an attack on that quarter be attempted. 
The opposite rising ground at the mouth of this Harbour 
also contains a stone defence, which commands an extensive 
view of the sea. There are besides many little batteries in 
various parts of the vicinity, which are judiciously placed, 
and if well defended would oblige an Enemy of superior 
numbers and strength, either to relinquish an attack upon 
the Dock Yard, or to pay with considerable loss for the 
advantage of taking or destroying it. 

The Mouth of the Harbour is from 24 to '2^ feet in 
depth of water. 

Freemaus Bay, the place in which the Frigates and ships 
generally lie is in depth from twenty two to twenty six feet. 
The Bay becomes narrow about the Center of the Harbour, 
but afterwards ditfuses itself to a considerable breadth. On 
the West side of the narrow part of the Harboui-, stand the 
store houses and different Work shops ; the houses for the 
residence of the Commissioner, and of the Master Carpenter, 
and the Capstan house for heaving down and repairing 
Frigates and sloops of war, the Water here being from 18 to 
20 feet in depth. Opposite to this is the Capstan House 
for heaviug down 74 Gun Ships ; the water there being 
22 feet in depth. The whole length of the Harbour is 
about I of a mile from the Entrance to the Hospital, which 
stands at the farthest extremity, where the Powder Magazine 
is also placed. The Men who are employed in the Kings 
Works at English Harbour suffer considerably from the heat 
and closeness of the situation, the access of the regular 
breeze being intercepted by the elevated ground which 
environs this spot. The quantity of rubbish and filth daily 
discharged from the sliips, must tend by quick putrefaction, 
in some measure to corrupt the water into which it is thrown, 
and to mingle with the exhalations produced by the solar 
heat. 

The tides here are so inconsiderable as hardly to make 
any material alteration on the depth of the water, and the 
currents which agitate and carry along, the surrounding 
waters of an Islaud, cannot be supposed to have influence 
beyond the contracted entrance of a land-locked Harbour. 

The Waters in it, often therefore stagnate too long, and 
combine with other causes to corrupt the atmosphere of a 



place lying so low that the breeze which blows over the high 
grounds on each side of it, can bestow none of its coolness 
on the inhabitants. This is therefore considered as the most 
unhealthy part of Antigua, and many have here suffered by 
putrid distempers. 

The windward part of the Island, presents to the sea a 
coast consisting of rocky cliffs, and indented by small Bays. 
There is here a considerable quantity of uncultivated land, 
part of which contains trees of an inferior size and shrubs 
or brush wood. I am convinced from observations which I 
have made, that the trees which formerly covered the leeward 
settlements must have been much smaller, and less vigorous 
than those with which the windward or more southern 
settlements are clothed. 

From the general nakedness of the Colony, it cannot be 
supposed to abound much with game, or with the feathered 
tribes. In my rides through the Island I saw hardly any 
birds, except the Ground Dove which is not much larger 
than a thrush. There are considerable quantities of Fish 
around the Coast, and the market of S* Johns is tolerably 
well supplied .... 

The Hospitality of some of the Inhabitants of this 
Island is so great that my residence in the Town has 
been very short, and I chiefly have spent my time at Sir 
W. C.'s* in the Windward part of the Country, and at M"^ 
W.'s about two miles distant from Town. The former 
derives his Estates from Inheritance, the latter has by 
assiduous attention to the mercantile profession amassed 
with a very fair and upright Character, a fortune, it is said, 
of £300,000 sterling. This would be considered a capital 
sum, even in the City of London. But although he is now 
upwards of fifty four years of age, he possesses activity of 
mind and ardor of negotiative enterprize, as if he were in 
the prime of life and had not yet acquired a competency of 
fortune .... 

November 26. Governor Shirley proposes to con- 
tract the defensive works, declares the batteries to 
be useless, and recommends the strengthening of 
English Harbour. He reports that on 26 November 
Monsieur de Boirille and Count Dillon with 400 men 
attacked St. Eustatius, and surprised the fort where 
Sir G. B. Rodney had left a garrison of 600 men 
from two of our regiments. The French obtained 
possession of £160,000 currency prize money. They 
are stated to have thirty five sail of the line with 
10,000 troops on board, and Sir Samuel Hood can 
have but twenty. 

1782, January 11. The Marquis de Bouille landed 
with 8000 troops at St. Christopher's, supported by 
the Count de Grasse with 29 sail of the line. Sir 
Samuel Hood arrived at Antigua on the 21st, took 
on board General Prescott with the 28th Regiment 
and two companies of the 13th, and proceeded to 
St. Kitts with 22 sail. He was not successful in 
raising the siege of Brimstone Hill, and rejoined 
Rodney later. The inhabitants of St. Kitts deserved 
their losses, for they had refused to vote negro 
labour to drag up to the fort ten heavy guns with 
shot aud shell which had been sent out by the 
government ; these were found by the French at the 
foot of the hill, and made use of by them. 

February 15. Governor Shirley writes that St. 

Kitts aud Nevis surrendered to the French on 12 

February, after a siege of five weeks. The enemy 

landed on 10 January and invested Brimstone Hill. 

* Sir William Codrington. 



GEORGE III. 



cxxvu 



He was compelled to capitulate owing to the existence 
of large breaches, due to bad cement, and the 
destruction of their stores and rum by fire. There 
were 670 troops in garrison, besides the militia and 
sailors. By the articles of capitulation he and 
General Fraser -were allowed to leave, and were not 
to be considered as prisoners of war. Sir Samuel 
Hood arrived from Barbados on 24 January. Mont- 
serrat surrendered to the French on 22 February, 
also Nevis, so that Barbados and Antigua are the 
only islands left in our possession. 

May 2. Governor Shirley writes that he has 
suspended Mr. Jeaffreson of the Council for saying 
" The King could do what he pleased with his Privy 
Council, and that he had a corrupt Parliament to 
give him a sanction for it, or Words to that Effect," 
and on my calling him to order said " Why, you 
yourself think so too, don't you?" He has heard 
that on 12 April last Sir George Eodney engaged 
the French fleet off Guadaloupe, and totally defeated 
them, the " Ville de Paris," with Admiral Count de 
Grasse, and four other ships being taken, and a 74 
sunk. A week later two 64's were also taken. By 
a letter from Whitehall the Governor was ordered 
to re-instate Mr. Jeaffreson, and not to act so hastily 
for the future. 

July 12. Letters from the West Indies bring an account 
of the unfortunate fate of S' John's in Antigua, one-third 
of which is reduced to ashes by an accidental conflagra- 
tion. The loss is immense. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 355.) 

July 23. John Lyons was returned for Willoughby 
Bav vice John Dunbar resigned, and also appointed 
pond-warden for Falmouth. 

A\igust 22. Hon. John Duer resigns on account 
of ill-health. 

September 3. The Governor recommends William 
Gunthorpe and Thomas Jarvis, jun., to be of the 
Council vice John Duer resigned. 

September 19. William Jarvis was returned for 
Popeshead vice Jacob Jarvis resigned. 

October 17. Nathaniel Evanson was returned 
for Old North Sound vice William Morson deceased. 
The mandamus for Sir John Ogilvie, Bart., to be of 
the Council was dated 7 March last past. 

The defence of the island for forts, militia, 
labour, etc., from 1 March 1776 to 31 December 
1782, has cost the Legislature £142,479 currency, 
all which has been paid. 

1783, February 10. A treaty of peace with the 
French announced. 

March 27. The Council and Assembly petition 
Parliament that they have had dry seasons for many 
years past, that many affluent families have been 
reduced to indigence, and several estates turned into 
pasture. There were two fires in St. John's Town 
in 1769 and 1782, and they hope that Parham and 
St. John's will be declared free ports. 

May 22. Henry B. Lightfoot was returned vice 
William McKinnen resigned. Dr. Francis Brown is 
licensed to practise Medicine. 

July 11. List of the Council : — Thomas Jarvis, 



President, Edward Byam, John Gi-ay, John Laforey, 
Sir John Ogilvie, Bart., and William Gunthorpe. 
Absent, William Mackinnen, Lockhart Russell, and 
Charles Winstone. 

July 31. Many useless and expensive forts are 
to be demolished. The Incorporation Charter for 
St. John's Town was this day received. 

The preliminary articles of peace with France 
and Spain were signed at Versailles 28 January, and 
the definitive treaties with those powers and with 
America at Paris on 3 September, by which St. Lucia 
was restored and Tobago ceded to France. Grenada, 
St. Vincent, Dominica, St. Christopher's, Nevis, and 
Montserrat were restored to Great Britain. 

October 7. James Athill was returned for Non- 
such vice Samuel Jeaffreson resigned, David Scott 
for Popeshead vice Joseph L. Athill resigned, and 
Boyce Ledwell for St. John's Division vice William 
Gunthorpe called to the Council. 

The Methodist Chapel in Antigua was completed 
and preached in for the first time on the 8th of 
November. Several hundred had joined the Society, 
the care of which rested on Mr. Baxter and Mrs. 
Gilbert, who, unable to draw her annuity from an 
estate in Antigua, left England to live upon it. Her 
house was open every day for all who chose to attend 
her family prayers, and she had one evening in every 
week for the public reading of the Scriptures. Mr. 
Wesley was requested to send out some more 
preachers, but could not. Some Irish who were 
emigrating to America were driven to Antigua in 
great distress. One of these was a Methodist, who, 
with his family, was enabled by the kindness of 
others of that sect to remain in Antigua, where he 
became very useful to them in exhorting and in 
leading of classes. Upwards of 1000 members, 
chiefly blacks, were soon in society. 

The mandamus of William Gunthorpe was dated 
at the Court of St. James 24 November, and that of 
Thomas Norbury Kerby 10 November. 

December 26. Trade between the United States 
of America and the West Indies was authorized. 

Antigua produced 3900 hogsheads of sugar this 
year, being 12,300 less than last year. 

1784. Alexander Willock and John Burton are 
joint Agents at London. 

February 4. Joseph Lyons Athill was returned 
for St. John's Division vice Thomas Daniell resigned. 

February 16. Dr. Thomas Fairbairn petitions 
for licence to practise Medicine, etc. Mr. Andrew 
Edwards is to serve in the Troop. 

April 15. Main Swete Walrond was returned 
for Old North Sound vice Thomas N. Kerby called to 
the Council, and Nathaniel Marchant for Old Hoad 
vice Thomas Hawes resigned. Richard Bowman now 
Coroner. 

June 24. William Wilkinson was returned for 
for St. John's Town vice Nicholas Taylor resigned, 
and Archibald Gloster for Willoughby Bay vice 
James Gordon, jun., resigned. 

By an Act passed this year a jury of six whites 
was ordered for the trial of slaves accused of capital 



CXXVlll 



THE HISTOEY OF ANTIGUA. 



offences. Previous to this Justices decided in all 
cases and awarded execution, which was carried out 
by the Provost-Marshal in obedience to their warrant. 
A Harbour Master was appointed for St. John's, 
whose chief duty was to remedy abuses, and see that 
no ballast was discharged into the water, and that 
sunken ships and wrecks were removed by their 
owners, etc. 

1785, January 20. Eichard Scott Byam, M.D., 
was returned for Dickinson's Bay, William Gilchrist 
for Falmouth vice James Nibbs, and John Horsford 
called up to the Council. 

From a long letter written on 20th March by 
Captain Horatio Nelson of H.M.S. " Boreas," it 
appears that he had been appointed in November 
1784 to protect the commerce of the Leeward Islands, 
and had rendered himself obnoxious to certain persons 
by carrying oxat the navigation laws with strict 
impartiality. 

Mr. Stanley, the Attorney-General of these 
islands, had a seat in Parliament. Governor Shirley 
recommends Rowland Burton the Speaker, a lawyer, 
as Solicitor-General, but is informed that His 
Majesty had already appointed Mr. John Burke to 
that post on 9 April. He also applies for a Baronetcy 
for himself. 

May 7. Antigua owes the Home Government 
£37,609. 

May 19. John Burke was returned vice David 
Scott. 

The mandamus for Thomas Jarvis, jun., to be of 
the Council was dated 4 July at St. James. Giles 
Blizard, Esq., was this year inhumanly murdered by 
two of his slaves, one of whom was his natural son. 

August 4. The suit against Captain Horatio 
Nelson is to be defended by the Crown lawyers. 
Prices were trebled by the late war, and are still 
double what they were before. 

August 12. Dr. Thomas Fairbairn returned for 
Dickinson's Bay vice Dr. Richard Scott Byam 
resigned. John Burke chosen Speaker vice Rowland 
Burton resigned. 

December 11. The Assembly agree to undertake 
the building of a cistern at the Ridge, but they 
absolutely refuse to spend Id. more on forts. 

December 21. The Governor recommends Row- 
land Burton for the office of Chief Justice, vacant by 
the death of Thomas Jai-vis, Esq., on the 18th 
instant. 

1786, June 5. William Hutchinson, Esq., the 
Governor's nephew, was appointed Agent vice Alex- 
ander Willock resigned. 

Jmie 7. Rowland Burton is appointed Chief 
Justice. 

September 21. Richard Oliver Athill was returned 
for Falmouth vice Samuel B. Athill. 

September 25. Governor Shirley has called 
Samuel Byam Athill up to the Council. 

October 3. Governor Shirley writes that he has 
heard from his nephew Hutchinson that his (Shirle3''s) 
name was put on Lord Sidney's list, and that he has 
been made a Baronet. 



October 9. John Wickham Mayer was returned 
for St. John's Division vice Boyce Ledwell resigned. 
The oOth, 35th, 55th, and 60th Regiments are at the 
Leeward Islands, and four companies of the 55th 
stationed at Antigua. 

November 16. John Rose, Esq., late Deputy- 
Provost-Marshal, was appointed powder officer vice 
Samuel Byam deceased. 

The Registrar's house having been nearly burnt 
on 20 November, a committee report thereon and 
rent a house for the records which is more safely 
situated. 

November 30. Dr. Alexander McPherson presents 
his diploma from the College of Physicians of Glas- 
gow, and is licensed. 

December 20. Both Houses proceeded to the 
Court House, where President Byam read an address 
to H.R.H. Prince William Henry. 

The following forty letters, pp. 180, small 8vo, are com- 
prised in a somewhat rare book entitled : A Brief Account 
of the Island of Antigaa, together with the customs and 
manners of its inhabitants, as well white as black : as also 
an accurate statement of the food, cloathing, labor, and 
punishment, of slaves. In Letters to a Friend. Written 
in the Years 1786, 1787, 1788. By John Luffraan. 
London : Printed for T. Cadell, in the Strand. 178U : — 

Letter I. 

St. John's, Antigua, 
May 15, 1786. 
Beab Sie, 

I arrived here on the 6th instant, after a tedious passage of 
fifty-eight da3's, from the Downs. On the 23d of March we had a 
heavy gale of wind from the S.W. which obliged us to put into Torbay ; 
but the wind getting to the northward, we weighed anchor, and put to 
sea, witli a fine breeze, wliich wafted us across the rolling waves of the 
Bay of Biscay with more satisfaction than was naturally to be 
expected. On the 2d of April, in latitude 39. 14. North, and longitude 
17. 11. West, we experienced a storm, with lightning, which lasted 
(with verj' little intermission) for four days, and the rude contention 
for the elements seemed to threaten our bark with inevitable 
destruction. The Captain was about to put in at Lisbon, when the 
sea abated its terrors, to the great joy of the passengers, and the relief 
of the seamen, who were nearly tired out with the fatigue they had 
undergone ; and that ocean, whose waters were before running to a 
terrific height, became in the space of six hours as smooth as the sur- 
face of a mill-pond. 

Nothing material happened after this during the passage, and we 
amused ourselves, as well as we could, with cards and fishing. On the 
30th of April, when in the latitude of this island, sever.il sharks were 
discovered following the ship, all hands that could be spared were 
immediately busied, and hooks were thrown out baited with large 
pieces of salt beef or pork, and the granes rigged in order to strike, as 
soon as they had gorged the bait. Our endeavours proved effectual, 
and we brought one of those voracious creatures of the deep upon deck. 
As soon as it was hoisted in, the carpenter with an axe struck off its 
tail, which was afterwards nailed to the foremast. This monster 
measured twenty-two feet in length ; and its ravenous jaws contained 
four rows of teeth. The flesh was thrown into the sea, and, as we sup- 
posed, swallowed by its late companions, as we saw no more of them. 

We also caught two dolphins. This fish is the most beautiful of 
the watery creation, consequentl}' as much unlike what is commonly 
represented b}' painters, as it is possible to conceive. In the water it 
appears in all tbe liveliest tints of green j and when dying displays the 
various colours of the rainbow, intermixed with spots of azure. The 
last which our people took weighed only eight pounds, and was exceed- 
ing good eating, (at sea) similar to cod, but drier. 

We saw great numbers of fl.ying fish. One of them, about the size 
of a small whiting, was found in the mizen chains ; each wing was near 
six inches long, which are useful in flying no longer than they con- 
tinue wet. 

As we closed in with the islands, we saw great quantities of gulf 
weed floating : this, I was informed, was a certain indication of land 
being at no very great distance. 

I had almost forgot to observe, that on passing the tropic of Cancer, 
the old custom of ducking and shaving such as have not before crossed 
it, was performed by the seamen with some humour on one man and 
two boys. The passengers waved the ceremony by a liquor fine. 

We made the island on the 5th, at midnight. The joyful sound 
of land ! laud ! reverberating from the stem to the stern, roused every 
one from their slumbers ; and the faint light of the moon, which was 
nearly setting, served to heighten the awful, yet pleasing gloom with 
which night had clad the lofty hills. 

I landed about ten o'clock in the morning, and was all astonish- 
ment " seeing what I have seen, seeing what I see." 

Acquaint C. B. and E. B. with my arrival; assure them of my 
regard. 



GEORGE III. 



CXXIX 



Lkttek II. 



3Ia>/ 31, 1786. 



The lieat of this country is exceedinijly great, but basing come 
into it gradually, it does not yet seeui to take any disagreeable eifect 
on me ; and as I could be^ir heat in Europe with better temper than 
cold, I am in hojies a vertical sun will not in any great degree incom- 
mode me. The musquitoes are troublesome, but I defend my legs 
(which is the part these insects principally attack) with boots. 

I have taken a house in the best situation this town affords, from 
whence I purpose, agreeal)le to your particular request, (when I bade 
adieu to the place of my nativity, and to my much esteemed friends) to 
communicate whatever I should from time to time personally observe, 
or collect from persons of veracity, relative to this country, and also 
the manners and customs of the peo|ple, as well l)lacks as whites. 

I like my habitation and am well pleased with the prospect before 
me; a chain of hills, at about four miles distant, somo of which are 
beautifuU}- romantic, others richly clothed with the lu.xuriant verdure 
of the sugar-cane to their very suuunits. This |:ileasing assemblage of 
hills, called by the inhabitants Sbekerley's Mountains, ranging as far 
as the eye can reach, affords a view most charmingly picturesque, and 
which cannot be seen without rapture and delight. 

For the hire of this rus in urhe I have agreed to pay eighty-five 
pounds per j'ear, this currency, eijual to about fifty pounds sterling: 
it is money enough for a palace of timber, where you can see every 
beam and scantling; but it is new, and therefore, probabl}', free from 
vermin. I have hired a negro man-servant, for whose services I am 
to pay his owner half a Joannes (eighteen shillings sterling) per 
month ; and also a mulatto woman cook and wiislier, for whom I am 
to pay three dollars per month. I have bought some furniture, in 
addition to that I brought out with me from London, and commenced 
housekeeper three days ago in this land of slaves. 

The plants came unhurt. I have presented them to a gentleman, 
whose garden is the first in the island, and who received them with 
many th;inks. I was present when they were put in the ground, and 
hope to give you (on some future day) an account of their well doing. 



Letter III. 



June 18, 1786. 



I write this from the platform of my Indian villa, where I 
generally pass away the hour from six till seven every morning, read- 
ing, writing, or walking, being the most pleasant time throughout the 
day. The heat begins to come on by nine o'clock ; the thermometer 
of Fahrenheit is frequently by that time as high as ninety degrees, 
and continues rising until between one and two, at which time the 
mercury stands from 93 to 96 ; I have been told that it has been at 
102 within doors. I am also informed that in the coolest season it 
never falls below 74. From these premises I think the medium heat 
of this climate may with tolerable exactness be put down from 85 
to 90. 

The breeze which nature has so wisely ordered to counteract, in 
some measure, this extraordinary heat, and without which it would be 
impossible to live here, springs up by eight in the morning, and con- 
tinues until sun-set, genernlly blowing fresh during that time : not- 
withstanding, if a man walks but half a mile in the sun, it causes such 
copious perspiration, that it is necessary at his return to change his 
linen. 

The evenings, particularly moonlight, are enchanting beyond 
description, but exceedingly dangerous, on account of the dews, which 
are considerably greater and more humid than those of England ; and 
Europeans, enticed from their houses by the unconunon brilliaucy of 
Cynthia, frequently become victims to these pernicious damps, proving 
in this, as in many other instances, that beauty and danger are but too 
frequently united. 

I dined at the Court-house, on the 4th instant, with the Governor, 
Council, and Assembl}' ; the dinner and wines good, the company con- 
vivial. In the evening was a ball. The creole ladies are lively 
dancers, and the heat of the clime does not in the least prevent them 
from engaging even to an extreme in this their favourite amusement. 
It was two o'clock before I got home, well satisfied with having spent 
several hours both cheerfuUj' and agreeably. 

I am not a little troubled with what is here called prickly heat, 
a kind of rash which covers the greatest part of the body, itches 
intoUerable, but is said to be favorable to health. 

I shall tax my industry for the subsequent month, so as to be able 
to give you some further account of this country by the next packet ; 
till when, I remain, etc. 



Letter IV. 

July 14, 1786. 

This island is eighteen miles long, fourteen broad, between sixty and 
seventy in circumference, and contains upwards of sixty-nine thousand 
acres, being equal to one hundred and eight s(|uare miles. The south 
side is mountainous, and its shores are nearly bounded by rocks. The 
inhabitants, from the most accurate calculation, amount to about fifty 
thousand persons; forty-five thousand, out of that number, are blacks, 
mulattoes, and mestees. The produce, from the best information, 
averages fourteen thousand hogsheads of sugar, and from seven to eight 
thousand puncheons of rum annually ; any other articles, the growth 
of this country, if spoken of in a commercial light, are very trifling. 
Its capital, St. John's, is in latitude 17. 2. North, longitude 62. 3. 
West from St. Paul's, London. 

The island is divided into six parishes, viz. St. John, St. Peter, St. 
Philip, St. Mary, St. Paul, and St. George ; and subdivided into fifteen 
divisions, namely, St. John, Pope's-head, Dickenson's Bay, New, Old 
North Sound, New North Sound, Bermudian Valley, Belfast, Mercer's 
Creek, Willoughby Bay, Five Islands, Old Road, Nonsuch, Rendezvous 
Bay, and Falmouth ; all of which send one or more members to the 
Assembly ; and the town of St. John appoints four representatives to 
that body. The Council, consisting of sixteen members (which serves 
as an upper house) are appointed by the Governor, and approved by 
the King ; the senior Counsellor is stiled President ; and acts as 



Governor during the absence of the Commander in Chief. The present 
Governor of the Leeward Caribbee Islands is Sir Thomas Shirley, 
Bart., a Major General in the army. Here is a Court of Chancery and 
a Court of Vice Admiralty, at botli of which the Governor, for the time 
being, presides ; a Court of King's Bench and Grand Sessions, at which 
the President presides ; and a Court of Common Pleas, and a Court of 
Bxcheiiuer : the Judges of which are not lav\7ers, but planters, who 
are fre(|uently dictated to and even directed by the Barristers, par- 
ticularly when any cause which requires legal knowledge is in ques- 
tion, thereby giving up their honest opinions to the chicanery and 
artifice of an in.soleut and overbearing pleader. That this has been 
done in these Courts I have from an authority which I cannot doubt 
the veracity of. The place of Chief Judge, at this time vacant, is, I 
hear, solicited for by a gentleman now in England, ndi'o has been for 
some years at the bar in this country ; if he should succeed, probably 
this brow-beating system will be laid aside: Arrogance and impudence 
must then give place to sterling sense and real legal knowledge, too 
long obscured by power, insolence, and duplicity. 

Our military establishment consists of a militia troop of Carbineers, 
a blue regiment of toot, a red ditto, an independent company, and a 
regiment of artillery, which are drawn out every fourth Saturday and 
exercised. To this force may be added a regiment, or the greatest part 
of a regiment, of regidar troops. 

For the first time in my life I felt a smart shock of an earthquake, 
about six o'clock in the evening of the 3d instant ; I learn these visi- 
tations are very frequent here. 



Letter V. 

Aug. 1, 1786. 

This town is about three quarters of a mile long, half a mile broad, 
and contains nearly eighteen hundred houses and huts, built princi- 
pally of wood ; which for the most part are low, on account of the 
hurricanes and earthquakes, convulsions which visit this part of the 
torrid zone, frequently and too often fataly. The streets are spacious, 
but unpaved, nor is there the least care taken to keep them clean ; the 
prickly pear bush and other shrubs are suffered to grow therein, to the 
annoyance of the passenger, the secreting of every species of filth and 
nastiness ; and to the great increase of vermin, insects, and reptiles, 
with which this place abounds. 

The church is a handsome edifice of brick and stone, dedicated to 
St. John ; the church-yard is inclosed by a brick wall, and the Baptist 
and Evangelist, two well executed figures in Portland stone, are placed 
on pillars at the south entrance. In this town are also Moravian and 
Methodist meeting-houses. 

The Court-house, situated nearly in the center of the town, is 
built of stone brought from Pelican Island, about nine miles distant, 
which is a good material similar to that of Portland. This building 
is esteemed the best in the British West-Indies; here the Courts of 
Justice are held, the Council and Assembly meet, and the public 
dinners and balls are kept. 

The jail is a stone building, near the Court-house, its inmates are 
principally run-away negroes and mulattoes, and a few white debtors, 
some of the latter description live within its walls in luxurious style, 
to the manifest injury of their creditors. 

The Custom-house is a good building, near the bottom of St. Mary's 
Street, and the fees exacted there are enormotis. 

The New Barracks and Military-hospital, situated to the eastward 
of the town, are spacious and healthy, and allowed to be the most com- 
plete in the islands. There is also a barrack on Rat Island, in St. 
John's Harbour, but it has been suffered to go to ruin and is now out 
of use. 

A considerable part of this town was destroyed by fire, on the 17th 
of August, 1769, and again suffered severely by that dreadful element, 
on the 10th of April, 1782, from which it has not recovered its former 
appearance ; many parts, even in the very center of business, remain- 
ing in ruins. The great cause of this calamity being so extensive in 
its effects here, is owing to the covering the tops of the houses with 
shingles (small pieces of wood nearly in the shape, and made to answer 
the purpose of tiles), which, when dried by the scorching rays of a 
tropical sun, become touchwood, and a spark is sufficient to set the 
whole town in a flame. 



Letter VI. 



Sept. 3, 1786. 



Saint John's Harbour is large, and its entrance defended by Fort 
James on the north, and b3' Goat-hill Fort on the south, but its best 
security is the Bar, a shoal so called, extending almost across it, from 
Hog John Bay, to Fort James : the depth of water on this shelve i.s 
from eight to fourteen feet. This harbour undoubtedly ranks amongst 
the first in the West-Indies, but it is choaking very fast, and, unless 
effectual measures are soon taken for deepening it, vessels of three 
hundred tons burthen, must, in a few years, discharge and take in 
their cargoes at the distance of between two and three miles from the 
wharfs. At this port nine tenths of the whole shipping business of 
the island is done. 

Parham, a small town, consisting of one principal street, with a 
few outlets, is situated about five miles east of St. John's, and has a 
wooden church, dedicated to St. Peter : also a custom-house, but 
although the harbour is good, the shipping business done here is 
inconsiderable. The few vessels that come to this port are principally 
from Bristol, To the southward of this town is a hill or tumuli, 
which appears to have been a work of art, probably the burying-place 
of some of the aborigine Indian heroes ; its form is a long square, 
ver3' regular in all its parts, lessening gradually from its base to the 
top, which is flat, and may be from five to six hundred feet long, and 
from forty to fifty feet high. 

Falmouth, a small town, about nine miles south east of St. John's; 
in war time becomes populous from its vicinity to English Harbour, 
but in time of peace it is almost deserted. It has a wooden church 
dedicated to St. Paul, and it formerly had a shipping trade, but is 
now entirely destitute of that benefit, as is Carlisle Bay, or Old Road, 



cxxx 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



about three miles to the westward, where the primitive adventurers 
to this island first established a colony. 

If a few miserable huts deserve the apiiellation of towns, there are 
two or three more on the island ; but, believe me, they are so very 
unworthy of notice that I will not take up your time to read, or my 
own to give an account of them. 



Lettee VII. 



Oct. 7, 1780. 



English Harbour, on the south side of the island, is the most 
commodious in the West-Indies for receiving shipping ; the con- 
veniences for refitting them also are already great, and from the 
attention paid to its further improvement, by Government, are rapidly 
encreasing. A seventy-four-gun ship can lay close to tlie wliarfs. 
The store-houses are both substantial and well contrived, and so 
tenacious are the principle officers of an}' discovery being made of 
their contents, that no stranger whatever can be admitted into the 
yard witbout leave. To this harbour, previous to the commencement 
of the hurricane months (August, September, and October), British 
vessels of war, stationed in the Caribbean seas, repair for security. It 
is surrounded by stupendous hills which break the force of the winds 
and renders it perfectly secure from the most violent tempests. The 
passage into this valuable bason is so very narrow, as to admit of the 
entry of one vessel only at a time, and is defended by Fort Barclay on 
the west, and Horse-shoe Batter)' on the east. On the sea side it 
appears next to an impossibility for an enemy to force it, and, in my 
opinion, the consequence of such an attempt must be destruction to 
the assailants. On the land side, the Bidge, a hill so named, that 
commands it, is fortifj'ing, and the part now erei^fing, is called Fort 
Shirley, in honour of the present Governor. The men of war are 
supplied with water from the tanks or cisterns (built here some j-ears 
since, for that jiarticular purpose) and from a fresh spring at Cade's 
Bay, about si.\ miles distant from this harbour to the westward. In 
the yard is a neat house for the admiral or whoever commands 
on their West-India station, also for the master shipwright and 
others. 



Letter VIII. 



Nov. 11, 1786. 



Monk's Hill, a mile and a half north west of English Harbour, is 
one of the highest in the island ; its summit commands a view of 
nearly' the whole country, a small part to the westward excepted 
where the sight is intercepted by the mountains. It is fortified, and 
the principle work, called Fort George, is mounted with forty-eight 
pounders, said to be the identical guns taken out of the Fourdriaunt 
man of war, taken some years since in these seas ; from this fort 
signals are hoisted on the appearance of one or more square rigged 
vessels, which, in war time, are immediately answered by distant 
signals, and the whole island is alarmed iu a few minutes. 

Women and children, or such of the inhabitants incapable of 
bearing arms, must retire to this fortress In case of invasion ; houses 
have been erected and capacious cisterns formed for the use of such 
distressed visitors. 

At the conclusion of the late war, several forts, on the coasts of 
the island, were sold by order of the I/egislature, and produced to the 
public about a twentieth of tbe sum they cost in erecting. Some of 
these buildings have been demolished by the purchasers for the useful 
materials they were composed of, while others remain in their original 
state, jirobably to be sold to the public on a future rupture, at any 
price their proprietors shall think proper to demand for them. 

From Flag-staff-hill, on ilr. Maxwell's, and from Boggy's, on 5Ir. 
Bott's estate, thirteen islands under the different [lOwers of England, 
Trance, Denmark, and Sweden, may, in clear weather, be distinctly 
seen and numbered. 



Letter IX. 



Dec. 6, 1786. 



Tbe ladies, inhabitants of this place, seldom walk the streets, or 
ride in tlieir wiskys, without masks or veils, not, I presume, altogether 
as a preservative to their complexions, being frequently seen at a 
distance unmasked, but as soon as they are approached near, on goes 
the vizor, thro' which, by a couple of jieep-holes, about the size of an 
English shilling, they have an opportunity of staring in the faces of 
all they meet. With you, this would he termed the grossest ill- 
manners, but here custom has established it, if not necessarj', as 
fashionable. Their dress is generally light, and inclined to tawdry, 
and their conversation languid, except when a little of that species of 
harmless chat, which ill-nature has called scandal, is busy in circu- 
lation ; it is tben they are volubile, it is then they are eloquent, it is 
then they are equal to any women in the world. 

As mistresses of families, they are unimportant, almost every 
domestic concern being left to the management of their negroes aud 
mulattoes. They seldom suckle their infants, that part of a mother's 
duty is transferred to a slave. But I must observe to you, there are 
many exceptions iu this isle to the foregoing general character, here 
are women of refined sense, good wives, excellent parents, worthy 
friends, free from affectation, and blessed with every amiable quality 
that can adorn the sex. They are also generally abstemious both in 
their diet aud liquors ; their common drink being weak punch, cool 
drink, lemonade, sorrel drink, and tamarind beverage, all of which 
are diluting, and well adapted to tbe constitutions of persons in this 
climate. The virtue of our fair is said to be superior to the arts of 
seduction, infidelity to the marriage bed being very rarely known on 
their parts. I wish I could say as much for the men. Marriages are 
alwaj's solemnized in the houses, as are also baptisms (e.Ncept thuse of 
negroes) and the churches are very thinly attended but on funerals, 
or on particular public occasions. 

This is the worst time of the year for thieving ; the negroes will 
have some of the good things to keep Christmas with, and I have 
contributed thereto by lay losses ; a fine lamb and a young milch goat 



stole from me within the last twenty-four hours, and I am under uo 
small apprehension for the fate of my poultr}'. The rogues rob 
generally at midnight, stark naked, their bodies greased, therefore if 
you get but slight hold of them, the)' slip through your hands and 
are off in an instant. 

This year four Wesleyaii missionaries, one of whom was 
D'' Coke, bound for America, were driven here by tempestuous 
weather & prolonging their stay preached the gospel to the 
riegros. (' A History of the AVest Indies,' by Tho. Coke, 
LL.D., vol. i., p. 213.) 

1787, January 6. Six months' leave was granted 
to Governor Shirlej', bttt he deferred his departure 
till the foUovyiiig year. 

Letter from S' Christopher, Feb. 11. In all these 
islands .... the crops will be good. Prince William Henry 
has been at Antigua for some time past repairing his ship, 
where all ranks are vying with each in making grand enter- 
tainments for their illustrious visitor. The Prince is quite 
the officer, never wearing any other dress than his uniform, 
and his star and garter only when receiving addresses, or on 
any other public occasion. He has not slept a night out of 
his ship since his arrival in these seas until coming into 
English Harbour ; when the sliip's heaving down obliged 
him to be on shore ; shews the most amiable disposition and 
condescension on every occasion ; sees into the detail of the 
business of the ship ; and delivers his own orders with the 
most minute attention to the duty and discipline of the ship. 
In short, he promises to be what all hope and wish, the 
Restorer of the Antient Glory of the English Navy. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 8.57.) 

February 15. Isaac Eecleston was returned for 
St. John's Town vice Alexander Scott deceased. The 
Ridge is being fortified, and the Assembly voted 300 
labourers at 2s. per diem and 50 masons at 5s. per 
diem for 30 days. There were 5465 negros under 
the care of the Moravians, and the Methodists 
numbered 2000. 1 9,500 hogsheads of sugar exported. 

Population. (Sturge & Harvey.) 

Whites 2,590 

Free, Coloured & Black . . 1,230 

Slaves 37,808 

Dec. Letters from Antigua say that that Island has 
experienced a total change of climate this year ; for at that 
season wherein hitherto nothing but tempests and strong 
blowing weather were known, there has been nothing but 
the mildest and most benignant temperature. While 
accounts from the Windward Parishes of the Island of 
Jamaica gave reason to apprehend the approach of a hurri- 
cane, advices from almost every other corner of the Island 
afford ample room to expect, barring elemental visitation, 
that the next harvest of the produce of the earth will be far 
more abundant than any that has been known in the memory 
of the oldest inhabitant living in that country. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 1115.) 

Letters by John Luffman. 

Letter X. 

St. John's, Antigua, 
Jan. 16, 1787. 
Dear Sib, 

Prince William Henry arrived here the latter end of last 
month, in the Pegasus frigate ; his appearance has put this little 
community into a ferment ; addresses were immediately presented to 
him from the Legislative body, aud likewise from the merchants, 
expressive of loyalty to his Royal Father, and of the happiness and 
honor his Highness had conferred on them by his gracious visit : the 
address of the Legislature was read and presented by a Mr. John 
Burke, Solicitor General of the Leeward Islands, and Speaker of the 
Assembly of this Island ; but notwithstanding this gentleman has 
been for years hackneyed at the bar, and is a bold orator, yet, on 
this occasion, to tlie astonishment of every bystander, he was nearly 
bereft of the power of utterance. The merchants address was read 
and presented by a Mr. John Scotland. His Highness received these 
effusions of loyalty to his illustrious parent, aud, of respect to himself, 
with great satisfaction, and returned gracious au.swers. Each of these 
bodies gave a public dinner and ball for his Highnesses entertainment. 



GEORGE III. 



CXXXl 



The Prince opeued both balls, with a Miss A , a beautiful j-oung 

lady of respectable family, and his allability, politeness, and con- 
descension, to every person who had the honor of his conversation, was 
as conspicuous as it was pleasing. The ladies put their best smiles on 
their faces, and their best adornments on their persons ; indeed, everj' 
individual seemed emulous of shewing respect to the Royal Visitor. 
Many offers of particular attention and civility have been made to his 
Highness, whicli, he, in general, declined, wishing rather to appear in 
the humble character of a private gentleman, than in the dignified 
situation of a Prince. How long he means to honor this isle with 
his presence, I cannot with certniuty learn, it will jirobably be several 
months ; the people here, I believe, hope, and wish it may be for 
years. The negroes look at the Orande Bocrah (so they call the 
Prince) with astonishment, and sometimes inrouunode him as he 
walks the streets ; but his Highness possesses all that admired frank- 
ness and noble liberality so characteristic in a British seaman, and 
will frequently condescend to talk with them. Captain Nelson, of the 
Boreas ; Captain Holloway, of the Solebay ; and the other principal 
naval officers on this station, are his Highnesses chief attendants 
on all occasions. 



Letter XI. 



Jan. 28, 1787. 



To be the manager of an estate of an absentee, in this isle, I am 
well satisfied is one of the best situations in it, altho' their stipends 
amount to no more than from eighty to one hundred pounds sterling 
per ann., and notwithstanding the necessaries and the superfluities of 
life are considerably dearer than at London ; yet, however iiarado.^ical 
it may appear, when I tell you this description of men sport several 
dishes at their tables, drink claret, keep mulatto mistresses, and 
indulge in every foolish e.xtravagance of this western region, it is 
nevertheless striidly true. But as 30U would naturally ask, b}' what 
means this expensive manner of living is supported ? It is thus I 
answer — These people. Sir, raise on the grounds of their emploj'ers, 
stock of every kind, suitable to our markets, which they feed prin- 
cipally with the grain, etc. belonging to the estate on which thej' live ; 
they also grow e.xotics, as well as the vegetables natural to the 
climate ; and, to complete the system, planned with so mucdi wisdom 
and justice, they employ the slaves belonging to the plantation to 
vend such produce. There are of these men, or at least their wives 
who occupy the time of from twelve to twenty negroes daily on this 
business to the manifest injury of their masters, and emolument of 
themselves. The adage which I have often heard applied to masters 
of vessels and their owners, may, with the alteration of two words, be 
applicable to these men — "Fat managers and lean employers," for I 
am very certain, to be manager of, and altorney* to an estate of 
a non-resident, is better than to be its owner, the first, receiving 
benefits without the least risque, while the latter is subject to every 
loss without receiving the advantages which ought, consistent with 
justice to be his and not his servants. But here I must observe, that 
manj' of these gentlemen managers, as well as the overseers under 
them, contribute, in a great degree, to stock the plantation with 
mulatto and mestee slaves ; it is impossible to say in what numbers 
they have such children, but the following fact is too often verified, 
" that, as soon as born, the}' are despised, not only b^' the very 
authors, under God, of their being, but by every white, destitute of 
humane and liberal principles," such is the regard paid to the hue of 
comide.\iou in preference to the more permanent beauties of the 
mind. 



Letter XIII. 



March 10, 1787. 



Letter XII. 



Feb. 15, 1787. 



Europeans, who live in the West-Indies, ought to acquire fortunes 
in a few years, but they are small in number who e.xperience so 
favorable a return to their industry, and such only can arrive at 
independance as will submit to any, ever}' meanness. Therefore those 
persons who follow the huckstering business, are generally the most 
successful in accumulating riches, many of these people having 
acquired property sufficient, not only to purchase estates here, but 
also to retire home (i.e. that is to England) where they live in 
aukward splendor on the profits which have arisen from purchases 
caused by the encouragement given by them to negroes to rob the 
plantations of their owners ; the goods, thus procured b}' slaves, are 
bought by these thrifty gentry, at their own price, and if discovery is 
made of this villainous traffic, it seldom occurs that they can be 
brought to justice, because the word of a slave will not be taken, nor 
will even their oath serve on the most trifling occasion towards the 
conviction of a white person. There is a practice among this species 
of dealers, and its permission reflects disgrace upon the police of the 
island, which is, that they e.xact from five to ten per cent, from the 
public, for changing a dollar, unless those wanting such change lay 
out more than half that sum at their shops. This is a tax upon the 
public, which calls loudly for redress, and this isle, I learn, stands 
singly in the imposition. 

This country is poor, most of the landholders being impoverished, 
from a series of bad crops, previous to the last three 3'ears. In fact, 
the greater part of the estates, in this island, are in trust, or under 
mortgage to the merchants of London, Liverpool, and Bristol. The 
resident merchants suffer considerable losses from bad debts, and are 
not in a small degree hurt by that bane of honorable commerce, 
smuggling. 

The crop is going on briskly and bids fair to be great, it is 
supposed not less than twenty thousand hogsheads will be shipped 
this year. This comes by a brig for Liverpool, which brings the first 
sugars. No news, no life in this place, the Prince having gone on a 
cruize ; dullness has again assumed her seat, and at this instant 
prevades every thing. 



The ordinary drink of the men of this place, is punch or grog ; 
Madeira wine and porter are introduced at the tables of such persons 
as may be said to live well ; but at public entertainments, and at the 
houses of the principal merchants and planters, Claret is the rage. 
The best is imported from London, under the denomination of 
London Claret ; some also from Ireland, which is called Irish Claret, 
but the greatest part of this luxury, drank here, is smuggled from our 
French and Dutch neighbours at Guadaloupe and St. Eustatia. The 
tables of the opulent and also of many, who can very ill afford it, are 
covered with a profusion, known only in this part of the world ; their 
attendants numerous, but it is not uncommon to see them waiting 
almost destitute of clothing, and the little they have mere rags. Even 
in the first hous s, where an attendant slave may possibly have a 
shirt, jacket, and breeches, they are always without stockings, and 
generally wanting shoes. A few days since, being invited to a tea 
drinking party, where was collected from ten to a dozen ladies and 
gentlemen, a stout negroe fellow waited, who !iad no other covering 
than an old pair of trowsers. I believe I was the only person present 
who took the least notice of the indelicacy of such an appearance, and, 
indeed, it is my ojiinion, were the slaves to go quite naked it would 
have no more effect on the feelings of the major part of the inhabitants 
of this conntr}- than what is produced by the sight of a dog, cat, or 
any other domestirated quadrupede. 



* An Attorney for an estate, receives from half a guinea, to a 
guinea, for every hogshead of Sugar he ships. 



Lettee XIV. 

April 21, 1787. 

The beef of this countrj', is as unlike that of England, as if it was 
not the flesh of the same animal, the best that can be got is very 
indifferent, and sells from a bit and a half, to two bits per pound. 
(A bit is equal to five-pence sterling and a fraction.) The mutton is 
good, and nearly the same price as beef. Kid and pork, a bit a pound, 
equal to any in the world, the flavour of the latter is peculiarly 
delicious, probably from the animal being fed during the greatest part 
of the 3'ear with sugar-cane tops, is derived the uncommon sweetness 
of its flesh. Turkeys, dung-hill fowls, guinea-birds, Muscovy and 
English ducks are in perfection here, and sell as cheap as at the 
London markets. 

"Wild ducks, plovers, and snipes visit this sunn)- region during the 
hurricane months, they are the property of the slayer, whether white 
or negroe, the people of this isle knowing no more about laws for 
protecting game, than of a window, or a shop-tax. 

Small birds are few, singing birds none. A sparrow, much like 
yours in England. A gold-finch, similar to the English, but in 
plumage not so beautiful, and its note a shrill squeak ; indeed there 
are not any of the winged tribe here worth notice, e.xcept the 
humming bird. 

This beautiful little creature, is generally supposed to be the 
smallest of the feathered creation, and I believe may be considered as 
the first in point of plumage ; its feathers are green, uncommonly 
brilliant, tinged with a rich gold color. The bodies of the largest of 
these birds, are about an inch long, and the young ones are not bigger 
than drones. I have a family of these little beauties, in a calabash 
tree, adjoining my house, which aft'ords me pleasure and contem- 
plation ; this extraordinary work of nature makes its nest of cotton, 
and is particularly careful of its young : when its nest is attacked by 
any bird, its revenge, and the manner of taking it, are equally 
singular. It doth not attempt to cope with its antagonist, being 
informed by instinct, that contention is vain, but it affects that by 
stratagem which it could not do by power. It hovers over the head 
of the hostile bird, and sometimes fixes itself thereon, the invader 
thereby diverted from its pursuit, flies away with its little adversary, 
who retaining its situation, plies, with wonderful ability, its fine long 
bill, with which it is furnished by nature, for defence, to the skull of 
its foe, and never ceases its application 'till it has perforated the head 
and reached the brain, when of course the enemy falls, and the little 
hero returns to its nest. This bird has no note, unless its humming 
can be termed so. 

Fish is plentiful and cheap, its variety in name is prodigious, but a 
great sameness in flavor, the principal in esteem are the jew-fish, the 
caramau, the king-fish, smelts, and eels, besides various sorts of shell- 
fish, under which denomination I shall speak of the turtle. 

This fish, or rather amphibious animal, from the excellency of its 
flavor, deservedly received, both in Europe and America, as a first 
rate viand, consists of two sorts, the green and the hawks-bill, the 
first named is in the greatest estimation, being more mild than the 
latter. West-Indian epicures seldom taste the hawks-bill, yet I think 
it makes as good soup as the other, and this it is that afl'ords the 
beautiful shell with you called tortoise-shell, but more properly 
ttirtle-iheW. The shell of the green turtle is useless. The manner of 
dressing this extraordinary production of nature here, differs materi- 
ally from the tavern mode in London ; the gravy is drawn from its 
own flesh, and not from beef, nor is it stufled up with veal, or other 
meats which destroys its true flavor ; here it is dressed naturally, in 
London, artificially. It is sold, from three to four bits a pound, 
according to its quality, or the demand for it. 



Letter XV. 

May 12, 1787. 

This island is almost destitute of fresh springs, that which I before 
mentioned at Cade's Bay, and another which supplies the body ponds 
in the center of the island, are the only two worthy of notice, there- 
fore the water principally used, is rain, which the inhabitants collect 
in stone cisterns : this water, after being drawn from the reservoir, is 
filtered through a Barbadoes stone, which renders it free from animal- 
cula, or any disagreeable quality it might have contracted by being 
kept in the tank. It is exceedingly soft, and well flavored, and not- 
withstanding what has been asserted by some writers of its unwhole- 
someness, I affirm from experience that it is as good as any I ever 
tasted in Europe. In dry seasons, an article of such vast consumption 



CXXXll 



THE HISTORY OE ANTIGUA. 



must necessarily be scarce and dear ; I have been informed, that rum 
and wine have been given in exchange for it, and that it has even 
been brought for sale from the neighbouring islands. 

Goats milk is most in use, being deservedly preferred to that of 
cows, for its superior richness, and the strengthening qualities it 
possesses. Asses milk, so much recommended by the physicians of 
England in consumptive cases is not more efficacious in relieving the 
invalid, than the milk of these animals in this country. 

The small quantity of fresh butter made here is very indifferent, 
and the inhabitants "in general prefer the Irish, but it is sometime 
before an Englishman can be brought to eat either the one or the other. 

The bread is good ; it is principally made from American flour, 
from the provinces of Pensylvania, New York, Virginia, and Mary- 
land ; in vihiteness it exceeds the bread of London, but I think it is 
not so well flavored. This difference is probably occasioned by the 
leaven with which it is made, being very apt to turn sour in a short 
time in this climate. 

Cassava (commonly called Cassada) is a species of bread made from 
the root of a plant of the same name, by expression. The water, or 
juice, which issues from it in the preparation, is poisonous, but the 
remaining part after being dried, or baked on thick iron plates is both 
wholesome and palatable, it is eaten dry, or toasted, and it also makes 
excellent puddings. 



Lettee XVI. 



June 1, 1787. 



The fruits of this little spot are highly delicious, and surpass, in 
richness of flavor, those of the neighbouring islands, of which the 
pine apple, the orange, and the avocado pear, are allowed to be the 
principals. 

The pines of this island are superior to all others, both in size and 
taste, there are two sorts, the yellow and the black, equally grateful, 
and in the proper season, as many may be bought for two or three 
fihillings sterling as would fill a bushel. 

The orange (China as well as Sevelle) exceeds in size and flavor, 
the Spanish or Portugese, at least such as are imported to the London 
market, thej' are very cheap, it being common to purchase from six to 
eight for a dog, about three farthings sterling. 

The avocado pear, known also by the name of vegetable marrow, 
from its great similarity to that substance, is an elegant and agreeable 
fruit, eaten with or without bread, but can only be tasted within the 
tropics on account of its perishable quality. 

There are likewise Cashew nuts and apples, which are as one fruit, 
when on the tree, the first being prefixed to the eye of the latter. 
The nut is a fine fruit, either in its natural state or roasted. The 
apple is also good as an eatable fruit, but the best use it can be put to, 
in my opinion, is to emerge it into a bowl of punch, to which it com- 
municates the most agreeable bitter in the world. The sappadilla, 
granadilla, water lemon, pomegranate, melon, citron, lime, lemon, 
guava, soursop, miiugoe, cocoa-nut, shaddock, and star-apple, are fine 
fruits, cheap and nutritious, but a particular explanation of them 
would require a volume, and as they are for the most part well known 
in Europe, I shall decline saying any thing further on the subject, 
and will in my next bring j'ou ac<iuainted with some of the culinary 
and medicinal herbs, roots, and trees, produced in this island of 
the sun. 

Several slight shocks of earthquakes within this last fortnight, but 
happily attended with no ill consequences, nevertheless they are 
unpleasant vi.sitants. 



Letter XVII. 



June 12, 1787. 



The yam is a coarse but wholesome root, irregular in its form, 
weighing from one to three or four pounds, and is covered with a dark 
brown rind ; when eaten in its proper season, affords great nourish- 
ment, but if used before sufticiently ripe, it very commonly produces 
fluxes. 

The edda, called also the vegetable wash ball, from its apparent 
soapy qualit}', is an excellent root, about the size of a small crab 
apple, and has a coarse brown covering. It is principally used in 
soups, as a thickener; from this nutritious vegetable, and the yam the 
negroes and colored people derive the greater part of their subsistance. 
The tops or leaves, when boiled, are in taste, similar to English 
spinnach, as is the leaves of the prickly weed, and also those of 
another weed, called weedy-weedy, ockrah, plantains, bananas, sweet 
potatoes, squashes, and various sorts of Indian peas, are produced here 
in abundance. We have also sundry culinary exoticks, such as 
English peas, carrots, turnips, lettuces, radishes, cabbages, etc. none of 
which are so good as wdieu produced in their native soil, and what is 
rather extraordinary, the seeds produced from these plants, are unfit 
for sow'ing, therefore those persons who find it worthy their attention 
to raise them, must procure seed annually from London. 

The palma christi, or castor bush, is a spreading shrub, which 
grows from six to eight feet high ; its leaves are like those of the fig- 
tree, but rather darker, and the seeds from whence the celebrated oil 
that bears its name is extracted, the efficacy of which in billions com- 
plaints, is superior to any thing yet discovered, are of a fine shining 
black, streaked with a brilliant yellow, the oil is made by expression and 
decoction ; the expressed sort is by far the most preferable, as being 
less liable to ranciditj', and appears in color and consistence like a 
strong mucilage of the finest gum arable. 

The mauganil, or manchineel, is the most destructive tree in the 
universe, the trunk of the largest is between two and three feet in 
circumference ; the bark is smooth, the leaf like that of the bay, but 
rather smaller; the flowers of a faint red, the fruit bears a near 
resemblance to the golden pippin, but incloses a stone, and is a most 
subtle poison ; the sap drawn from its body or branches, is the most 
venomous of poisons ; the dust that falls from its flowers is poison, and 
the very droppings from its beautiful leaves after rain are poison. 

The cabbage tree in point of loftiness exceeds the whole vegetable 
creation, being from sixty to eighty feet in height. It is perfectly 
straiglit, and its top is furnished with a bunch or tuft of leaves which 



incloses the cabbage, and is said to be good eating when boiled. It is 
a very pleasant pickle. 

The tamarind tree, the fruit of which is well known to Europe, in 
its preserved state, grows here luxuriantly, affordiiig a fine shade, 
from the closeness of its leaves and the number of its branches. 

Cottuu and ginger are natives here, but very little attanded to. 



Letter XVIII. 



June 24, 1787 



The good folks of this place are as strangely civil as an}' people in 
the world. The sexton of the parish called on me yesterday morning, 

and invited me to the funeral of a Mr. , " My friend (said I), you 

must be mistaken, I did not know the person." " That does not signify 
(he replied), I am ordered to invite any gentleman or lady that I 
think proper." I accepted the invitation, being determined to see and 
know every thing I could that might serve to elucidate the character 
of the inhabitants of this place. " I am much obliged to 3'ou, (said I) 
and will certainly be at the house in time, but pray. Sir, is this mode 
of invitation customary ? " " Quite so " (answered the .sexton). As 
soon as he was gone, having but a short time to prepare m3'self, I 
looked out my sables, dressed, and went to the habitation of the 
deceased. I was asked into the hall, where two gentlemen and one 
lady, mourners like myself, were seated. I found I was in good time 
to .see every proceeding; I observed the side-board well stored with 
liquors and cakes, the negroe men dressed in white jackets and 
breeches, with black ribbons tied round their arms ; the women in 
white tenahs,* jackets and petticoats, and ribbons the same as the men. 
In about half an liour after my arrival the company' began to come in 
very fast, and in less than an hour I numbered seventy and upwards 
within and without doors ; after being w^ell supplied with burnt wine 
and other liquors, for about another hour, the undertaker gave the 
company to understand, that such of them who wished to see the 
corpse, must walk into the adjoining room ; a dozen or more followed 
this finisher of fortunes, and I brought up the rear : The first thing 
that presented itself was the coffin of the deceased, which was placed 
upon two tables, and three or four negroe and mulatto women crying 
and making a noise over it, as if in real sorrow ; indeed I thought no 
otherwise of their tears and sighs, but as proceeding from heartfelt 
grief, until I was undeceived by a gentleman who told me it was 
merely a matter of custom. We were now put in order of procession, 
the undertaker and his assistants having previously decorated the 
persons of the pall bearers, and a few select friends of the departed, 
with scarfs and hat-bauds, the first of Holland or Irish, sufficient to 
make a shirt, and the latter of cambrick or long lawn, enough for two 
pocket handkerchiefs, and when thus dressed, they have all the appear- 
ance of the undertakers porters or mutes with you ; the procession now 
moved onward, some walking in pairs, others riding in wiskys. 
I kept myself the last in the train, for the better observation of the 
mourners ; had I the pencil of a Bunbury, I would here delineate their 
several aspects. The clothes worn on these occasions, are, with but a 
few exceptions, borrowed ; the different makes, the indifferent fitting, 
and the still worse m\or, for many of the coats, disdaining to be black, 
have changed from that hue to brown ; but when it is considered that 
a shirt and two handkerchiefs, are frequently gotten by keeping a 
thing (coats I can hardly call some which I have seen) of this kind, the 
parties so doing are no doubt commendable. The hearse is more like 
a London bottle cart, than any other carriage I have ever seen, and we 
immitate your nodding plumes, with grizzled horse tails, shaped not 
very unlike old wigs fixed upon a kind of mopsticks ; so much for 
funerals. Adieu ! 



Letter XIX. 

July C, 1787. 

The frequent opportunities for your great city, at this advanced 
season of the crop, affords me the pleasure of communicating to you 
mv ideas and observations, much oftener than I could by packets only, 
I therefore make use of such favorable means, whenever I think the 
reading of my epistles might give you satisfaction. 

Being now about to commence my relation of the food, labor, and 
treatment of slaves within this island, it may not be uninteresting to 
you, to be previously acquainted with the mode of conveying these 
unfortunate people to our shores, and the method of disposing of them 
when brought hither ; for the first part I can only say it comes from 
a person whose veracity is undoubted, for the last, my eyes have been 
witnesses to the act. 

The slave trade, from the British dominions, is principally carried 
on by the merchants of Liverpool, Bristol does a little, and London 
less. Slaves are for the greatest part kidnapped, and many fall into 
the hands of the traders, from being prisoners of war to such of the 
country princes, whom the white men, or their black agents, have 
causedto commit hostilities on each other for the particular purpose 
of procuring the miserable captives as freight for their ships. 

When a slave ship arrives on the coast, it is not generally a con- 
sideration with the captain or supercargo, what number of these 
people their vessel will take conveniently, but how many they can get, 
is the object ; consequently even common humanity has no concern 
whatever in the employ, and it is customary to crowd as many of them 
into the ship as their efforts can procure. Between decks is their 
receptacle, the room allotted each man, is about six feet, by sixteen 
inches ; women and children have a smaller, but proportionate allow- 
ance ; very little regard is even paid to this rule of accommodation, 
although sufficiently small, and they are frequently so closely stowed 
together, as to be unable to lie down in any position but on one side. 
The captain and officers look with particular attention to their own 
security, for no sooner are the slaves on board, but the men are chained 
together in couples, the right hand and leg of one, to the left hand and 
leg of the other. When they are ordered up, which is generally when 
the watch is relieved, at eight o'clock in the morning, as each pair thus 

* A head-dress, composed of one or more handkerchiefs, put on in 
a manner peculiar to these people. 



GEORGE III. 



CXXXIU 



joined ascend from the hatches, a chain is passed thro' their irons, and 
made fast b_v ringbolts to the deck; and tlie precaution is absolutely 
necessarj' for the well doing of this nefarious commerce, lest if permitted 
the free use of their limbs, a spark of Heaven-born liberty should inspire 
them with revenge against their enslavers. In this situation (if the 
■weather permits) they contiiuie eight or ten hours, during which time 
they are fed, and the decks below cleansed, from such filth which is 
alone sufficient in one day to breed contagion. The women and children 
slaves are not shackled. 

Thus are the degraded sons of Africa brought to the AA'est -Indian 
shores; and they are treated in the following manner on their arrival 
here, previous to the day of sale : As soon a-s the anchor is over the 
vessel's side, and the captain gone on shore to give in his account of 
the cargo, the slaves are brought upon deck (having been shaved some 
days before they made the laud), where they are cleansed from the 
stench and vermin contracted on the passage, and their skins rubbed 
with oil or grease, to give them a sleek appearance. This business 
being done, they are sent on shore, under the care of some petty 
oflTicors and seamen, to the merchant to whom the cargo is consigned, 
who deposits them altogether in an empty store or warehouse, cou- 
tiyiions to the wharfs, when after being advertised for sale, and walked 
about the town, preceded by a drum beating and flag flying, for the 
purpose of attracting the attention of the inhabitants to the persons 
about to be sold; and when the merchant has sent written notices of 
the time of such sale to the planters or others, whom he thinks likely 
to become purchasers, the sale is announced by a trumpet sounding, 
while the ships ensign, or some other flag, is displayed from a window, 
or from the top of the place where the negroes are deposited ; and so 
eagar are the whiles to see these ill-fated people, that the doors of such 
receptacles are crowded almost as nuicli as those of the theatre, when 
the immortal Garrick, or the inimitable Siddons, were to represent the 
finest passages from our greatest and most favored poets. 

The purchasers of slaves are as particular in examining them before 
they strike a bargaiu, as a butcher, at Smithfield market, when dealing 
for sheep. As soon as bought, they are walked to the respective planta- 
tions of their owners, where the hoe is frequently i)ut into hands, 
hitherto unused to labor, and as soft as the finest lady's in Europe. 

These cargoes average from thirty-seven to forty pounds sterling 
per head. 

Letter XX. 

July 20, 1787. 

The buildings, on a sugar plantation, con>ist of a wind or cattle 
mill (.sometimes both), a boiling house, a curing house, a house for 
fermenting the liquor or wash, from which ruin is distilled : The great 
house where the proprietor generally resides, the manager's house, 
houses for the overseers, store houses for grain, stock houses, and negroe 
huts. The great house, if the owner of the ]ilantation is an absentee, 
and in other cases where several estates are the property of one man, 
who may be a resident, and have houses of this description on every one 
of them, then they are lei out as free tenancy's ; which is, that the 
occupiers of such dwellings are allowed to live in them rent free, on con- 
dition that himself and family answers to the public as servants to the 
plantation whereon he resides, and thereby a saving is made to the owner 
out of his taxes, of forty pounds currency, for every white man inhaljitant, 
and twenty pounds for ever}' white woman inhabitant. And notwith- 
standing the good folks of this isle are as proud as any in the world, 
yet there are many (supposing themselves of no small consequence in 
this little community) who submit to be returned at the proper oflice, 
under the description just now mentioned. In England such a 
situation would be looked on as a degradation from genteel life, but 
here the dignity of the person is not lessened bj' this submission ; but 
admitting that to be the case, and allowing the feelings of such people 
to remain unhurt, still a ver}' e.xcellent local law, a law of the first 
utillity to the island, a law admirably calculated by the wisdom of the 
early settlers, which went to oblige owners of estates to keep a pro- 
portionate number of real white servants to their slaves, is shamefully 
evaded. This impolitic proceeding, together with incorporating the 
ten acre lands (formerly held b}' poor white settlers) with the larger 
estates has been (together with the cultivating the ceded islands) the 
means of decreasing the population of whites here, nearly in the pro- 
portion of one half within the last forty years. 

The principal tax of this countr}' is a poll-tax on slaves of every 
description, at the rate of six-shillings per head, this currency, annually, 
and every slaveholder is obliged to swear once a year, before the proper 
oflicer, to the number he possesses under tlie penalty of a flue tor every 
single omission. 

The negro houses or huts, are mostly built of stone, well thatched, 
and as dry and comfortable as any of that description of buildings in 
England. I forgot to tell you, in the foregoing part of this letter, that 
the stills are in the open air. 

Letter XXI. 

Aug. 1, 1787. 
The cane holes, which, throughout this island, are dug with hoes, 
are four feet square, one foot deep, and about four feet asunder ; at the 
distance of every eighty holes is an interval or carriage waj', from 
twenty to thirty feet wide, and these spaces are made to intersect each 
other at right angles, for the more free admission of air. Cane plant- 
ing commences in September, and generally finishes in January. The 
best method of increasing this useful species of vegetation, is by laying 
in each hole, two plants, which should be pieces of new cane (the most 
succulent being by far the best), ])lacing their eyes horizontally, and 
covering them about an inch thick with mold. The cane comes into 
the highest perfection for cutting in fourteen, fifteen, or sixteen 
months, according to the soil and weather, and the crop commonly 
commences in January, continuing, if a favorable season till the latter 
end of July, during the time of the crop the slaves look better, although 
harder worked, than at any other part of the year, which must 
be attributed to the free use of the cane, which might almost 
be said to be continually in their mouths, while the mills are about, 
and which is not only medicinal as an antiscorbutic, but exceedingly 
nutritious. Every part of this extraordinary plant is highly useful; 



the body affording the juice that is manufactured into sugar, the dregs 
of which is molasses, from whence, liy distillation, rum is produced. 
The tops are food for cattle, and the lower leaves, called trash, serve to 
mix with dung for manuring, or are burnt on the ground to destroy 
vermin and insects. The magoss, which is the remains of the cane, 
after expression b}' the mill, is the best of fuel for the boiling house 
and distillery. 

Holing in stiff ground is the heaviest labor that negroes can be put 
to ; I think the plough might be used with success on the greater part 
of this island, to the relief of the slave and consequent emolument of 
the planter. 

AVliat shipping now remains in this harbour, must sail before mid- 
night, to prevent double insurance. This comes by a Capt. B n, 

with whom I have twice crossed the Atlantic, who will deliver it 
personally ; he is a worthy character, and has more of the gentleman in 
ins behavior, than usually falls to the lot of the commander of a mer- 
chant-man ; not that I wish to insinuate the least idea of disresprct 
towards that very useful part of societj', particularly those concerned 
in this trade, who are taken in general, genteel, respectable, and well- 
behaved men. 



Letter XXII. 

Sep. 15, 1787. 

The common allowance, for the support of a house slave, is three 
bits per week, and although it appears so very trifling and insufficient, 
it is generally preferred by them, to being fed from the tables of their 
masters or mistresses. This description of slaves, are lodged in huts, 
erected in the yards belonging to the houses of their owners or 
employers, except such as are immediately engaged about their persons. 
Tlie weekly allowance of a field negro, is from three to five quarts 
of horse beans, rice, or Indian corn, with three or four salt herrings, 
or apiece of salted beef or pork, of about two pounds weight; but 
when the estates have such provisions as yams, eddas, guinea corn, 
sweet potatoes, plantains, and bananas, they are served in lieu of the 
former, and as nearly as possible in the same proportion. In addition 
to this allowance, every slave on a plantation, whether male or female, 
when they have attained their 14th or 15th3'ear, has a piece of ground, 
from twenty five to thirty feet square, allotted to them, which by some is 
industriously and advantageously cultivated, and b}' otliers totally 
neglected. Tliese patches are found to be of material benefit to the 
country, their produce principally supplying the Sunday market 
(which is the greatest throughout the week, from being the negroes 
holiday) with vegetables. They are also allowed to raise pigs, goats, 
and fo'ivls, and it is by their attention to these articles, that the whites 
are prevented from starving, during such times of the year as vessels 
cannot come to these coasts with safet}'. 

The clothing of a field slave consists of a blanket, which serves them 
not only to sleep upon (tho' some have beds of dried plantain leaves), 
but to fasten about their bodies in damp weather, also a piece of woolen 
cloth, called a babbaw, which goes round the waist, a blue woollen 
jacket, and a party colored cap of the same material. Their drink, 
as per allowance, is water. When sick they are attended by young 
doctors, whose principals contract with the owners of estates, or their 
attorney's, by the year, and the common price is six shillings currency, 
equal to three shillings and nine-pence sterling, per head. It is the 
business of these assistants to visit the estates, thus put under the care 
of their employers, twice a week, and on everj' plantation is an hospital 
or sick-house, where the slaves, as soon as infected with disorder, or 
having received hurt (the latter of which frequently happens in crop 
time) are sent. These places, at least such as have come within my 
observation, are as bad as you can uell supipose, being not only destitute 
of almost every convenience, but filthy in the extreme, and the 
attendants generally such negroes as are nearly superannuated or unfit 
for active employment. I am much surprised how the medical gentle- 
men, even in the manner this business is performed, can make it pay 
the expences attending thereon, at so small a premium, and indeed, 
I think it is impossible for them to get the keep of one of their horses 
out of these undertakings although they should make use of the very 
cheapest drugs that can be procured, or, if even only of medicinal 
simples, the growth of the island. 

A few days since the clouds bore a threatening aspect, the wind also 
shifted round the compass; about two o'clock in the afternoon it 
began to blow hard, and continued, with little abatement, till four the 
following morning : I was at the house of a friend, about nine miles 
distant from town, when it commenced, and intended to have gone 
home immediately, in order to secure my most material concerns, in 
case it should increase to a hurricane, but he advised me from it, by 
telling me, among other things ciiually alarming, that there had been 
instances where "man and horse, unable to keep their footing, were 
blown down jirecipicesand destroyed; I therefore continued with him, 
until the storm was over, full of fears for the safety of my property, 
which on my return home, I found uninjured ; and this little puff (so 
it was called here) had done no other damage than scattering a few 
shingles, and driving a sloop or two out to sea. 



Letter XXIII. 

Oct. 3, 1787. 

The negroes are turned out at sunrise, and employed in gangs 
from twenty to sixty, or upwards, under the inspection of white 
overseers, generally poor Scotch lads, who, by their assiduity and 
industry, frequently become masters of the plantations, to which they 
came out as indentured servants : subordinate to these overseer.*, are 
drivers, commonlv called dog-drivers, who are mostly black or mulatto 
fellows, of the "worst dispositions ; these men are furnished with 
whips, which, while on duty, they are obliged, on pain of severe 
punishment, to have with them, and are authorized to flog wherever 
they see the least relaxation from labor; nor is it a consideration 
H^ith them, whether it proceeds from idleness or inability, paying, at 
the same time, little or no regard to age or sex. At twelve they are 
turned in (that is, leave ott' work) to get what they can to refresh 
nature with ; at half past one the bell rings, when tliey turn out and 
resume their labor until sunset; for the last hour they are chiefly 

s 



CXXXIV 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



employed in picking grass for the cattle, belonging to the estate, and 
when a sufficiency is collected for that purpose, they gather what 
they can for themselves, pack it up in handles, wliich tliey carry to 
Saint John's, on their heads, and sell for one or more dogs, according 
to the quantity or demand for it. 

Not a vessel from Europe for sometime past, of course no news for 
us transatlantic wanderers. Smith's tavern, in busy times, the great 
resort of transient people, is now taken up iihoUy hy whist, cribbage, 
and all-fours ; the parade, the 'change of our merchants, dull, as rainy 
weather can make it, and what is worst of all, the little watchmaker's 
shop, from whence the squibs of the day gCTierally take wing, is 
almost deserted ; the thunder, lightning, and heavy rains, seem to 
have driven false pride, envy, detraction, scandal, falshood, nay the 
whole host of cardinal vices, into obscurity; that they may ever 
remain there is the wish of him, who subscribes himself your's, 
etc. etc. 

Letter XXIV. 

Nov. 9, 1787. 

The punishments inflicted on slaves, in this island, are various and 
tormenting. The picket, is the most severe, but as its consequences 
are well known in Europe, particularly among the military, I shall 
speak no further upon it, than to say it is seldom made use of here, 
but many other cruelties equally destructive to life, though slower in 
their operations, are practised by the unfeeling, among which is the 
thumb-screw, a barbarous invention to fasten the thumbs together, 
which a.ppears to cause excruciating pain. The iron necklace, is a 
ring, locked or rivetted about the mck ; to these collars are frequently 
added what are here termed pot-hooks, additions, resembling the 
hooks or handles of a porridge pot, fixed perpendicularly, the bent or 
hooked parts turning outwards, which prevents the wearers from 
laying down their heads with any degree of comfort. The boots are 
strong iron ring.s, full four inches in circumference, clo.sed just above 
the ancles, to these some owners prefi.x a chain, which the miserable 
sufferers, if able to work, must manage as well as they can, and 
it is not nnfrequent to see in the streets of this town, at mid-da}-, 
negroes chained together by these necklaces as well as by the boots, 
when let out of their dungeon for a short time to l)reath the fresh air, 
whose crime has been endeavoring to gain that liberty by running 
away, which they well knew could never be otherwise obfciined from 
their owners. The sjiurs are rings of iron, similar to the boots, to 
which are added spikes from three to four inches long, placed hori- 
zontally. A chain fastened about the body with a padlock, is another 
mode of tormenting this oppressed race of being's. A boy who has 
not yet seen his fourteenth year, passes by my house several times in 
a day, and has done so for the.se si.x months past, with no other 
cloathing ; he also lays upon his chains, and although they are as 
much in p<pint of weight as he ought reasonably to carry, yet he is 
obliged, through the day to fetch water from the country pond, at the 
distance of half a mile from the house of his mistress, who is an old 
widow-woman. To the chains thus put on, a fifty pounds weisjht is 
sometimes added, .a,s an appendage ; this is undoubtedly a prudent 
measure, and admirably well calculated to keep the slave at home, as 
it must of course prevent the object thus secured, from escaping the 
rigor of his destiny. The bilboe.s, severe floggings, and sundry other 
methods of torturing these unhappy people, as best suits the caprice 
or inventive cruelty of their owners or emplo3'ers, are here inflicted. 
The public whipper is a white man, who executes his office by a 
negroe deputy, and the price for every flogging is two bits. 

However hurtful or di.sgusting tlae aforementioned punishments 
are to those who have minds fraught with humanity, every application 
to the magistrates to prevent the exercisint; such severities on these 
unfriended people, must be inefl'ectual while there is no existing law 
in the island code enabling them to take cognizance of the correction 
of slaves by their proprietors. I could therefore presume to advise 
those, to whom the power of making laws for the good government of 
the British empire, both at home and abroad, is delegated, to enact a 
law for establishius; a committee of humanity, composed of men of 
liberal principles, and such, no doubt, can be found, not only in this 
island, but also in all those under the British government, who should 
have entire controul in all cases between the master and the slave. 
To these men all complaints should be made, and by them and them 
only, should punishments be dire';ted ; an act of such a nature, would, 
I tru.^t, not only be applauded by all good men, but bring on the 
authors of it, the blessings of Heaven, and the gratitude of a numerous 
body of unfortunate fellow creatures. 

Slaves, for criminal otfences, have within these few years, been 
admitted to a trial by a jury of six white men, at which proceedings 
two justices preside as judges. They are seldom hanged, unless for 
murder, it being the interest of the owners of such as are convicted, 
to get them off, the country allowing the masters but half the 
appraised value of such as are executed ; they are therefore in mitiga- 
tion generally flogged under the gallows, and sometimes sent off the 
island to be sold. 

A sloop of war arrived a few days since at English Harbour, with 
an account of the greatest probability of a rupture with the French 
and Butch, this news has put the "people here into spirits, as being 
likely to make money circulate, but I hope the matter in dispute 
(whatever it is) may be settled in such manner as to prevent the 
spilling of human blood. 

Letter XXV. 

Dec. 8, 1787. 
Slaves are not permitted to marry consequently take one anothers 
words, and change their husbands and wives (as thev term them) 
when, and as often as they please. Baptism is allowed by some 
owners, but the slave mu.st pay the priest for executing his oflice and 
the price is a dollar. Negroes and colored people are not buried in 
the same church-yard as the whites, even if free; the distinction, and 
the superiority which the European race claim over the African, are 
extended as far as they can possibly go : to the grave ! but there they 
must cease, and the hereafter, when the reign of human pride is over, 
will be directed according to the fear we have had of God, and the love 
we have borne one another during our earthly state of trial. 



Negroe funerals, particularly such as are of old Creole families, or 
in esteem among their fellows, are numerously attended ; I have seen 
from one to two hundred men, women, and children, follow a corpse, 
decently dressed in white, which dress has been recommended to them 
by the Methodist and Moravian preachers, whose meetings are crouded 
by these people, and to whose discourses they listen with seeming 
attention. If the party deceased has been christened, and their 
friends can afford to pay for the ringing of the church bell, they may 
have that ceremony performed, as also the biu-ial service, the first of 
these is sometimes done, the latter very seldom. The body is mostly 
inclosed in a wooden shell or coffin, which, during the procession to 
the grave, is covered with a sheet, by way of pall, and such as have it 
in their power, bring liquor, fruit, etc., to the house of their deceased 
uncle or aunt, brother or sister (the common appellations, whether 
related in consanguinity or not), which are consumed by the company 
while things are getting into readiness. Before I leave the subject of 
negroe burials, I cannot avoid remarking to you, one, among many 
other singularities, possessed by these people, as it will serve to shew 
in what manner they feel, and express their feelings : when one of 
their brotherhood dies, as they suppose by ill-usage ; as soon as the 
body is brought out of the place where it was deposited, taken upon 
the shoulders of the bearers, and has remained in that situation a few 
seconds, they (the bearers) begin to reel and stagger about sur- 
prisingly, going in zig-zags, and hurrying from one side of the street 
to the other, as if forced by some supernatural impulse, when after 
carrying on this joke for sometime, and probably tired themselves 
with their retrograde motions, one or two of the mourners walk up to 
the head of the coffin, and talk in a low voice to their departed 
brother or sister, the purport of which is to request the deceased to go 
in an orderly manner to the place of interment; to see them thus 
agitated gives great trouble to their friends, who are very sorry for 
what has happened, and that Gorramitee (the negroe manner of 
expressing God Almighty) will punish those who have done them ill. 
This exordium always appeases the defunct, who then goes quietly to 
interment. 

1788, January 10. Thomas Harman was returned 
for New North Soutul vice RowLind Burton called 
up to the Council. 

April. Lieut. -General Mathew has been appointed 
Commander-in-Chief of all the forces. 

April 24. John Frye was returned for Old North 
Sound vice M. S. Walrond resigned. 

July 12. The Hon. John Nugent, President of 
St. Kitts, writes that Sir Thomas Shirley left on the 
18th June, and that he has assumed the government. 

October. A scheme suggested for deepening St. 
John's Harbour. 

November 4. Rev. Arthur Freeman is sworn a 

J.P. The acreage of Antigua on which taxes were 

levied was 69,277, and the slaves numbered 36,000, 

which at £50 each were valued at £1,800,000. 

178S, Dec. 1. New Sessions. 
Jn» Taylor ) 

Hen. B. Lightfoot 
Isaac Eccleston 
W" Wilkinson 
Philip Hicks 



, S' Johns Town. 



Dickinsons Bay. 



( Old North Sound, Mercers Creek, 
I & Parham Town. 

Five Islands. 
I 



Tho. Warner 
Tho. Freeman 
Jn" Frye 
Rich. Kirwan 

Ju'Ronan '.Belfast. 

Bertie Entwisle I 

James AthlU | xt„ „„>, 

„ xj ■ Nonsuch. 

Sam. Harman I 

Hon. Row^ Burton | p ^.^ead. 

Hon. Jn' Burke I ' 

Tho. Hannan | ^ ^^^^^ g^^^^ 

\\ '" Dickinson I 

Nath. Marchant | Old Road, Bermudian Valley, Xew 

Tho. Freeman | Division. 

^j;«'i- J^lof^er I ^villoughby Bav. 

Tho. Fairbairn I o j . 

Ij!'^^- .O"^"?"- Athill I Falmouth & Rendesvous Bay. 

W™ Gilchrist I 

Jos. Lyons AthiU I g, j^^^^ Division. 

Benj. Ireland ) 

The. Freeman was chosen Speaker. 

Letters by John Luffman. 

Letter XXVI. 

St. John's, Antigua, 
Jan. 1, 1788. 

Dear Sir, 

The general idea of Europeans, that blacks only are slaves, 
is very erroneous, for slavery extends to every descendant of negroes 
(slaves) by white men, such as mulatfoes, mestees and quarteroons, 
and the two latter mentioned, are frequently as fair as Englishmen, at 
least such of them as have been habituated to a sea-faring life, or to 
tropical countries. I have seen persons sold here, having blue eyes 
and flaxeu-hair, and complexioned equal almost to any on your side 
the water, but such people fetch a lower price than blacks, unless 



GEORGE III. 



ex XXV 



they are tradesmen, because the purchasers caiuiot employ them in 
the drudgeries to wliich negroes are put too ; tlie colored raeu, are 
therefore mostly brought up to trades or eni]ployed as house slaves, 
aud the women of this description are generally prostitutes. When 
taken into keeping by white men, they dress in a very ridiculous 
manner, assuming the name of their keeper for the time being, and 
laying it aside when turned olf. There are persons in this island who 
let out their female slaves for the p-irticular purpose of fornication, 
and that, as well as pnblickly cohabiting with them, is considered here 
merely as a venial error. These women are mncli more subservient 
to the will of their en:nnoi-afos, from a dread of punishment than a 
white would be, or even the laws of the country suffer, for it is not 
uncommon for some men to beat, and otherwise severely correct their 
colored mistresses. This connexion strikes at the root of honorable 
engagements with the fair, prevents marriage, and is, thereby, detri- 
mental to the increase of legitimate population. 

I have been entertained very much diu'ing the last week by the 
negroes paying their highly absurd compliments of the season to every 
person from whom they think a trille can be drawn, and their common 
wish upon those occasions, is — " Long life and crosperity " — not 
prosperity (observe, I mention this, lest you should suppose it to be 
•an error of m3' pen). The holidays consist of three days, including 
Christmas-day, and so careful are they to prevent any encroachment 
on this privilege, that were their owners to give them double the time 
in lieu thereof, at any other season of the year, they would not accept 
it. A gentleman some years ago was murdered here by his slaves, 
purely because he obliged them to work on the days appointed for 
holidays. 



Letter XXVII. 



Jan. 27, 17 



We begin to feel somewhat alive here, a theatre is established, the 
performers gentlemen of the island, tlie profits of whose exhibitions are 
to be applied t rwards raising a fund for compleating the Free-masons 
lodge (alreidy in some forwardness), at the east end of the town. The 
gentlemen engaged in this undertaking, deserve much praise, not only 
for their endeavors to please and enliven the public, but also from a 
desire of adding to their capital a place both of ornament and utilit}', 
and which bade fair, without their exertions, to liave remained some 
years to come in the same unfinished state it has been for these two or 
three years past. This building, when completed, is intended for 
various public uses, independant of the purposes of masonry. 

Our little house oiiened on the 17th instant, with Venice Preserved, 
preceded bv an occasional prologue ; the evening's entertainments 
were well received by a numerous and genteel audience, and upwards 
of one hundred pounds sterling was taken. On the 24th the same 
play was repeated, with Foote's after ]iiece. The Mayor of Garratt, 
which gave as much satisfaction as the first performance had done, and 
brought nearly tlie same sum into the theatrical treasury. I shall not 
boast of the brilliancy of the scenery and decorations, or of the 
elegance of the dresses ; suffice it to say, they surpass, by far, what I 
have seen belonging to itinerant companies in Englaiid. The orcliestra 
is composed of the band of the fi7th regiment, under the direction of 
a Mr. Green, organist of the churcli in this town, assisted b_v a Mr. 
Van Ruyven. Mr. G. is a complete master of tlie musical science, and 
very obligingly undertook this laborious task, to add to the public 
pleasure ; I believe no other person, on this side of the atlantic, could 
conduct a business of the kind, with more ability and judgment. The 
house is divided into boxes and pit only ; the price of admission into 
the first, IS two dollars (about nine sliillingo sterling) ; and to the 
latter a dollar and a half. 

The mills are mostly about (the term with us when grinding), but 
what the crop will produce, time only can determine. An insect, 
called the Borer, has found its way into the canes. This destroyer 
perforates the rind of the plant and works to a joint or partition, then 
turns out and reperforates till the cane, thus attacked, is entirely ruined. 
I have seen whole pieces, on as fine land as this country affords, 
rendered totally useless, by the ravages of this insect, and where the 
evil is only partial, the sugar produced from such canes, is of the worst 
quality, and bears the appearance of tar. From a hope of eradicating 
this destructive creature, the planters burn off such pieces as are very 
much infected, and this method, if properly pursued, will probably 
annihilate them. 

On the 11th instant, about half past nine in the evening, I felt a 
slight shock of the earth. I begin to be used to them, and they now 
hardly alarm me. 



Letter XXVIII. 



Feb. 7, 1788. 



What is it I hear from you ? Not only that every appearance of 
war has subsided, but that the British legislature have serious thoughts 
of reforming the abuses in, if not totall}' abolishing the slave-trade to 
Africa, and slaver}' in the West Indies ? Is there not sufficient scope 
in the vast fields of Industan, for the virtue and justice of a British 
senate to exercise its humane influence without extending the bless- 
ings of peace and brotherly love to the unfortunate Africans, thereb}' 
interfering with the concerns of the gay, the volatile West-Indian ? 
I think I hear you say — " No ! let the banners of liberty, which are 
those of justice, and virtue also, be displayed in their fullest glorj', in 
ever clime under the British government." I join with you in the 
wish, and condemn the traffic to Africa, for human flesh and blood, as 
the most abominable, the most to be abhorred of any species of com- 
merce ever carried on by our countrymen ; it is a disgrace to those 
excellent laws we boast, and to the enlightened age we live in ; it tends 
to the corruption of morals, and is totally repugnant to the immediate 
order of the Creator, delivered by the heavenly host, when the Saviour 
entered the world. " Olory to Qud in the hiijhesf, and on earth peace, 
good will, towards men." Nevertheless, if the African slave trade is 
abolished, and if slavery is still continued here, some wdiolesome laws 
for the better cloathing and feeding of slaves will be absolutely 
necessary, for population will not increase under the disadvantages of 
hard labor, and indifferent food and raiment, and I have not a doubt, 



that if these people were well fed, and treated in such a manner as 
human beings ought to be treated, the stock of negroes already on this 
island, would be suflicient for all its purpo.ses, without any further 
supplies from Africa. I do not advance this as a mere matter of specu- 
lation, but speak from facts, and shall adduce instances of them. On 
the estate of Mr. Martin (late treasurer to the Princess Dowager of 
Wales) not one tenth of tlie negroes are Africans, and such of them as 
are from that country are the ancestors of the younger Creole slaves. 
On Sir Ralph Payne's estate, out of upwards of five hundred as fine 
slaves as any in the island, I have been well informed, there is not even 
ten .salt-water negroes ; other plantations could be mentioned, where 
the slaves, Africans and Creoles, are nearl}' in the same proporiiou as 
those already spoken of, but as two, is as sufficient as two hundred to 
shew you that what I have advanced on the subject if propagation can 
be, nay is, effected by good usage, I shall not trouble you with a third. 
The climate is similar to tlieir own, but generall}' said to be better, 
therefore the mortality among them, cannot with justice be placed to 
that account. Now if this business of abolition takes place and if 
there is not a very sharp look out kept, to yirevent the smuggling of 
the produce of this island to the slave market, which I should suppose 
will be the island of St. Eustatia (as probably, the French, Dutch, and 
Americans will Ije for pushing this trade when abandoned by the 
British) it will tend much to the hurt of the revenue and be a means 
of weakening our great national bulwark, the Navy ; first, by the loss 
of the four and half per cent, received here on the shipment of goods; 
secondly, by the duties when arrived in British ports ; thirdly, by the 
loss of freight, to ship owners, which will naturally lessen the number 
of vessels employed and consequently etieet one of our greatest 
nurseries for sailors. It will also serve, without the before mentioned 
prevention, as a heavy tax upon the planter, without benefitting the 
mother country in the smallest degree, for what with tlie cost of the 
slaves, at the foreign-market, and the expences attending thereon, they 
will stand him in double the price they are now purchased for. This 
is as it strikes me, but no doubt when such an event takes place, the 
wisdom and vigilance of a British Parliament, will provide every matter 
necessary to give the law its full effect. 



Letter XXIX. 

March 1, 1788. 

Wilfully killing a slave, is, by a law of this island, finable only ; 
but there is another act of this legislature, more cruel by far even than 
that, which stipulates the price of blood, as being more extensive in 
its consequences, by subjecting such as are absolutely free to all the 
rigid local laws of this island and the concomitant horrors annexed to 
.slavery, which is that if a iicgroe or colored stranger, is found idling 
(that is out of employ, and it must be with much dithculty, and strong 
recommendation, that a free person can get employment), he or she is 
to be taken up and jnit into the common jail, and advertised by the 
Marshal, by name, for an owner, as a su|iposed runaway, which 
advertisement is repeated two or three times, and if the party, so made 
public, is not owned in a time limited therein, he or .she is sold by 
public auction (here called vendue) to the best bidder, under an order 
signed by two magislrates. Thus is a free person, from a difference in 
com]ilexion only, made a slave, from not having it in their power to 
obtain business, in a country which seldom employs any others but 
slaves ; and although these acts are the most diabolical ever passed by 
an}' set of men, holding the office of legislators, they are the acts of an 
island belonging to Great Britain. Notwithstanding which, the 
people here (inde]iendant of their laws) are not in general more cruel 
than in England, but where individuals are possessed of liard-hearted- 
ness, and where they are dead to the feelings of human misery, this is 
the place to excrci.se the unworthiness of their dispositions; this is the 
place to gratify evei-y low and inordinate passion of the soul, in its 
fullest extent. But there is a hope from the known humanity, and 
sound understanding of the Governor, Council, and A.ssembly, that 
both these abominable acts will shortly be repealed; for as men acting 
under a government whose boast is "the equal distribution of justice," 
they must look on those laws as a disgrace to their statute book, which 
places one fellow creature so much in the power of another, and, I 
hope, never to have cause, even to think, that any set of enlightened 
men can entertain such abstracted notions of liberiy, as to sutt'er such 
cruel impositions to remain any longer in force. Jamaica, I am 
informed, has set an example to the other islands, worthy of imitation, 
by expunging the first mentioned of these odious acts from their 
records, and it is now felony, without benefit of clergy, in that island, 
for the wilful murder of a "slave.— Many slaves, who cannot properly 
be said to be murdered, die from a want of care, or continual ill-usage, 
which the law (those who are to administer it heing willing) cannot 
take cogni-(;auce of ; these unfortunate people, not being allowed the 
'oenefit of a coroner's inquest, and from the nature of tiie climate, 
which brings on putridity immediately after death, they are hurried to 
the grave almost as soon as the breath has left their bodies ; where 
inquiry ceases. Indeed persons of the first consequence are mostly 
buried within twenty-four hours after their decease. 

Slaves are obliged, under a penalty of a flogging, to quit the streets, 
of this town, at bell ring, about a quarter before ten, at which time 
the nightly watch is set ; these guardians of nocturnal repose, consist 
of fifty white men, and half of that number are, or should be, upon 
duty every night, but this business is very indifferently perforjned, 
and" the remissness is said to be owing to the public, lieing considerably 
in arrears to the watch fund. 



Letter XXX. 

March 14, 1788. 

Negroes are very fond of the discordant notes of the banjar, and 
the hoTlow sound of the toombah. The Banjar is somewhat similar 
to the guitlar, the bottom, or under part, is formed of one half of 
a large calaba,sh, to which is prefixed a wooden neck, and it is strung 
with cat-gut and wire. This instrument is the invention of, ami was 
brought here bv the African negroes, who are most expert in the ]ier- 
formances thereon, which are principally their own country tunes, 
indeed I do not remember ever to have heard any thing like European 



CXXXVl 



THE HISTOEY OF ANTIGUA. 



numbers from its touch. The toombah is similar to the tabor, and has 
gingles of tin or shells; to this music (it it deserves the name) I have 
seen a hundred or more dancintc at a time, their gestures are extrava- 
gant, but not more so than the principal dancers at your Opera-house, 
and, I believe, were some of their steps and motions introduced into the 
public amusements at home, by f rench or Italian dancers, they would 
be well received ; I do not mean, by the bye, to indicate that the move- 
ments of these sables are altogether graceiul, but their agility and the 
surprising command of their limbs, is astonishing; this can be 
accounted for only by their being habituated to a warm climate, were 
elasticity is more general than in the colder latitudes : Tlie principal 
dancing time is on Sunday afternoons, when the great market is over 
(the nature and utilit}' of which I propose to give you in my next), 
in fact Sunday is their day of trade, their day of relaxation, their day 
of pleasure, and may, in the strictest sense of the words, be called the 
negroes holiday. 

Our theatre has attractions, whether it is owing to the abilities of 
the gentlemen performers, or from the attentions paid the fair, who 
visit it in great numbers, is not for me to determine, but we have 
generally good houses. I will write you particulars on this subject 
soon. Adieu ! 

Letter XXXT. 

March 28, 1788. 

In my last I promised you an account of the Sundaj' market, and 
will now perform that promise. This market is held at the southern 
extremity of the town, on the land of John Otto Bnijcr, Esij., Ijetween 
three roads, leading to Five Islands, Uormudian Valley, and English 
Harbour, and is about as large again as the Royal Exchange ; liere an 
assemblage of many hundred negroes and mulattoes expose for sale, 
poultry, pigs, kids, vegetables, fruit, and other things ; they begin to 
assemble by daybreak and the market is generally crouded by ten 
o'clock ; this is the proper time to purchase, for the week, such articles 
as are not perishable : Tlie noise occasioned • by the jabber of the 
negroes, and the squaUing and cries of the children basking in the sun, 
exceeds any thing I ever heard in a London market : The smell is also 
intolerable, proceeding from the strung effluvia, naturally arising from 
the bodys of these people, and from the stinking salt-fish and other 
oflfencibles sent for sale by hucksters, which the negroes will buy, even 
when in the last stage of rottenness, to season their pots with, and I 
do not exaggerate when I say that the nostrills will receive the fragrance 
of this place, when at the distance of a full quarter of a mile from it, 
to leeward. About three o'clock business is nearly over, when the 
hucksters shops are filled, and their doors crouded, and new rum grog 
is swilled in large quantities to the benefit of the retailers and 
destruction of the negroes ; some, as I before wrote you, dance, others 
play at dice (as they call it) with small shells, and frequently lose, not 
only every dog that the}' have been working for through the day, but 
so great is their love of play, that the very trifling clothes from their 
backs is a forfeit to their mischance. It is not uncommon for them, 
when intoxicated, to turn out to fight in Otto's pasture (adjoining the 
market) ; they are not confined to rules, like the gentlemen brutes 
with you, hut give their blows — how, and where they can, generally 
open handed, and it is all fair to pull each others wool, kneel upon, beat 
when down, or indeed whatever they have power to do, to the hurt of 
their adversary. They are punishable b}' law for fighting, but the law 
seldom interferes. The sight of a gun, or a white man, la_Ying about 
him with a whip, will disperse them immediately ; and a negroe durst 
not return a blow, under the forfeiture of their right hand. 

This rigid law was introduced, I learn, to prevent the insurrections 
of slaves ; which, about fifty years ago, had nearly proved fatal to the 
white inhabitants of this island. 



Letter XXXII. 

April 12, 1788. 

This island issues three weekly news-papers, namely, the Antisjua 
Chronicle, the Antigua Gazette, and the Antigua Journal ; I wish 1 
could say any one of them was free, hut freedonj, alas ! doth not 
extend her influence to this place. The first mentioned of these 
prints, attempted, very lately, to break from the bauds of venality, and 
put forth a motto, which ^ave flattering hopes of success, but some 
letters which exposed the impositions practised in conducting a part 
of the public business, and other letters supposed to effect the feelings 
of a man in office, Ijj' exposing his amours, his ridiculous attachments, 
and his self-created consequences, appearing therein ; certain ]persons, 
thirty-three in number, some of whom having weight in the island, and 
others of no weight at all, ])ut their names to a paper which they sent 
by a messenger (ojie of those w ho had signed it) to the printer's office, 
the purport of which was, that they, the undersigned, \;ould withdraw 
their subscriptions, if such letters were not discontinued. This dread- 
ful intimidation had the desired effect; notwithstanding several 
public spirited men oSered to make up the deficiency to the printer, 
by additional payments, but he having recently sulTered severely, from 
the power of the man whose follies the last mentioned letters were 
supposed to have lashed, thought it most prudent to stop their further 
publication. Thus was done awaj- the liberty of the press, in this 
island, to the disgrace of those who were the cause of it, as dupes to 
the artifices of ostentation and chicanery, and the Antigua Chronicle 
has now sunk into that nothingness (which had already pervaded the 
other two) suitable to the genius of arrogance, folly, and despotism. 

We live here on shaking ground, another earthquake at half past 
three in the morning of the third instant. 



Letter XXXIII. 

April 30, 1788. 
Since my last, part of the 49th regiment has arrived here, under 
the command of Major Campbell, and the}' now occupy our barracks, 
in place of the 67th, gone to Grenada ; I saw the latter embark, and 
regret sat visibly on the countenances of both officers and privates, no 
doubt from leaving an island where they had been well treated ; the 
officers, in particular, having lived in the habits of sociability with 
the inhabitants, and in harmony with each other, since the disagree- 



able business of the court martial, held on Capt. H ,* in the year 

1786. The men of the 49th were drawn up on the barrack ground 
soon after they arrived, and, allowing for their passage to cause some 
difference in their appearance, to what it will be when they have been 
in barracks a fortnight or three weeks, they looked very well. The 
officers are men of good appearance, some of them, I understand, have 
been in this part before, of course have a knowledge of the country 
and will be particular in preventing the men from a too free use of 
new rum, which is the true cause of laying so many unexperienced 
Europeans in their graves, and not the clime, to which it has been 
falsely attributed. 

At our Court of Grand Sessions, in March last, a free negroe, 
name Richard, was tried and convicted for the murder of a black 
woman, belonging to the Rev. Mr. Teale, and has since been executed. 
Tvfo Jews, by the names of Vanban and Marcus, were tried for the 
robbery of a brother Israelite ; Marcus was cast for death but since 
pardoned (as it requires interest to get a white man hanged), and 
Vanban sentenced to the pillory ; I went on the appointed day to 
this exhibition, and what was my astonishment when I saw the 
culprit holding, with one hand, his hat before his face, and with the 
other, supporting an umbrella, to prevent the sun from warming his 
head : this struck me, not only as a shameful perversion of justice 
(who, by ordering the punishment of the pillory, meant the exposure 
of the offender), but also as a prostitution of the dignity of parasols. 

It is now (what is here called) Court time, {i.e.) the time for 
recovering debts, either by action or complaint. The first Court is 
generall}' held the latter end of March, or the beginning of April, and the 
other days appointed for this business, are ever}' fourth Tuesday, inde- 
pendant of adjournments, 'till the 8th or 10th of August. A com- 
plaint here, is the same as a summons at London, but extends to 
debts under ten pounds, except when the sum is the remaining part 
of a debt, originally more than thirty pounds. 

The solicitors are advocates also. A Mr. Burke, mentioned in a 
former letter, stands foremost for energetic declamation ; Mr. Hicks 
and Mr. Wise for ingenuous argument ; the language of the latter is 
elegant, possessing at the same time, the luxuriant flowers of rhetoric 
and fine oratory, and this gentleman would be still greater, were it 
not for a diffidence, which I am fearful is constitutional. It is to be 
deplored that such abilities should be confined to so small a circle as 
this island, abilities, which would possibly enable the possessor (if at 
the bar of the Westminster courts) to raise himself to the first 
eminence in his profession. 

Letter XXXIV. 

Mai/ 10, 1788. 

The afternoon of the eighth instant, the house of Mr. Looby, an 
assistant judge, in Bishopsgate-street, or Spring-garden, was dis- 
covered to be on fire ; the church bell, as well as those of the planta- 
tions within sight of it, announced the dreadful alarm to the frightened 
inhabitants : I immediately went towards the place, and on my way, 
observed terror to fill the countenance of every person, no doubt 
l)roceeding from the severe and recent sufferings many of them had 
experienced. When I reached the place, I found several of the 
gentlemen, members of the friendly fire company, were already there, 
and also a detachment of the troops of the 49th regiment, with Major 
Cam))bell at their head. By the joint exertions of these two bodies, 
the town was preserved, probably from total destruction, with the 
loss of only one tolerable house and a few insignificant huts ; the 
engines were worked with great dexterity, when considered how verj' 
seldom they are brought into action, and the negroes assisted in 
extinguishing the flames, as if they had been really interested in the 
welfare of the place. This fire is said to have happened through the 
carelessness of a negroe woman. 

The friendlj' fire company, an institution of the greatest utility, 
owes its establishment to the fire of 1782, and every member belonging 
thereto, obliges himself to keep in good preservation a certain number 
of buckets and fire-bags, and also to exercise their engines at stated 
periods. Great praise, and tlie thanks of the community deservedly 
belong to the founders of the society, as well as to the gentlemen who 
at present compose it, particularly when it is considered that the 
stores and warehouses of the merchants, contain property to a vast 
amount, and that insurance did not extend to this island until after 
this company was formed. The Phoenix, or New Fire-office, in 
Lombard-street, was the first to send its proposals here, and I learn 
that at this moment, they stand alone in West-Inda risks. 

I am just going to sup off mangrove oysters, of which so much has 
been said and so little believed concerning their growing upon trees, 
which I will here explain. The mangrove bushes grow in the creeks 
or swampy places, near the sea, and many of the branches are under 
water, to these the oysters (I suppose from something peculiar in the 
plant) adhere so fast, that in removing them, the bark is frequently 
brought away with the shell ; they are very small but of a flavor equal 
to those of Colchester, and give a zest to bottled porter superior to 
any thing whatever. 

Letter XXXV. 

Mai/ 16, 1788. 

Earthquakes are become frequent. This morning while I sat at 
breakfast, the earth shook violently three or four times, many of the 
whites as well as negroes were much alarmed and ran into the street. 
I was under great apprehension of more shocks, but happily all has 
been quiet throughout the day, now nine o'clock in the evening. 

The inhabitants of this place seem determined to banish dulness, 
long the tutelar divinity of the island, for indepeudant of the theatre, 
a subscription assembly is established, at Smith's tavern, where the 
Creole beauties dance on the " light fantastic toe — " and where such 
gentlemen who are not so happy as to engage a partner among the 



* I have a copy of the " Proceedings of a General Court-Martial 
on Captain Robert Hedges of the 67th Regiment ; held at the Court- 
House, St. John's, Antigua, from Monday the 30th of January, to 
Monday the 13th of March, 1786, Antigua : St. John's : Printed by 
James Hargrove, on the Parade, mdcclxxxvi.," pp. 112.— V. L. O. 



GEORGE III. 



cxxxvu 



fair, play at cards and c inverse ; by twelve the siip))er is ou the table, 
and by two o'clock the rooms are cleared. 

Our theatricals go c.ii well, since I last wrote to you on that head, 
several pieces have been brought out, and received vvith an applause 
that cannot fail to be gratifying, to the gentlemen concerned in these 
amusements. The Orphan, King Ilenry the Fourth, "West-Indian, 
Lethe, and Lying Valet, are among those already played, and King 
Lear. The Fair Penitent, Jane Shore, and several farces are getting 
in readiness, bnt it is now a doubt whether I shall continue on the 
island until they are enacted, nevertheless, I shall cheei-fnlly give up 
that satisfaction, for the pleasure of hearing the enchanting notes of 
a Bilhngton, the admired declanmlion of a Siddons, the laughable 
buffoonery of an Edwin, or the dry humour of a Quick, or a Parsons. 
The heat is now, and has been for several days past, excessive; I drink a 
great quantity of weak punch to keep u]) perspiration, as the best means 
of preventing a fever. General Sir Thomas Shirley will review the 
troops on this island on the 29th. and intends sailing for England in 
a few days after, in the Roehampton, Captain Ross ; Jlr. Nugent, of 
Tortola, is coming here to reside, as Lieutenant Governor, but if that 
gentleman should not arrive before the departure of Sir Thomas 
Shirley, tlie governmeni will devolve on the President, the Hon. 
Ashton Warner, Esq., a gentleman of great integrity, respectability, 
and honor. 



Letter XXXVI. 



June 4, 1788. 



Here, in addition to every inconvenience which an European 
suffers in his own clime (cold excepted) may be added those arising 
from the insects, reptiles, and vermin, for the propagation of which, 
this isle may deservedly be stiled the hot bed. Rats abound in such 
quantities, in the cane pieces, that they often do much damage to the 
plants. The houses are infected by mosquitos, sand-flies, merry- 
wings, scorpions, centipieds, and many others, which sting intolerably. 
White people inclose their beds with mosquito nets, made of Scotch 
lawn, or any other light material, to prevent the intrusion of these 
troublesome visitors, bnt notwithstanding this precaution, the}' do 
frequently get into the beds and night clothes. Ants are of various 
kinds, and innumerable, both within and without doors, and it is 
impossible to keep either victuals or sweets from them, but by 
surrounding with water the dislies, or whatever such things are put 
into, or by hanging them to the rafters b}' a cord, or string, rubbed 
with castor oil. 

The cockroach, about the size of a cockchafer, and not very dis- 
similar thereto, is the most harmless insect here, having no sting, but 
it is disagreeable and troublesome ; for as soon as the evening 
approaches, they get into the houses, settle upon you, and run over 
your cloaths and furniture. Potatoe-Iice, called also bete-rouge, is an 
exceeding small insect, which lodges itself in the pours of the skin 
and itches in so great a degree, that, unless allayed by acids or other 
means, it is impossible to avoid scratching the affected parts until 
they are in a state of inflamation. 

The chigger is a small insect, which attacks the feet, but more 
particularly the toes, it penetrates the skin, forms a bag between that 
and the flesh, and lays its eggs, or nits, unknown to those that bear 
them. Some jieople here say it is a jdeasure to have one of these 
creatures, that the sensation the}' cause is amusing ; I have had them, 
but I cannot say that I found my guests quite so pleasing, in fact, at 
ill times, I would rather, according to the old phrase, " have their 
room than their company." 

The guana is a species of lizard, about two feet long, independant 
of its tail, and is the most hideous creature I ever beheld, but it is 
harmless, and the flesh said to be good eating. 

The wood-slave, the most dangerous rejjtile in the universe, is 
about four inches long, and two broad, somewhat like a toad, but 
narrower bodied and short legged, the bite, as well as the nip of its 
claws, are attended with the most fatal consequences, each toe 
terminates in the form of a calliper or sugar nipper, and they take 
such fast hold by these means, tliat it is impossible to extricate them 
from the part they attack, but by cutting them away, and, if the 
smallest particle remains within the flesh, the consequence is mortal. 
These creatures are principally about old wood, and old wooden build- 
ings, from whence they derive their name. Happy for this Island, 
very few of them are to be found in it, but in Dominica I am informed 
they abound. 

At sun-set, snakes, lizards, crickets, and numerous et ceteras, begin 
to hiss and cry from the bushes and prickly pears, and never cease 
their clamorous vociferations till nearly sun-rise ; but, as a counter- 
poise, in some measure, for the foregoing disagreeables, the air is as 
salulirious as any in the world. 

The review, which I apprized you of in my last, took place on the 
time appointed ; the manoeuvreing was well jierformed ; and notwith- 
standing the many disadvantages they must neccssaril}' lay under 
from the heat of the climate, went through their evolutions much 
to the satisfaction of the general, the otlicers, and the numerous 
spectators. 



Lettee XXXVII. 



June 30, 1788. 



This island is the principal residence of the Governors of the Lee- 
ward Charibbee Islands, who are seldom or ever ajiproved of by the 
people, over whom they are appointed to preside. If a Governor is an 
active man, and looks with perspicuity into public affairs, as becomes 
the good magistrate and the true representative of Royalty, he is 
hated, because, among other things, he will, to the utmost of his 
power, check smuggling, which is carried on, in a great degree, 
between this island, and those of the French, Dutch, and Danes. 
Indeed this spot seems to be particularly adapted to clandestine traffic, 
from the many out bays, harbours, and coves it possesses. But this 
business is not of modern date here, for so long back as the adminis- 
tration of General, Daniel Parke, it was carried on with avidity, and 
an attempt to prevent the ill consequences arising therefrom to the 
fair trader, was the real cause of his death, being cruelly murdered, in 



this town, on the 7th of December, 1710, by a mob in actual rebellion ; 
some of the assassins were sent to England, tried and convicted, but 
by the death of Queen Ann they escaped the punishment due to their 
crimes, being released by the general pardon, granted, on the accession 
of the House of Hanover. 

Some of the Governors have been blamed for being too familiar 
with the people, while others have been equally reprehensible for too 
much reservedness, and when they have a ruler who will let them have 
their own way, he is too easy, and gains the epithet of "fool !" hardly 
any man ever acquired credit amongst them as their chief, except 
the late Sir George Thomas, and Sir Ralph Payne, both West-Indians, 
who knew the dispositions of the people they had to govern, and by 
prudently keeping the arrogant at as great a distance, as the more 
modest vionld iiatnrally keep themselves, they had the good fortune 
to be approved. Sir Thomas Shirley, who left this island and his 
government, about a fortnight since, refused the honors offered to him 
by the legislature, conceiving himself to have been treated even in an 
ungentleman-like manner, by that body, previnus to their vote of 
civilities; and with the jiroper dignity of well founded resentment; 
he w'ent on board the Roehampton, attended onlj' by his own Secretary 
and a few select friends. 

I hope to be able to quit this place in a few weeks, and shall soon 
apprize you when and how, as vessels are leaving this port almost 
every day for Europe. 

Letter XXXVIII. 

July 15, 1788. 

I wrote you some time since, that the virtue of the Creole fair, was 
said to be superior to the arts of seduction. Rut, alas I they are frail 
as well as their beautiful sisters of Europe, and, as an instance, we 
have had a trial for crim. con. in the Court of Common Pleas, on the 
first instant. The offending parties, were a lady, the wife of a school- 
master, and her gallant, a planter ; the first very young, the latter 
rather descending into the vale of years, but as you well know there 
is no such thing as accounting for the unaccountable taste of the 
ladies, I shall sp.are myself the trouble of commenting on this lady's 
choice, and come at once to the trial, which began about ten o'clock 
in the morning, and lasted till four in the afternoon ; the damages 
were laid at several ihou.sand pounds ; indeed the little teacher 
thought himself very much hurt, but of that in the sequel : the 
counsel, according to ancient custom in such cases, made long speeches, 
and endeavoured to do every thing they could for their respective 
clients ; the principal part of the evidence came from three young 
ladies, two of whom were sisters, both in blood and iniquity, the other 

a noviciate in the Cyprian rites. Jliss Jenny R , one of the 

sisters, told what she knew of the matter in a manner that would have 
shamed the most abandoned prostitute of Covent-Garden ; the other 
two had some few latent sparks of modesty remaining, and could not 
tell their tale vvith such unblushing cheeks and libidinous look, as 
Miss Jenny, bnt notwithstanding it was sometimes with difficulty 
that truth v\as drawn from this trio of virgins, the fact was ]iroved, 
and, at the same time, another fact was established also, which was, 
that this very much injured husband, had been an industrious laborer 
in vineyards of seduction and prostitution, for which reason the jui'y 
brought in a verdict, for the gentleman of the cane and birch, with 
five hundred pounds damages only : And here, to the honor of the 
island, it is worthy of remark, that this trial is the only instance for 
the aforementioned offence, for the last forty years. A smart shock 
of an earthquake on Sunday last, in the morning, which gave much 
alarm, but did no damage. 

I was at the play on the 10th, Jane Shore, and for want of females 
in the dramatic walk, our representative of the lovely Jane " once 
the fairest amongst English dames," was a gentlemtru, he spoke it 
well, but looked it ill ; the parts of Hastings and Dumont, were well 
filled ; indeed, Jlr. M — t — n, the gentleman who performed the latter 
character, is a finished actor. Notwithstanding the aid of ventilators, 
and altho' part of the roofing boards were removed also for the more 
free admission of air, I suffered much from the extreme heat of the 
house ; a most violent head ach was the consequence, from which I 
am now hardly recovered. I shall not attend any other theatrical 
exhibition in this place, having possitively fixed my departure for the 
first of August. 



Letter XXXIX. 

Juh/ 21, 1788. 

The blue regiment of militia, of this island, being most consider- 
able in point of numbers, and from mustering in the vicinity of St. 
John's, has afforded me more frequent opportunities of seeing its 
manoeuvres than I could, with any degree of convenience, have of 
viewing the other regiments of the same description, and as speaking of 
one, is, in fact speaking of the whole, I shall only trouble you with 
an account of this corps, which consists of a grenadier company, a 
light infantry company, and battalions ; the grenadiers and light 
infantry, are habiied regimentally, but the battalions remind me of 
Shakespeare's description of Jack-Falstiff's heroes, " who would fill a 
pit as well as other men " few, very few of these troops, except the 
grenadiers, know even the common exercise. I have seen the negroes 
laughing at their nnsoldier-like performances. The last time I 
attended the military operations of this body, new colors were dis- 
played ; they are elegant, and the motto, which is in their center, is 
taken from "one borne in the civil wars, on the royal side with the 
omission of the word Grei/e, being only Pro Sege et Lege, but if the 
King and laws were to receive no better protection than what this 
body of military men are capable of affording them, they must very 
soon be in a disagreeable predicament. These troops have neither 
fife nor drum. 

I have also seen the troop of horse carbiniers, about thirty in 
number, drawn up and exercised, they made aukvvard play of it. 

The company of artillery are said to be tolerably disciplined, bnt I 
have not had any opportunity of seeing the performance of these 
men, from the guns having unfortunately been suffered to remain in 
the arsenal, or store-house, under the rubbish occasioned by the 
falling in of the roof of that building. Such is the narrow policy of 



cxxxvni 



THE HISTORY OP ANTIGUA. 



this government. It must be a matter of surprise to Britons, that 
the people in power in the colony should so much nej^lect that best of 
institutions for public safety, and internal protection, the Militia, 
when the great disproportion of twelve blacks and colored persons to 
one white is considered as now existing, and when it is observed that 
eleven twelfths of the blacks are slaves, as are also many well informed 
mungrels, mulattoes, and mestees, too often to unfeeling owners, and 
■when it is remarked that at this particular period the people of Britain 
seem almost determined on the abolition of the slave-trade to Afric.'a, 
and may possibly extend their project to at least the amendment of 
the slave-laws in the West-Indies, from a knowledge of which pro- 
ceedings it is next to an impossibihty to keep them ignorant, it is but 
reasonable to suppose, if the}' catch the idea that the people at home 
favor their cause, a confidence may be raised in them, hitherto 
unknown to the race, and the love of liberty, which I believe pervades 
the heart of man, whether black or white, as the first and ruling 
principle, might ins|)ire them to make a grand effort to throw oft the 
yoke, under which thej- at present groan, and recover their natural 
right, their libert_v. Now in such a case, and in such a cause, suppose 
about twelve hundred men, almost as ignorant of military discii)line 
as the negroes, opposed to forty thousand persons (for the women are 
as capable as the men of enduring fatigue, and would, no doubt, join 
in the cause) what ^vould be the consequence, but a dreadful carnage, 
if not the total annihilation of the whites ! This observation does not 
apply to Antigua onl}-, but to the other isles under the British 
government, in the West-Indies, where the same disproportion reigiis, 
from which I believe not one can be excepted but Barbadoes. It 
therefore doth behove those in power, if only for the preservation of 
their own lives and properties, to keep up a strict military discipline, 
and endeavor also, by ever}' possible encouragement, to encrease the 
number of white inhabitants. To adopt measures effective of preser- 
vation from ill, is a duty imposed upon us by reason and common 
sense, and reason and common sense forbid that any set of men should 
turn a deaf ear to their dictates. 



Letteb XL. 



July 2G, 1788. 



My remarks are closed : I have taken a passage on board the Sarah 
and Ann, Capt. "William Farrer, bound for London, which will possi- 
tively sail on the first of August. The pleasure which my imagination 
paints, I shall experience, on seeing again my native country and 
esteemed friends, is beyond the powers of my pen to describe. But 
notwithstanding I dislike the manners and customs of this place, yet 
I shall leave it with regret, for the tw-o following reasons : from 
having enjoyed uninterrupted health ; and from having received much 
kindness and civilit}' from many people here : May the}' ever prosper ! 
And wherever in the course of my letters, to you, I have mentioned 
the follies and extravagancies of the inhabitants, of this island, in too 
general terms, I must here beg leave to except the worthy, who are 
many, from the least particle of censure on my part. I have been 
drawing a picture, which may be compared to a landscape of extensive 
view, wherein the beauties and deformities are so blended, as to make 
it utterly impossible to separate them, v^ithout spoiling the effect of 
the whole. 

I shall bring with me a model of a mill and works, which will give 
you a better insight into the manufac'turing of sugar and rum, than I 
can possibly do by writing : They are the work of a negroe slave, and 
are made of the cedar of this country. 

I remain, etc., etc. 



1789. List of Clergv in tlie Leewatd Islands. 



1789, February 14. A committee wasform.ed for 
entertaining Prince William Henry. 

The following lists of Import & Export of slaves fur 
14 years were enclosed with the Gov" letters: — 





Imports. 






Exports. 




Tear. 


VesseUs. 


Tonnage. 


Slaves. 


Vessell 


. Tonnage. 


Slaves 


1775. 


. LS 


906 


1431 


13 


490 


304 


1776. 


8 


245 


630 


10 


265 


154 


1777. 


4 


277 


345 


4 


195 


59 


1778. 


2 


100 


321 


4 


115 


177 


1779. 


— 


— 


— 


1 


15 


9 


1780. 


1 


20 


81 


1 


20 


8 


1781 . 


1 


100 


210 


1 


2(1 


78 


1782. 


5 


470 


1164 


6 


380 


593 


1783. 


4 


630 


1491 


7 


510 


590 


1784. 


. 11 


1O50 


2146 


10 


315 


461 


1785. 


1 


70 


112 


6 


220 


337 


1780 . 


li 


420 


952 


5 


170 


136 


1787. 


(i 


425 


582 


2 


85 


38 


1788. 


4 


963 


580 


6 


427 


96 



The free negros make writing clerks, taylors, etc., are 
dissipated & lazy & think it an insult to be asked to work as 
carpenters, coopers, etc. 



Exports of Sugar & Rum. 



Shipped. 
1779 
1780 
1781 
1782 
1783 
1784 
1785 
1786 
1787 
1788 



Hhds 



Lbs. Pun. Rum. Tierces. Barrells. 



3,382 


579 


164 


1.633 


163 


245 


3,518 


662 


65 


846 


86 


14 


8,408 


1,260 


746 


3,364 


48 


24 


15,102 


1,603 


1.854 


4,832 


142 


107 


3.099 


1,391 


970 


938 


472 


144 


18,370 


1.868 


3.260 


7,077 


1.575 


1,459 


17,295 


1.993 


3,005 


7,297 


362 


287 


16.072 


1.895 


4,005 


5,787 


262 


475 


19.147 


2.729 


1 fi-,0 


6.791 


318 


147 


14,256 


1,910 


1.010 


6,165 


275 


107 



Parishes. 
S" Johns 
S' Peters 
S' Philips 
S' Marys 
S' Pauls 



Incumbents. 
J.as. Lindsey . 
Fra. Massett . 
Theoph. Xugent 
Josiah Weston 
Arth. Freeman 



Filed Salary. 


Es 


in 


atcd annual 


Currency. 


value 


& 


surplice fees 


350 






7(HJ 


300 






350 


300 






350 


300 






350 


300 






350 


300 






350 



ij' Georges Jas. Coull 

The Methodists have a large meeting-house at S' Johns. 
The Moravians have 2 settlements, one at S' Johns the 
other at English Harbour, but only negros attend their 
meetings. 

Aug. 29. H.M. packet " Antelope," .... touched at 
Barbadoes, where accounts had been received of a very severe 
drought at Antigua ; insomuch, that Government had beea 
under the necessity of paying 40/. a day, for some time past, 
to supply the garrison witli water. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 1138.) 

October 22. Edward Byam, juii., was returned 
for New North Sound vice William Dickinson. 

November 22. Sir Thomas Shirley, Bart., writes 
from Bridge Town, Barbados, that be arrived there 
on the 21st inst., 28 days out from Falmouth. Cap- 
tain Shipley, commanding the Engineers at Antigua, 
is fortifying the Ridge, and they have built there a 
cistern holding 300 tons of water, and additional stone 
barracks for 800 men, so that there is now accommo- 
dation for a whole regiment. The Assembly refuse 
to contribute any further towards the fortification 
there. 

From 1 April 1788 to 30 September 1789, 458 
vessels entered at St. John's and 433 cleared. Hon. 
Charles Winstone, one of the Council, removed in 
1783 to Dominica. 

The Moravians baptized 507 negros at St. John's 
and 217 at Grace Hill from Easter 1788 to Easter 
1789. No rain fell during seven months. The crop 
was destroyed and 5000 cattle perished. Only 12,500 
hogsheads of sugar of 13 cwt. each were ex23orted. 

This year a new road to Five Islands, protected by 
piles, was constructed, in place of the old one 
destroyed by the encroachment of the sea. 

1790, January 14. Hon. Thomas Jarvis, having 
produced a diploma, signed by Dr. William Allanby, 
from the College of Physicians at Edinburgh, is 
licensed to practise Medicine, etc. The grave of the 
late Governor Burt is to be covered with a marble 
slab enclosed with iron rails, and a bust and monu- 
ment to be placed in St. John's Church. 

April 8. George Redhead returned for New 
North Sound vice Edward Byam, jun. 

April. The Superintendent of the King's Botani- 
cal Gardens at St. Vincent reports thus : — ■ 

Guiny Corn, Hokus sacdiaratus Linn., growing a very 
usefull grain has been imported into Barbados & Antigua 
some years past where it is now carefully cultivated as well 
for negroe food k for Poultry as fodder for Horses & Cattle — 
if planted in proper season the leaves & young stems may be 
cut a number of times before it goes to seed which is in Nov'' 
& Dec'' — as the stems root sevei'al crops may be had from the 
same plant. 

The Home Government was at this time acting 
very judiciously in endeavouring to promote the 
cultivation of many useful plants not hitherto grown 
in the West Indies, and experiments were being 
scientifically conducted both at Kew and St. Vincent. 



GEORGE III. 



CXSXIX 



May. Forty-eipflit convicts ari-ived to work on 
the forts, but they were not liked, and a promise was 
exacted that no more would be sent. English 
Harbour was cleaned and deepened. 

June 18. Governor Shirley acknowledges the 
receipt of cotton seed from the Cuzerat country, and 
will distribute it among the planters. 

October 21. Daniel Hill, jun., Esq., returned for 
St. John's Division vice Joseph Lyons Athill deceased. 

£8610 sterling or £15,068 currency was this year 
spent by the Leo-islature in fortifying Dow's Hill 
near English Harbour. 

C" 1790. In the fertile Island of Antigua, there are a 
number of salt-petre spots of land, which are great eye-sores 
and prove very detrimental to the owners ; no remedy has 
yet been found for this evil .... Francis Martin, Esq., on 
the Diamond Estate in the above Island, informed me, that 
some years ago, seven acres and one fourth made forty-eight 
hogsheads of sngar, of an exceeding good quality ; this is 
the greatest yielding I ever knew. This little plantation is 
esteemed among the first in Antigua. The estate of Lang- 
ford Level, Esquire, in the division of Pope's-Head, in a 
good year, has made four hundred and twenty hogsheads of 
sugar, and this year it has fallen short near four hundred, 
merely from the baneful effects of dry weather, and the 
borer. 

Sir "William Codrington's property has made near eight 
hundred hogsheads less ; But, speaking generally, I am 
informed, the whole Island has fallen short, near eighteen 
thousand hogsheads if not more. On the above properties 
every attention was given, and the works are amongst the 
first in that Island, in every respect. 

I was unfortunately too late in going to this Island, 

there were only a few estates at work ; amongst which were, 

two of Sir John Laforey's, under the care of John Harvey, 

Esq., the estate of Alexander Willock, Esq., inspected by 

Henry B. Lightfoot, Esq., those of Bertie Entwisle, Esq., Sir 

John Ogilvie, Bart, (managed by William Ogilvie, Esq.), and 

Bandies, under the charge of Langford Lovel, Esq., .... 

(' A Treatise of Planting,' by Joshua Peterkin, St. Kitts, 

1790.) 

1791. List of the Council. 

Date of Mandamus. 

Edward Byam, President . 1770 May 10 

John Gray .... 1773 Dec. 11 

W" Mackinnen . . . 1773 Dec. 11 

Martin Byam . . . 1774 May 9 

Sir John Laforey, Bart. . 1779 Nov. 24 

Robert Jeaffreson . . . 1779 Dec. 11 

Chas. "Winstone . . . 1781 April 30 

Sir John Ogilvy, Bart. . . 1782 Mar. 7 

Thos. Norbury Kerby . . 1783 Nov. 10 

Wm. Gunthorpe . . . 1783 Nov. 24 

Lockhart Puissell . . . 1783 Dec. 22 

James Nibbs . . . 1784 Sep. 15 

John Horsford . . . 1784 Sep. 16 

Tho. Jarvis . . . . 1785 July 4 

Sam. Byam Athill . . 1787 Mar. 6 

1791. The Duke of Richmond orders the sus- 
pension of all work on fortifications because the 
Assembly have refused to purchase the necessary 
lands. 

January 8. Petition of Alexander Dow that 
Dow's Hill has been taken by the coirntry and 
fortified, and asking for indemnity. It has been 
valued at £5824 currency or £3328 sterling. 

January 14. Chief Justice Burton is recommended 
to be of the Council. 



Feb. 13. The Hon. Tho. Jarvis writes, "The borer 
rages more than ever. Sir Thomas goes home in Barge, 
& leaves his government for an abler head." 

May 18. His Majesty has accepted Sir Thomas 
Shirley's resignation. 

May 19. Samuel Redhead was retui-ned for New 
North Sound vice George Redhead, sen., resigned. 
James McGillwray petitions for licence to practise 
Medicine, etc., and the Assembly having appointed 
Dr. Jonas Langford Blizard and Dr. Richai-d Scott 
Byam to examine him, they reported on 9 June as 
to his unfi^tness, and the petition was rejected. 

May 27. The commissioners have left this Island, 
having previously examined the Officers inspecting the 
AVorks at the Ridge with more rigidness than was at first 
expected. 

September 21. William Woodley, now at St. 
Kitts, to be Captain-General, etc., vice Shiiley 
resigned. 

1792, January 18. Governor Woodloy has taken 
the " Farm," Dr. James Athill's, at £800 a year. 

January 19. Rowland Burton takes his seat at 
the Council. The Council and Assembly forward an 
address to the King, reciting that owing to the dry 
weather, the ravages of insect in the canes, and bad 
trade there is so much distress that many of the 
inhabitants have gone and settled at Trinidad ; they 
therefore petition that one or two ports may be 
declared fi-ee. 

List of all the officers at Antigua. 

Hon. Edw"! Byam, Treasurer & Judge of the Admiralty 
Court. 

Hon. John Gray, J. P., Master & Examiner in Chancery. 

Hon. Thos. Jarvis, J. P. 

Hon. Sara. Athill, J.P. & Surgeon to Great George Fort. 

Hon. Tho. Freeman, J.P. 

Hon. Row. Burton, Chief Justice & Chief Baron of 
Exchequer & Registrar of Deeds. 

Hon. Baptist Looby, Assistant Justice, L* Col. of Forts 
& Puisne Judge of Exchequer. 

Hon. Tho. Warner, Assistant Justice & J.P., Maj' of 
Dragoons, Judge Advocate of Militia. 

Hon. W™ Mackinnen, Assistant Justice. 

Hon. John Burke, J.P., Solicitor Geni, & Gov' of Fort 
James. 

Rev. Jas. Lindsey, Arth. Freeman, John Frye, Cha. 
Kerr, & Jn" Lavicount, Esq™% J.P.'s. 

Philip Hicks, Esq., J.P. & Lieut. Col. of the Blue Reg'. 

Boyce Ledwell, Esq., J.P. & Capt. of Johnsons Point 
Fort. 

Sam. Harman, Esq., J.P. & Adjutant Gen> of Forts. 

James Athill, Esq., J.P. & Surgeons mate to Great 
George Fort. 

Sam. Martin, Esq., Collector at S' Johns & J.P. 

Sam. Auchinleck, Esq., Collector at Parham. 

W™ Jervis, Esq., Comptroller of S' Johns. 

Rob. Clogstown, Esq., Dep. Naval Officer. 

W" Entwisle, Esq., Searcher for S' Johns. 

M"' Rich. Wright, W John Scholes, l AVaiters for S' 

M'' Jn° Payne, & M'' Rob' Mack, J Johns. 

M' Tho. Hawes, Waiter for Falmouth, M'' Corn. 
Halloran, AYaiter fur Old Road, M-- Nich. Symes, AVaiter for 
AVilloughby Bay. 

AV™ Blizard Jarvis, Esq., Capt. of Fort James & Waiter 
for Bermudian Valley. 

W Rich. Chapman, AA^aiter & Searcher for Parham, M"' 
Geo. Crump for Parham. 



cxl 



THE HISTOllY OP ANTIGUA. 



M'' Tlio. Winter, admeasurer of ships. 

Ricli. Bfiwman, Esq., Coroner. 

.lohn M''Connell, Esq., Post Master. 

Ricli. Scott Byam, Esq., Pliysician Gen' to Militia. 

D'' Alex. M'^Pherson, Jn" Hill, Anthony P-rowne, & .las. 
Doig, Esq'=-% Lieuts. 

D"- Pat. Doig, Capt. Lieut., & James Hill, Capt. of 
Grenadiers. 

Jn° Symes, Lieut., Tho. Scotland. liieut. of Grenadiers, 
& Hen. Jarvis, Ensign in the Blue Reg'. 

W"' Mathews, Arthur Bull, & Tho. Hanson Halloran, 
Esq™, Notaries Public. 

Tho. Osborne, Esq., Major of Forts. 

Walt. Colquhoun, Esq., Gunner of Monks Hill. 

M'Jas. Robinson, sub-gunner & fire-master of Fort James. 

Tho. T. Wise, Esq., adjutant of Fort James. 

D' Arthur Robertson, Physician to Fort James. 

Dan. Hill, Sen., Esq., Capt. of Great George Fort. 

Tyrrell Herbert, Esq., Capt. of Fort Byam. 

M'' W'" Bridgewater Thomas, Jl aster gunner of Fort 
Byam. 

M'' Sam. Carter, gunner of Johnsons Point Fort. 

W'" Graveuor, Esq., Capt. & gunner of Queens Battery. 

Tho. Ottley, Esq., adjutant of Fort George. 

Andrew fuly Quinlan, Major, Rich. Hunt, Capt., W" 
Richardson, Jn" Symes, Jn° Allan, Ben. Merchant, Ale.x. 
Dow, Jas. Gibson, Lieuts., & King Pittman, Ensigns in the 
Red Regt. 

Jn" Day, I.,ieut. of the Independent Company >t 
Interpreter. 

Cha. Gordon, Capt. & Adjutant of the Red Reg'. 

W"' Hen. Levingston, Capt., Rob. Farquharson, Capt. 
Lieut., & Tho. Allen, Lieut, in the Independent Company. 

Alex. Dover, Col', Jn° Rose, Jun., & Tho. Kentish, 
Capt', Dan. Hill, Jun'', Capt. Lieut., Rob. .\nderson, Sam. 
Lynch, Edw. Jones, Hen. Pearson. Jn" Wickham Mayer, 
Lieuts., & Jn" Bott, quarter master in the Artillery. 

Tho. Rogers, Esq., Capt. of a Squadron of Dragoons. 

M'' Hen. Thomas, auctioneer. 

Campbell Brown, Esq., Com'issary Gen'. 

All the above take the oaths. 

Sir "William Young, Bart., paid Antigua a short 
visit, landing at the Old Eoad on Saturday, January 
28. He wrote in his diary on January 30 : — 

Went to S' John's, a large, & in many parts a well built 
town, & the church an excellent building, as is likewise the 
town or court house ; but the town itself has the appearance 
of ruined trade & deserted habitancy. The country for 12 
miles, from the old road plantation to S' John's, is open, 
with very few trees or even shrubs, but beautiful in its swells 
of ground, scarcely to be called hills, spotted with buildings, 
& varied with inlets of the sea opening in different points 
of view; high but infructuous cultivation cover every acre. 
The roads are excellent, & every thing speaking the civilisa- 
tion, art, & toil of man ; but nature answers not. Under 
the drought all fails : heat, with little or no moisture, 
generates nothing. Partial rains have this year, as often 
before, given hope to the planter for his canes, & to the 
negro for his provisions ; but the season has again failed, & 
their hopes are blasted. The whole is a picture of disap- 
pointment, in land, beast, & man. The negro houses are 
excellent, & many of them are stone ; but no in-doors 
can give the face of comfort & contentment, if all is wanting 
beyond the threshold. 

The negroes having little or no provisions from their 
gi-ounds, are fed by allowance from the planters, many them- 
selves in distress, which scants their allowance. On estates 
in good condition, it is 12 quarts of corn, with 2 or 3 pounds 
of salt provision per week. 
(Edwards' ' Historical Survey of St. Domingo,' p. 282.) 



August 1. Several plantations were destroyed by 
a hurricane. 

December 13. Bertie Entwisle called to the 
Council by Governor Woodley. 

Daring the 3'ears eighty-nine, ninety, and ninety-one, 
so little rain fell in the islands of Saint Christophers, 
Antigua, Nevis, and Montserrat, as to abridge their crops of 
sugar near two-thirds in quantity. Saint Christopher, whose 
medium produce is about seventeen thousand hogsheads, 
made upon an average, for the last three years, little more 
than six thousand. Antigua has been still more roughly 
treated. (' The Case of the Sugar Colonies 1792,' p. 37.) 

Negros have advanced in price from £12 to £15 a 
head since the peace. Before, they sold at £42 or 
£43, now they sell at £55 to £60 sterling. Freight 
outward has risen ~ since the late war. Lumber 
formerly brought from America fetched £4 5s. 
currency a thousand ; it is now £10 13s. Flour, rice, 
and fish have risen in almost equal proportions. 

1793, February. Governor Woodley writes that 
the French aristocrats from Guadaloujje have fled to 
the English Islands ; Monsieur D'Arote, the late 
Governor of Guadaloupe, is at St. Kitts, and there 
are 3000 French emigres ready to take up arms for 
England. 

March 1 . Petition of Andrew M'^Clure, to pi'actise 
Medicine, etc. Dr. Samuel Athill and Dr. Nathaniel 
Marchant are ordered to report thereon. Robert 
Farquhar was returned for Willoughby Bay vice Dr. 
Thomas Fairburn resigned. 

March 7. War was declared against France. Of 
2420 Methodists only 36 were whites. 

April 15. Tobago surrendered to Admiral Sir 
John Laforey. 

1793. In May H.M.S. "Experiment" arrived in English 
Harbour from Grenada, in the greatest distress, having lost 
almost all her men by fever. An artificer belonging to the 
ordnance, who had gone on board, and slept in a blanket 
belonging to one of the dead men, was seized with the fever, 
and died in a few hours. The infection by means of this 
blanket, which was carried on shore to the ordnance 
quarters, with the wearing apparel of the deceased, as part 
of his property, was communicated to the whole detachment 
of artillery, and from them to the 31st regiment, then on 
garrison duty. A boat's crew of the " Solebay " frigate were 
sent on board the " Experiment" to assist in working her 
into the harbour; they caught the infection and all died. 
They had communicated the disease to the crew of their own 
ship, of whom 200 perished. The contagion was carried to 
S' Johns. (Dr. Chisolm on Fevers, quoted by Dr. Coke, 
vol. ii., p. 419, and Southey.) 

June 12. John Stanley, Esq., President of St. 
Kitts, wi-ites : " Gov'' Woodley died 2 June last at 
S' Kitts," and that he has taken on the government. 
The English were unsuccessful in their I'ecent attack 
on Martinic[ue. 

October 4. J. Balfour writes from Curzon Street 
recommending for a seat in the Council his near con- 
nection Mr. John Otto-Baijer, sou of the late Presi- 
dent of that name. 

October 9. President Stanley has called up to the 
Council Thomas Freeman, the late Speaker, and Wil- 
liam Mackinnen, jun. He has learnt that there is a 
severe outbreak of yellow fever now raging at 



GEORGE III. 



cxli 



Grenada, which was iinpovted from Sierra Leone. 
One hundred cases have ended fatally in the shii^ping 
there, most of which terminated within 20 hours. 
He forwards a list of estates at Guadaloupe, belonging 
to French Eoyalists, which had been sequestrated by 
the revolutionists ; their revenue averaged between 
50 and 150,000 livres each per annum. 

On October 24 a writ was issued for St. John's 
Division vice Benjamin Ireland deceased, and on the 
27th Edward Byam, jun., was retui-ned for Old North 
Sound and Abraham Redwood for Popeshead. 

December 31. There is gi'eat mortality in the 
21st Regiment stationed at the Ridge under the 
command of Colonel Graham. 

1794, March 20. Mr. Joseph Weston, Mr. Adam 
Ogilvie, Mr. John Harris, Mr. James Watson, jun., 
and Mr. Thomas Edwards to join the Troop. 

Martinique surrendered to Sir Charles Grey and 
Admiral Sir John Jervis on March 22, St. Lucia on 
April 4, and Guadaloupe on April 21. 

Sir John Jervis writes f i-om Martinique that Fort 
St. Louis and Fort Royal were stormed on 20 March, 
Fort Bourbon then surrendered, also the Morne 
Fortunee on 3 April, and by 22 April all the French 
Islands had been captured by us. 

June 21. Two hundred French Royalist refugees, 
with 300 slaves, arrived at St. John's. 

September 18. Samuel Harman to be of the 
Council : Major-General Leigh is expected as the new 
Captain-Genei'al. The English troops under Sir 
Charles Grey are at present occupying a portion of 
Guadaloupe. 

October 2. Mr. Charles M. Ledeatt, Philip D. 
Harris, and Henry Donovan to join the Troop. 

November 13. Richard Scott Byam and Samuel 
Watkins take the oaths and their seats at the Council 
Board. President Stanley writes that the Hon. Wil- 
liam Mackinnen died on his passage to England in 
June last. 

1795, January 9. The government of Guadaloupe 
is offered to President Stanley. 

January 17. From a list that was taken of the 
French emigres from Guadaloupe, now residing at 
Antigua, it appears that there were 112 men, 144 
women, 197 children, and 969 slaves. 

President Stanley left for England, and his first 
letter to Ministers was dated 1 November from 
Falmouth. 

From 1795 to 1800 inclusive the various Presi- 
dents omitted to forward copies of the Minutes of 
the Council and Assembly to the Secretary of State. 

1796, May 25. St. Lucia re-captured by General 
Sir Ralph Abercrombie. 

July 7. Archibald Esdaile, President of St. Kitts, 
writes that His Excellency Major-General Leigh's 
health is bad, and that he sailed for England on the 
3rd instant, leaving the government in his hands. 

Sep. 25. In the Island of St. Christopher, the Hon. 
Archibald Esdaile, president of that island, master in 
chancery, judge of the admiralty, and (in the absence of 
Major-gen. Leigh) commander of the Leeward islands. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1797, p. 164.) 



Sep. 29. At Antigua, where he had been for some 
months on account of his health, his Excellency Henry Hamil- 
ton, esq., governor of the island of Dominica, etc. {Ibid.) 

October. John J. Thomas, President of St. Kitts, 
writes that Archibald Esdaile* having died he has 
succeeded him. 

October 5. Spain declared war against England. 

December 14. A meeting was held in London 

this day for the purpose of organizing combined 

opposition to Wilberforce's slave bill then before the 

House. The following Members of Parliament, who 

were all owners of West Indian estates, attended : — 

Sir Rich. Gamon. M'' Lewis. Lord Lavington. 

M'- Nesbitt. M"' Colhoun. M"- M^Douall. 

Sir Cha. Bunbury. M'' Petrie. M'' G. Ellis. 

Mr Cha. Ellis. M-- G. W. Thomas. Sir. G. Webster 

M"' Barham. M"' B. Edwards. Vassal. 

Sir W" Young. M'' Lushington. M'' M. Tudway. 

M'- Manning. M"' Mitchell. Sir G. Thomas. 
M'- Praed. 

1797, February 14. President Thomas writes that 
Captain Molloy is dead, who held the office of Regis- 
trar-General in the Admiralty, and was Naval Officer- 
General of these Islands, so he has appointed his 
brother James Thomas in his place. 

May 11. Robert Thomson, President of St. Kitts, 
writes that President Thomas died on 15 April, and 
that he has taken on the supreme command. 

1798, Antigua, Jan. 28. On the 13"^ inst. died, at 
English Harbour, Charles Peterson, Esq., first Lieutenant of 
his Majesty's ship Perdrix. This event was occasioned by 
a dispute between the deceased and Lord Camclford, upon 
the right of commanding at English Harbour. Ld. C. com- 
manded his Majesty's sloop of war, the Favourite, by virtue 
of an order or warrant from Admiral Harvey ; and M^ P. 
(though an older Lieutenant than Ld. C.) had lately served 
on board that ship under his command ; but having been 
removed to the Perdrix, and Ld. C. not having a commission 
as master and commander, M' P. being then at English 
Harbour, supposed himself to be the commanding officer, 
and under that idea issued some orders to Ld. C. which were 
answered by other orders from Ld. C. to M-^ P. Upon W 
P.'s refusal to obey these orders, a Lieutenant with a party . 
of marines were sent to put him under arrest, and M'' P. 
prepared for resistance, and ordered the crew of the Perdrix 
to arm in his defence. But before any conflict took place, 
Ld. C. arrived, went up to M'' P. demanded if he would obey 
his orders or not ; and upon being answered in the negative, 
he immediately shot him dead upon the spot. An inquest 
was taken by the Coroner the next day ; but the Jury, not 
being willing to take upon themselves the determination of 
the question upon whom the command at English Harbour 
had devolved, found only that deceased had been shot by 
Lord Camelford in consequence of a mutiny. A Court- 
Martial has since been held on board his Majesty's ship 
Invincible, in Fort Royal Bay, by WiUiam Cay ley, Esq., 
Captain of his Majesty's ship Invincible, and Senior Captain 
of his Majesty's ships and vessels in Fort Royal Bay, Mar- 
tinique, President ; Captains J. Mainwaring, Charles Ekins, 
Richard Brown and Alexander Burrowes. 

The Court being duly sworn, proceeded to try Lord 
Camelford ; and having heard the whole of the evidence 
adduced on the occasion, and what the prisoner had to offer 
in his defence, and maturely and deliberately weighed and 
considered the same, and being fully sensible of the necessity 

• In the churchyard of St. Thomas, Middle Island, St. Kitts : 
" Sacred to the memory of the Hon. Archibald Esdaile, Esquire, late 
Commander-in-Chief of the Leeward Islands. Died Septr. 25'' 1796, 

Ul." . 



cxlii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



of prompt measures in cases of mutiny, were unanimously of 
opinion that " the very extraordinary and manifest dis- 
obedience of Lieutenant Peterson, both before and at the 
instant of his death, to the lawful orders of Lord Camelford, 
the senior officer at English Harbour at that time, and the 
violent measures taken by Lieutenant Peterson to resist the 
same, by arming the Perdris's ship's company, were acts of 
mutiny highly injurious to the discipline of his Majesty's 
service. The Court do therefore unanimously adjudge, that 
the Right Honourable Lord Camelford be honourably 
acquitted ; and he is hereby honourably acquitted accord- 
ingly." (' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 345.) 

Lord Camelford fell in a duel with Capt. Best in March 
1804. 

In 1794 there were eigMeen Members of Council 
at Antigua, and of these Charles Winston resides 
at Domiuica ; John Horsford, Lockhart Russell, 
Thomas Freeman, and William Mackinnen are dead. 

March 2. At a meeting of the General Council 
at St. Kitts thei-e were present Richard lies. Presi- 
dent, Andrew Hamilton, Thomas J. Cottle, William 
Woodley, Sir Patrick Blake, Bart., James Athill, 
John Taylor, Edward B. Wyke, Esqrs. By their 
printed journal it seems that the members of the 
General Council were all appointed by the Captain- 
General under his hand and seal. The oldest Coun- 
cillor by seniority always took the chair. The 
members of the General Assembly were elected by 
each local assembly from among their own numbers, 
and there were five sent up from each island. They 
were called together at the present time to consider 
the late resolution about slaves which had been 
agreed to by the House of Commons on 6 April 1797, 
A forced abolition of the slave trade had been aban- 
doned, but they were advised to take all possible care 
of their slaves, so that they might increase by propa- 
gation and not by importation from Africa. Leprosy 
also was veiy ju-evalent among the blacks. They 
drafted an Act to suspend the 4^ per cent. duty. 

On 21 April 1798 they drew up and passed a 
lengthy Act for the improvement of the condition of 
slaves, usually styled the " Amelioration Act." This 
was the outcome of a resolution of the House of 
Commons passed on the 6th April 37 George III., 
having for its object the abolition of slave traffic 
with Africa (which caused a great waste of human 
life), and the general improvement of the social 
condition of the negros, so that there might be a 
natural increase in their numbers by the preponder- 
ance of births over deaths. By this Amelioration 
Act it was enacted that slaves should receive certain 
fixed rations, that they were to have allotments close 
to their huts, aud that they could not be worked 
before five a.m. nor after seven p.m., an allowance of 
two and a half hours for meals being also deducted. 
Any owner found guilty of ill-treating his slave was 
to sufPer fiue or imprisonment ; and his slave could be 
sold. All iron collars and chains were declared 
illegal. Owners were to be compelled to provide for 
medical attendance, etc., and to erect a hospital. 
Slaves were to be encouraged to live together as hus- 
band and wife, and a five dollar premium was offered 
for each child born. 



Their Lordships despatched pressing letters to 
several members of the Antiguan Council who had 
outstayed their leave, to which the foUowiug replied : 
Bertie Entwisle writes from Tavistock Street 13 
March that he intends returning to the Island. 
William Mackinnen, from Exeter 14 March, will not 
return. Martin Byam, 15 March, desires extension 
of leave. Sir John Ogilvy, at Edinburgh 16 March, 
win not return. 

July 28. Lord Lavington writes from Argyll 
Street to the Duke of Portland (shortly after his 
stay with his Grace at Bulstrode) offering his services 
as Captain-General. 

December 21. Having heard of the reported 
despatch of the 8th West India Regiment to Antigua, 
James Athill the Speaker, on behalf of his colleagues, 
addresses Lieut.-General Bowyer, and informs him 
that the people entertain great abhorrence for the 
black troops. The Council indorse this in their 
letter to President Byam, and consider that " we 
ought not to lose a single moment in attempting to 
avert this abominable evil." They say further that 
the men of the Black Regiment are totally un- 
acquainted with our language and customs, have no 
idea of religion, are in a barbarous and uncivilized 
state, and might overpower the whites. Lieut.- 
General Bowyer replies that Antigua has eight com- 
panies of the 59th and two of the 60th, and politely 
refuses to countermand anything. 37,808 slaves in 
Antigua valued at £40 each equals £1,512,320. 

1799. The United Brethren have in the Island of 
Antigua three settlements ; one at S' Johns, another called 
Grace Hill near Monks, and the third Grace Bay in Old 
Road Town. The Negroe Congregation under their care 
consisted at the beginning of 1798 in all 3 Places : — 

Out of 7,070 Adults. 
1,.526 Children. 



8,51)6 Baptized. 

969 Candidates for Baptism. 
1,540 New People. 



Total sum 11,105, besides those who appear now and then. 

Upon the whole have been baptized since the beginning 
of the Mission in 1756 up to this Date according to our 
Church Books : — 

3,933 Men. 

5,676 Women. 



2,'l78 Children, viz. -[ J'^^j ^P^^" 
' ' I 1,124 Gms. 



11,787 



S* Johns, August 1'' 1798, Henry Christian Tsehirpe, 
Minister of the Church of the United Brethren. 

An Account of the Number of Negro slaves in Com- 
munion with the Methodists in the Island of Antigua : — 
Communicants . . 635 

Baptised Adults . . 2115 
Ditto Infants . . . 1320 



4070 



Antigua, 13"^ October 1798, John Baxter, Superintendent 
of the Methodists in Antigua. 

1799, January 20. Lord Lavington to be Gover- 



nor. 



April 10. On account of the large crop this year 
and the scarcity of British shipping. President 



GEOEGE III. 



cxliii 



Thomson Las allowed six months' trade with Ameri- 
cans so that our colonists may barter sugar for 
lumber and provisions. 

June 6. The Act passed by the Legislature of 
the Islands to admit all Eoman Catholics to equal 
rights with Protestants is disallowed. 

June 11. Pi'esident Thomson writes that he has 
appointed John Burke (who has been Solicitor- 
General 14 years) Attorney-General vice John Stan- 
ley deceased, and Thomas Tuckett, a King's Counsel 
of the Leeward Islands, Solicitor-General vice John 
Bm-ke. Mr. Robert Clogstown to be searcher at St. 
John's vice William Entwisle deceased. 

June 26. The Act passed by the General Council 
and Assembly doing away with the 4i per cent, duty 
is disallowed this day. The Melioration Act is now 
in force and works well. 

July 1. The Secretary of State writes to the 
President to at once stop trade with the Americans, 
and severely censures him. 

September 12. The President has called up John 
Horsford to the Council. From 1 January 1797 to 
31 December 1799, 1330 negros had been imj^orted 
to St. John's and 392 exported. Eight thousand 
three hundred hogsheads of sugar exported. 

1801, Janiiary 17. John Otto-Baijer takes his 
seat at the Council. 

February 12. Lord Lavington arrived. 

February 15. At a meeting of the Assembly 
there were present : — 

Hon. Jas. Atliill, Speaker. 
Jn° Ronan. Ja" x\thill. Edw. Jones. 

Philip Hicks. Kean B. Osborn. And. Edwards. 

The. Kirwan. W"" Shervingtou. Oliver Y. Ash. 

Dau. Hill, Jun. Val. Horsford. 

Tho. Scotland. Walt. Colquhoun. 

Absent : Hon. Jn° Burke, Hon. Jn° Taylor, Alex. 
M<^Pherson, TV" Lockbead, & Paul Horsford, Esq'■=^ ^ 

Olf the Island: Hon. Nath. Marchant, R. 0. Athill, 
T. D. Harman, Jn» Frye, Tho. "Warner, & Tho. Osborn. 

Lord Lavington says that the Minutes of the 
Council, from neglect on the part of the various 
Commanders in Chief, have not been sent home for 
several years past, a matter which he intends to 
immediately rectify. 

February 26. Dr. Michael Hodges presents his 
diploma and is licensed. 

March 6. Robert Colquhoun returned for St. 
John's Division vice Thomas Osborne deceased. 

Mar. 24. His Lordship writes " On the Evening of 
Monday the 16* the General and Admiral sail'd from S' 
Johns Road in the Leviathan of 74 Guns, with the South- 
ampton of 32, Andromache 32, Calcutta (en flute) 44, 
Drake 16, two Tenders of 10 Guns each, two Troop Ships, 
and the Army Brig. Their Troops consisted of about 400 
Men of the 8'" West India Regiment, of more than that 
Number of the Buffs, of about 100 of the eS"", of the same 
Number of the 11'", of as many of the 57'", and of about 100 
of Artillery, besides the Marines of the Squadron and a 
Portion of Seamen. On the 20"' Instant the Proselyte 
arriv'd here, having under her Convoy ten Transports, con- 
veying the first Battalion of the Royals, and the 64"' Regi- 
ment, consisting of above 800 Men each; and on the 2P'' 
the Coromandel brought hither from Trinidad the 2"^ West 
India Regiment, consisting of 400 Men under the command 



of Colonel Carmichel. To each of these Bodies of Rein- 
forcement I gave the secret Rendezvous which the Admiral 
left with me. Gen' Trigge & Admiral Duckworth com- 
manded. 

May. Proposals made to build a government 
house. 

June 8. By Letters Patent, dated 12 August 41 
Geo. III., Barbuda was again leased to .Christopher 
Codrington and trustees for 50 yeai's. 

June 13. The sums voted from the four Islands 
to Lord Lavington, which have hitherto amounted to 
£2600 a year, have been now augmented to £5000 a 
year. Mr. Johnson, who was Commander in Chief 
before Sir Thomas Shirley's arrival, emigrated later 
to Trinidad then to St. Lucia, where he now holds a 
subordinate post in the Custom House. President 
Byam forwards his memorial to the Secretary of 
State asking for a salary. The Lieut.-Governor, who 
holds the commission, lives in England, does nothing, 
and draws €200 a year. Petitioner, on the other 
hand, who has heavy duties to perform, became 
President on 7 April 1789, and was first a Councillor 
on 30 November 1769. 

July 16. Henry Hodge was returned for Dickin- 
son's Bay vice Thomas Warner resigned. The 
Assembly refer to " £3000 lodged in the hands of 
Thomas Oliver, Esquire, of London, for the purpose 
of procuring a new Silver Coinage for this Island." 

August 13. Thomas D. Harman, returned for New 
North Sound, is sworn. Anthony Brown is Agent. 

September 10. John Duncombe Taylor was 
returned for Belfast vice William Lockhead resigned ^ 
also Thomas Coull for Old Road vice Paul Horsford. 
By an Act, dated at St. Kitts 8 June 1795, £600 a 
year is paid as salary to the President Edward Byam. 

October 29. John Lavicount was returned for 
Old North Sound vice John Frye resigned. Archi- 
bald Dow's eleven aci'es at the Ridge with the tene- 
ment, etc., have been valued at £8345 currency. 
They have been taken over for fortification. 

November 30. His Lordship held a grand recep- 
tion in St. John's Church, where he invested Lieut.- 
General Sir Thomas Trigge and Rear-Admiral Sir 
John Duckworth with the Insignia of the Bath. 
An account of this appeared in the ' Antigua Journal ' 
for 8 December. Colonel Valentine Horsford, Hon. 
Colonel James Athill, Hon. Colonel Gunthorpe, Hon. 
Colonel Kerby, and Brigadier-General Edward Byam, 
attended the ceremony as Aids-de-camj) to the 
Governor. 

1802, March 27. By the treaty of Amiens Spain 
ceded Trinidad to England, and the latter gave up 
Tobago, Martinique, and St. Lucia to France ; but 
the compact was broken within a few months and 
the war continued. It is decided by the Assembly 
that a large haU, with two rooms over, shall be added 
to the Governor's official residence, the " Parsonage 
House." 

July 1. The late President, Robert Thomson, is 
dismissed from the Council of St. Kitts, and the Rev. 
Samuel W. Hannan, a native of Antigua, appointed 
in his place. 



cxliv 



THE HISTORY OP ANTIGUA. 



November 1. Preliminaries of peace witli France 
signed. 

Dec. 17. Lord Lavington writes: A most inveterate 
Yellow Fever which was some time ago unfortunately intro- 
duced into this Island by Two Transport Ships in his 
Majesty's Service, and against which no human Prudence 
nor precautionary Foresight could provide, has, since my 
last letter to your Lordships of the 3'-'' of November, raged 
into an irresistable Violence in this unhappy Island, and its 
desolating Progress has carried off many of the most valuable 
and respectable Inhabitants of it. 

Few persons who have been attacked by this fatal 
Malady have escaped almost immediate Death. 

The Church bells which announ'd the Number of its 
Victims were tolling almost continually from Morning till 
Night until Orders were given to suspend the Ceremony, in 
Order to prevent the Horror of this hourly Mortality from 
reaching the Ears of those who were labouring under the 
Disease, but had not arrived at the last Stage of it. The 
Emerald Frigate, on board of which I was a few Weeks ago 
on the Point of embarking for the Purpose of visiting the 
leeward Parts of my Government, was suddenly invaded by 
the Pestilence, and lost two of her Lieutenants, Three of her 
Midshipmen, and Seventy of her Crew. My own Family 
remained for a considerable Time unhurt by the Contagion, 
and for a while, I fondly flattered myself would escape it ; 
but it at length reached the Government House, and suc- 
cessively swept away every white Person whom I brought 
with me from England, for different Situations in my Family. 
It has not spared those who were most immediately about my 
Person. A faithful and attached Servant who had been the 
constant Attendant on my Person for the hist Nineteen 
Years, sunk under the Disease a very few Days ago ; and 
Yester Morning he was followed both by my principal and 
confidential Secretary (after scarcely two days' illness) 
and (at as short a notice) by the last surviving Servant of 
my Family, who had the entire care and Direction of all my 
household affairs. On 29 Dec. the Epidemic was abating. 

Daniel Mackinnen visited this his native island 
during- the autumn. He published in 1804 ' A Tour 
through the British West Indies,' in which pages 
55 — 75 are devoted to a description of his stay here. 

1803, January 31. His Lordship writes that the 
yellow fever has vanished after three months' dura- 
tion. From the military returns made there are in 
garrison here of the Royal Artillery 32, 39th Eegi- 
ment 465, 11th West India Regiment 184; total 681. 

In February M'' Thomas Richardson, a Methodist 
missionary, made the following report of the state of that 
sect in Antigua : The society in .\ntigua consists of about 
4000 Blacks and Midattoes, including a very small number 
of Whites. In the congregations in the towns the proportion 
of Whites is not more than 1 to 40. In S' .lohn's we have 
a commodious chapel, which is geueraUy crowded with hearers. 
In Parham, distant about 8 miles, we have another, which is 
well attended ; & also a dwelling house, with other con- 
veniences for the preacher. At Willoughby, 8 miles from 
Parham & 15 from S' Johns, they are going to build a 
chapel. Besides these places of worship the pi-eachers get 
large congregations in Negro houses in all parts of the 
country ; but they are obliged to lodge & board at their own 
expence. There are in the island 6 or 8 local preachers, 
besides several coloured women, who are very useful & 
possess considerable abilities for prayer & exhortation. The 
women in S' Johns hold public meetings every week. I 
once got into a corner where they Could not see me, & was 
astonished at their eloquence & unction. Their abilities far 
exceed those of most of the women I have heard speak or 



pray in England ; and, what is better still, they are patterns 
of genuiue piety. (Southey). 

April 8. Vast quantities of base coin have been 
introduced here from England and America. The 
Legislature hope to obtain a silver and copper coin- 
age for this island. 

May. W. A. Mardenbrough is the present Soli- 
citor-General of these islands. Lord Lavington 
complains that President Robert Thomson refuses to 
account to him for his moiety of what has accrued 
in the way of fees, etc., before his arrival, but claims 
the whole. The Secretary of State decides that 
during the absence of the Captain-General one 
moiety only of all fees and perquisites belongs to the 
Commander-in-Chief for the time being, and the 
other moiety must be paid to the former. 

June 22. St. Lucia was captured by Commodore 
Sir Samuel Hood and General Grinfield. Tobago 
surrendered to them on 30 June, and in September 
Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice. 

July 15. Owing to the death of the Hon. B. 
Entwisel and the departure of the Hon. Samuel 
Athill the Governor has appointed Mr. James Athill 
the Speaker, Mr. Thomas D. Harman, and Mr. John 
Lavicount to seats at the Council. Mr. Edward 
Byam Wyke, the second member in seniority of the 
Montserrat Council, having removed to Antigua, has 
resigned. The old Members of Assembly have all 
been re-elected. It has been the custom to dissolve 
them every seven years. 

July 30. Letters of Marque are to be issued 
against the Batavian Republic. 

Upon the 5th of September H.M.S. "Emerald " 
fell in with thirteen armed schooners with 700 troops 
from Guadaloupe, destined to attempt the destruction 
of the dockyard at Antigua. She captured three of 
them, and drove the rest back under their own 
batteries. Sugar had attained very high pi-ices 
during the four previous years, and was highest in 
1798. 

November 7. A swoi'd of £200 value is voted to 
Captain James O'Bryen of the " Emerald " for 
cutting out three privateers at Guadaloupe on 5 Sep- 
tember last, which prevented the French executing 
their proposed descent on English Harbour. 

1804, January 1. Military returns : Royal Artil- 
lery 52, 1st Battalion Royals 206, 64th Regiment 249, 
70th Regiment 425, 4th West India Regiment 128, 
total 1060. 

In June the Methodist missionary at Antigua reported 
the numbers in society on that island to be 22 Whites & 
3516 Blacks & people of colour, & that not less than 300 
had died during the year. He says : We had scarcely any 
rain for 5 months ; I am obliged to ride 3 miles to get water 
for my horse. (Southey.) 

1805. The French fleet which surprised St. Kitts 
on 5 March consisted of one 120-gun ship, four 
74's, and three 44's. They took from Basseterre 
£18,000 and £8000 currency in cash in return for 
not plundering the town ; at Nevis they took £4112 
currency; and at Montserrat £7500 currency. 



GEORGE III. 



cxly 



Admiral Messery and General Lagrange were their 
Commanders. 

May 1. Lord Lavington invests Commodore Sir 
Samuel Hood with the Order of the Bath. He sends 
home a list of the French ships under Admiral 
Villeneuve, and of the Spanish under Admiral 
Gravina, which have on board from 10 to 16,000 
troops. 

June 8. The whole of the enemy's fleet uuder 
Admiral Villeneuve was off St. John's this day. Lord 
Lavington had hastily mustered 500 men during the 
preceding night, as a landing was hourly expected. 
H.M.S. "Netley" arrived with the disastrous intelli- 
gence that the fourteen ships with the produce of 
Antigua to the value of £300,000 had been captured 
by the French fleet on the 8th instant. Lord Nelson, 
who was in close pursuit of the French, anchored off 
St. John's on the 13th instant with twelve line of 
battle ships, shortly after their departure, and, 
refusing to waste time in landing, wrote to Lord 
Lavington from on board the " Victory," expressing 
" his determination not to lose one Moment in 
pushing after the Enemy," and his persuasion " that 
they were gone to Cadiz and Toulon, flattering them- 
selves with the Hopes of getting Egypt, dui-ing his 
Absence, which they should not do if he could help 
it." Nelson then disembarked 2000 troops. H.M.S. 
"Kingfisher" sloop and H.M.S. « Osprey " fell in 
with the thirteen Antiguan ships which were in the 
company of five French frigates. The enemy was 
seen to set fire to all of them, and the "Kingfisher" 
and " Osprey " then hastily retired. There has been 
no year of abundance since 1799. John Lillingston 
Pownall, son of John Pownall, Provost -Marshal- 
General of the Leeward Islands, deceased, for himself 
and his brother George Pownall, petitions about the 
fees. Their patent was dated 7 June 11 George III. 
on the death of Richard Phelps, Esq. Only 3200 
hogsheads of sugar exported. Population, 3000 
whites, 1300 free coloured and blacks, 36,000 
slaves. 

1806, January 9. The Legislature send an 
address to the King on receipt of the joyful news 
of the glorious victory at Trafalgar, and express 
their grief at hearing of the death of the heroic Lord 
Nelson. 

July 3. The whole of the Leeward Islands fleet 
and convoy weighed from under Brimstone Hill, 
St. Kitts, at twelve noon, and the French squadron 
with four large two-deckers hove in sight at one p.m. 
Our ships were not discovered and escaped, but had 
they delayed sailing by a few minutes their capture 
would have been inevitable. Mr. Thomas Donovan 
and his son George rendered themselves very ob- 
noxious by writing home and slandering the Courts 
of Judicature. Their statements were considered by 
all sides to be false and libellous. 

July. Real'- Admiral Sir A. Cochran has been 
invested with the Insignia of the Bath by Lord 
Lavington. From a list of the Council it seems that 
Robert Jeaffresou had been absent since July 1792, 
WiUiam Gunthorpe since 1802, James Nibbs since 



1799, Samuel Harman since 1794, and John Horsford 
since 1800. 

The mandamus for Thomas Duberry Harman to 
be of the Council bears date 25 December and that 
of John Lavicount 26 December. 



Table of the Prices, Charges, and 
Weight of Sugar. (' Bryan 



Proceeds of a Hundred 
Edwards,' vol. v.) 





a) 


•n 




S) 


U 


<U 


Si 




•^tA 


d 






Cj 


O. U 




S5 


'3 


ti^ 


1 




13 






%^. 


II 


3 


V7i 


;g 




li 




* ■£ 


0H 




•a 




- c 


0,9 




N F 






u 


o 




... ja 




« 5 


s 




u 


H 


<0 


"S a, 




o 


A 




a 




fe 


^1 




s. 


s. 


s. 


1. 


*. 


i. 


I. 


1791 . 


55 


67 


12 


8 


20 


46 


30 


1792 . 


57 


69 


12 


8 


20 


48 


31 


1793 . 


58 


70 


12 


12 


24 


46 


29 


1794 . 


39 


54 


15 


12 


27 


27 


17 


1795 . 


62 


77 


15 


12 


27 


49 


32 


1796 . 


63 


77 


15 


12 


27 


44 


32 


1797 . 


64 


81 


17 


13 


30 


51 


33 


1798 . 


66 


86 


19 


13 


32 


53 


34 


1799 . 


55 


75 


20 


13 


33 


41 


26 


1800 . 


54 


74 


20 


13 


33 


40 


26 


1801 . 


44 


64 


20 


14 


34 


30 


19 


1802 . 


34 


54 


20 


14 


34 


20 


13 


1803 . 


43 


67 


24 


10 


34 


33 


21 


1804 . 


53 


80 


26 


14 


40 


39 


25 


1805 . 


49 


76 


27 


14 


41 


34 


22 


1806 . 


41 


08 


27 


15 


42 


26 


16 



1807, February 28. Hastings Elwin is appointed 
Advocate-General vice Burke resigned. Mr. Elwin 
is of a respectable family in Norfolk. 

March 25. Act passed by the House of Commons 
for the abolition of the slave trade. 

August 13. William Woodley, President of St. 
Kitts, writes that Lord Lavington died at Antigua 
on the 1st instant, and he has taken on the govern- 
ment. 

August 18. At a meeting of the Assembly there 
were present : — 

Hon. Jn" Taylor, Speaker. 



Jn° Burke. 
Jn" Ronan. 
The. Kirwan. 
Dan. Hill, jun. 
K. B. Osborn. 
Edw. Jones. 
0. Y. Ash. 



Hen. Hodge. 
Tho. Coull. 
Rich. L. Nanton. 
L. L. Hodge. 
Jn" Hall. 
Sam. Warner. 
John Javvis. 



John Hanney. 
Tho. Rogers. 
Jas. Gilchrist. 
Hastings Elwin. 
W" Lee. 
Mead Daniel. 
Tho. Jarvis. 



Off the Island : Andrew Edwards, W™ Briuton, Jn" D. 
Taylor. 

Thomas N. Kerby offers to sell his house and 
land to the public for £13,000 currency, also to add 
certain buildings to the Parsonage House. 

September 8. President Woodley has nominated 
John Woodley as Solicitor and Proctor-Geueral of 
these islands vice William Anthony Mardenborough 
deceased. 

September 17. The Legislature vote 1000 guineas 
for the erection of a monument to the late Lord 
Lavington in St. John's Church. 

November 25. Samuel Otto-Baijer was returned 
for St. John's Division vice John Duncombe Taylor 
resigned. 

Dec'' 3. M' Tho. Sinclair writes from Antigua & 
reminds their Lordships that they had recommended him as 
Solicitor Gen' but he finds that M'' Jefferson (never Knighted) 
had ceased to be a judge these 1 5 years, M"" Jas. Athill having 
in 1792 been appointed his successor. M'' Elwyn is Lord 
Lavingtons Executor. The Chief Justice has nosalary, the fees 
for writs & warrants may be £300 a year. Lord Abercorn 
is his patron. 



cxlvi 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



The Council of Antigua object to the President 
of St. Kitts being always next in command. In 
vol. xlv. B. T. Leeward Islands is bound a copy of the 
Antiguan Almanack, printed at the Gazette Office 
on the Parade, 40 pages. 

1807. The following clergy are now on the island : — 
Sam. Harman Rector of S' John's 

Fra. Massett „ S' Peter's. 

Geo. Collins „ S* Phillip's. 

Josiah Weston „ S' Mary's. 

Arthur Freeman „ S' Paul's. 

James Coull „ S' George's. 

Nath. Humphreys is Private Sec. to the Capt. Gen'. 
Paul Horsford, Hastings Elwin, & Oliver Yeamans Ash, are 
King's Counsell for these Islands. The L' Gov'' is L' Col. 
Rob. Mathews. Jn° Taylor, Speaker. 

December. The Danish Islands of St. Thomas, 
St. John, etc., taken by us. 

1808. The following account of a visit to Antigua in 
July of this year may prove interesting. It is taken from 
' A Voyage in the West Indies,' by .John Augustus Waller, 
Surgeon R.N. : — 

The brig sent to convey me to the commander-in-chief 
was called the Pultusk : she returned immediately to Tortola, 
and remained there two clays to complete her watering, when 
we sailed for Antigua. This vessel had been a French 
privateer, and was accounted the fastest sailer on the station; 
she had, in consequence, been very successful. As she was 
to undergo a repair, we proceeded to English-harbour, where 
the only dock-yard of importance on this station is 
established. This harbour is large, and deep enough to 
admit ships of any size, although the entrance is so narrow, 
that they are obliged to be warped in. It is agreeably 
situated, surrounded on all sides by lofty hills covered with 
shrubs. On the top of the ridges to the right and left as 
you enter, are spacious and commodious barracks ; and at 
the bottom of the harbour, which winds in a very picturesque 
manner round the projecting promontories, stands the Naval 
Hospital, on an elevated but not well-chosen spot. There 
is no town here, though this arsenal is the principal one on 
the station, and a number of men-of-war are constantly here 
for repair. The principal town (St. John's) is on the west 
side of the island, about twelve miles from this place : the 
squadron was at this time lying there, though the Admiral 
with his staff were at English-harbour. Ships of war 
seldom come here but for the purpose of refitting, as this is 
one of the most unhealthy spots in the West Indies ; at 
least, there are more seamen die here every year than in the 
whole Leeward Island station besides, with the exception of 
Barbadoes. The sicuation itself is unhealthy, being so sur- 
rounded that the ventilation is impeded, and the heat 
becomes intolerable. Indeed, there seems to be no spot in 
these countries but what is from time to time visited by the 
yellow fever, which renders them the grave of Europeans. 
But the causes of fever here are accumulated : the men are 
employed at severe labour in the dock-yard beneath a verti- 
cal sun ; and in spite of the severest discipline, find the 
means of procuring rum at an easy rate a temptation no 
sailor can withstand. If they see a single individual of sober 
habits fall a victim, it is a sufficient argument to them that 
temperance is no security, and they may as well enjoy the 
luxuries while within their reach. When the ships are under 
repair, the crews are crowded all together into a long build- 
ing called the Capstan-house, which, notwithstanding all the 
precautions taken to insure ventilation and cleanliness, has 
ever been a hot-bed of disease. So.f atal has English-harbour 
proved to our seamen, that the commander-in-chief, Sir 
Alexander Cochrane, who has always evinced the utmost 
sobcitude for the health of the men, has given strict orders 
with respect to this place. No captain is to go in here unless 



by positive orders ; and the ships that prove sickly are fitted 
with all possible dispatch, and sent out to sea, where they 
become very soon healthy. It has been in contemplation to 
remove the hospital, as a much greater proportion of men 
were found to die here than at Barbadoes. The present 
situation has a swamp to windward of it ; and many men 
have never been affected with the fever until sent to the 
hospital with some other complaint. The projected removal 
to a height which enjoys the sea-breeze, is certainly very 
desirable. The chief surgeon. Dr. Cummins, had very 
recently fallen ; his successor, Mr. Hardy, an amiable 
and accomplished young man and a profound scholar, had 
just settled himself there. He had been four years in the 
country as surgeon to the Jason frigate ; and he told me 
that, during all that time, he had never felt even a headache. 
A few weeks after my departure he too sunk under this 
dreadful visitation. Whole ships' companies have been swept 
off twice over, during their repair at this pestiferous station. 
As the squadron was to proceed immediately to Marie 
Gallante, I took a passage in a store-ship to S* John's, where 
the ships were anchored at a considerable distance from the 
town ; and, as we sailed early the next morning, 1 had no 
opportunity of visiting it. I was informed, however, that 
it was more regular and handsome than any of the other 
English towns in this country. The island of Antigua is 
the most considerable of the Leeward Islands; it is of much 
greater extent than even Barbadoes, and is highly cultivated. 
The rum produced here is equal to that of Jamaica, and is 
in great esteem throughout the islands. There is no doubt 
but the head-quarters of the station would be fixed here ; 
but that the island of Barbadoes is situated so far to wind- 
ward of all the rest, as to afford the greatest facility of 
sending immediately any military aid to any of the other 
islands. The packets likewise from England arrive there 
for the same reason, and take the Leeward Islands in their 
way home. 

March 3. Robert Colquhouu was returned for 
Belfast. 

March 31. Captain James O'Bryen, E.N., owing 
to the abolition of the slave trade, applies to have 
100 negros apprenticed to him for fifteen years, as 
he has purchased an estate at Antigua, and quotes 
as a precedent that Admiral Sir Alexander Cochran 
was granted 100 for his estate at Trinidad. 

The Government of the Leeward Islands is worth 
£4000 sterling per annum, including house rent 
made up thus : — 

Net. 
Home Salary £1200 c. estimated £850 
Island Salaries £5500 c. „ 2750 

Chancery fees & perquisites . . 500 

£4100 steriing. 

Barbados is worth jgI050 sterling a year more. 
Antigua currency is ^ sterling. 

May. An Antigua paper communicates the following 
distressing accident : — While the Circe frigate lay in Fal- 
mouth Harbour, one of her boats upset ; when Lieutenant 
Howes, a seaman, and a woman, were drowned. Fourteen 
other persons, officers, seamen, and women had the good 
fortune to escape, the accident occurring near the ship. At 
break of day next morning, a centinel discovered two sharks 
devouring the bodies of the unfortunate Lieutenant and sea- 
man ; when the boats immediately put off, and with difficulty 
rescued their remains in a state of sad mutilation from the 
voracious fish. Those of the unfortunate woman were 
searched for in vain. The bodies of Lieut. Howes and the 
seaman were decently interred. 

(' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 453.) 



GEORGE III. 



cxlvii 



July 4. Peace with Spain declared. 

October 26. The draft commission for Hugh 
EUiot to be Captain-General is approved by the King, 
and a warrant ordered to be prepared. 

1809. List of officers and their fees. 

John Woodley, a barrister, is Procurator Gen' of the 
Leew'' Islands, worth £450 c. or £236 st. a year. 

A. P. Molloy, Naval Officer, has £1050 c. a year by fees. 
His Deputy pays £840 c. for the office. Clerk hire amounts 
to £60 c, & the nett receipts to the Deputy are £150 c. or 
£75 St. 

A waiter in the Customs gets £35 st. a year payable out 
of the H per cent. duty. 

Josiah Martin, in England, Collector of S' John's, was 
appointed July 1795 by the Board of Customs by warrant 
fi-om the Treasury for life. £500 st. a year is paid to the 
previous holder, who became superannuated in 1795 after 20 
years' service. 

James Chalmers, Surveyor Gen', no salary, fees about 
£88 c, is Manager of the Pasture Estate of Tho. Langford 
Brooke called the "Old Plantation." 

Kichard Weston Nauton, Notary Public, about £200 c. 
a year by fees. 

John Lillington Pownall, Provost Marshal Gen', £2700 c. 
from fees. The Deputy is Tho. Berkeley, whose rent is 
£400, other expenses £700 c. John Roberts has a lease 
from Tho. Berkeley. Net receipt to Jn" Roberts £1200 c. 
The clerks baibffs jail fees, etc., all have to be paid. 

Anthony J. P. Molloy, Naval Officer. His Deputy is 
Hastings Elwin. The Deputy for Antigua is John Roberts. 
Gross receipts £1350 c. Rent to Hastings Elwin £850 c. 
Clerk costs £100. Nett receipts to John Roberts £400 c. 

John Taylor, Speaker, is now aged 64. 

Tho. Norbury Kerby, Casual Receiver, £507 c. 

Rowl'' Burton, Registrar, £700 c. gross. Clerk and rent 
of house cost £380. Net proceeds £320 c. 

The Treasurer & Collector of Impost is Tho. N. Kerby, 
£560 c. net, £727 c. gross. 

EdW Jones, Powder Officer, £320 c. 

Coroner, Paul Horsford, £300 c. in fees. 

Marshal of Vice Admiralty Court, Hon. Geo. Villiers by 
patent. His Deputy, John Roberts, £2628 c. less £203 c. 
for expenses, f go to the patentee, ^ to John Roberts. 

Judge of Vice Admiralty Court, Edward Byam, Esq., 
£3200 c, no value in peace. 

Secretary & Clerk of the Crown, Rob' Aberdein of Egham 
Hill, gross £1500 c. Deputy is R. W. Nanton. f go to 
patentee, ^ to R. W. Nanton. Expenses are £400 c. The 
nett shares are £840 & £330. 

Master & Examiner in Chancery, Jas. Athill, £2538 c. 
gross, less £300 for expenses, nett £2238. 

Attorney General John Burke, £190 c. 

Chief Justice, Rowl'' Burton, who was admitted to the 
Bar of King's Bench in Westminster Hall in 1772 or 3, 
£500 c. in fees. 

President £600 c. salary. 

February 24. The capture of Martinique by 
Lieut. -General George Beckwith and Sir Alexander 
Cochran announced. 

April 7. James Tyson, President of St. Kitts, 
now Commander-in-Chief, writes that WiUiam 
Woodley left on 15 March. 

September. John Julius, President of St. Kitts, 
writes that President Tyson died on 7 September, 
and that he has taken on the government. Hugh 
Elliott, late Minister at the Court of Sicily, writes 
that he was gazetted April 1807 to the government 
of Barbados, and to please the King exchanged to 



the government of the Leeward Islands in Septem- 
ber 1808. 

1810, Februaiy 6. Guadaloupe captured by 
General Beckwith and Sir A. Cochran. 

August 14. Governor H. Elliott writes that he 
landed to-day from H.M.S. "Thalia" at English 
Harbour, and that the Assembly have voted an 
increase of .£1000 currency to his salary. 

August 23. The Assembly having now sat for 
seven years apply through their Speaker Daniel Hill 
to be dissolved. 

Great publicity was given this year to the case of 
Edward Huggins, Esq., of Nevis, a wealthy planter 
and owner of 600 slaves. Several eye-witnesses 
swore that they had seen some of his negros receive 
from 200 to 365 lashes each in the market-place. 
Mr. James W"ebbe Tobin took up the case against 
him, and Mr. Huggins was put on his trial for 
murder, but acquitted by the jury. Mr. Huggins, 
sen., had two sons Edward and Peter, both planters, 
and the President of the Council was his son-in-law. 
Lady Lavington was this year voted £300 a year. 
The Assembly was shortly afterwards dissolved. 



S' Johns Town. 



1810. Sep. 20. New Sessions, 
John Taylor 
\V"' Brinton 
John Hall 
Paul Horsford 

?^°' ?ll^ c ■■ is* Johns Division. 

Sam. Otto-Baijer | 

fd.VA°'lyke I- Dickinsons Bay. 

W|afn'er'^ } New North Sound. 

Mead Home Daniell J' Nonsuch. 
Tho. Kirwan Five Islands. 

J^^Krds ! Old North Sound. 

i^l^nB^^C^horn [ Wa.oughby Bay. 

John Ronau | T>„if„„4. 

Tho. Spencer Edwards I »eiiast. 

Tho. CouU { Old Road, Bermudian Valley, 

Rich'' L. Nanton | & New Division. 

Edw^'joneT "^ I Falmouth & Rendezvous Bay. 

Sam. Warner was chosen Speaker. 

October 25. Dr. Thomas Gillan was returned for 
Falmouth vice Edward Jones deceased. Dr. Coke 
published this year his history of the West Indies 
and of the missions carried on there by dissenters. 
Pages 410 — 463 of vol. ii. are about this island. 

1811, February 28. The Records were ordered 
to be deposited in the Armoury or Guard-house. 

Montserrat had gone down very much in popu- 
lation during the last forty years, and more so in 
proportion than the other islands. There were in — 

Whites. Slaves. 

1772 . . 1314 9834 

1788 . . 880 8285 

1811 . . 444 6735 

In March the West Indians were startled to hear 
that the Hon. Arthur Hodge of Tortola had been 
guilty of murdering several of his slaves. He was 
put on his trial for five murders, and it was proved 
that he had poured boiling water down the throats 
of two female slaves who died, as had three others 
who were beaten to death. Governor Elliott ordered 
Mr. Paul Horsford, the Solicitor-General, down to 



cxlviii 



THE HISTORY OE ANTIGUA. 



Tortola to prosecute the prisoner, who was ably 
defended by Mr. William Musgrave, a King's Coun- 
sellor there. A verdict of guilty was brought in, 
and Mr. Hodge was hanged on the 8th of May. 
The correspondence relating to this affair was ordered 
by the House of Commons to be printed on 26 June. 

Aug. We have very distressing accounts of damage done 
to the shipping, by a hurricane which visited a number of 
the Leeward Islands on the 7"' and S"" ult. At Antigua, 
his Majesty's ship Gloire lost her mizea-mast, and threw 
several of her guns overboard ; his Majesty's brig Guachapiu, 
of 12 guns, sunk at her moorings ; several large merchant- 
men, and about thirty small vessels on shore ; the ship S' 
Andrew liilged, and cargo lost ; the Braganza and Specula- 
tion on sliore, but expected to be got off. 

('Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 181.) 

Governor Elliott's despatch to the Earl of Liver- 
pool of 21 November 1810, containing some vei7 
disparaging remarks about the inhabitants and 
officials of the Leeward Islands, was read in the 
House of Commons, and raised much anger at St. 
Kitts; the Assembly of which island wrote on 25 
September 1811 denying his statements, and accusing 
him of libel. The Legislatures of the other islands 
were equally incensed, and the Governor became an 
object of such distaste that it is probable this hastily 
penned dispatch led to his resignation.* 

In December Clement Caines, Esq., of St. Kitts, 
was expelled from the Assembly of that colony for 
perverting justice. 

1812, January. Paul Horsford and Nathaniel 
Donaldson are Coroners. George W. Ottley is now 
of the Assembly. 

May. The monument to Lord Lavington has 
arrived, and the Assembly agree about the inscription. 

September 17. Thomas Kirwan, Thomas CouU, 
Robert French, and Joshua Dyett are sworn J.P.'s. 

October 15. George Ledeatt was returned for 
Dickinson's Bay vice Edward Byara Wyke deceased. 
Nathaniel Humphreys is Clerk to both the Council 
and Assembly. 

There were this year seven male and fourteen 
female missionaries iu the service of the United 
Brethren. 

Return of slaves at Antigua from 25 January 



anuary loll : 


— 


1807 


30,282 


1808 


31,184 


1809 


30,409 


1810 


29,595 


1811 


28,317 



Governor Elliott states that the slave trade was 

abolished on 1 May 1807 ; that the return already 

made for this year is 30,568 ; that about 400 more 

were at English Harbour ; and that 484 have been 

manumitted since 1807 ; which gives a total of 

31,452, or 1170 increase by births only. Many people 

positively stated that the slave population could not 

* There was in all probability a good deal of truth in Governor 
Elliott's strictures, and for this reason, that the older planter 
families had mostly left the islands and resided in England, their 
estates being managed by Attorneys and others, who were not 
always men of the nicest honour ; this state of affairs was more 
prevalent at St. Kitts than elsewhere. 



be kept up by propagation ; that the death rate was 
in excess of the birth rate ; and that the abolition of 
the slave trade would ruin the colonies ; hence the 
great desire evinced by His Excellency to so manipu- 
late his figures as to shew a surplus of births. It is 
probable that a good deal of smuggling of slaves 
went on long after 1807, which would tend to stultify 
all returns. 

This year another so-called outrage was announced 
at Nevis. Mr. Edward Huggins, jun., son of Mr. 
Edward Huggins, sen., already previously mentioned, 
was put on his trial for shooting a negro boy, but 
was only fined £250 currency. In this case there 
were doubts as to the heinousuess of the offence. 
The boy was seen to break into the store at night 
for the purpose of robbery, and the gun may have 
been fired without intent to kill, which was the view 
the jury took of the case. An account of the Hug- 
gins and Tobin affair was printed in a small 4to of 
24 pages, and is to be found bound up in vol. Iv. 
B. T. Leeward Islands. 

1813. At St. Kitts the Governor says the 
Assembly is annual; at Antigua it usually sat for 
seven years, but why there should be this difference 
in the two islands does not appear. 

April 1. Governor Elliott complains that Presi- 
dent Byam is seventy-four years of age and feeble ; 
that Mr. Burton and Mr. Otto-Baijer are both 
between seventy and eighty years old ; and therefore 
bess for writs of mnndamus for John Horsford and 
Samuel Warner the Speaker, the former of whom he 
appointed to the Council on 26 November 1811, and 
the latter on 29 January 1813. The Governor has 
just dissolved the Assembly of Montserrat which had 
run for thirty years. 

The writs of mandamus for John Horsford, Samuel 
Warner, and Langford Hodge to be of the Council 
were signed 15 July by the Prince Regent at Carlton 
House. 

November 1. His Excellency writes that he has 
heard he is to be transferred to Java. 

December 15. Major-General Edward Barnes 
succeeded Richard Hawkshaw Losack* deceased as 
Lieut.-General of the Leeward Islands. 

Description of Barbuda, by Capt. Greville, E.N. 
(Southey, vol. iii., pp. 522 — 24.) 
The Woolwich, a forty-four with two decks, commanded 
by Capt. T. B. Sulivan, was ordered, in July 1813, to pro- 
ceed to Barbadoes, to take the flag of Sir F. Laforey, when 
upon the night of the 11th of September 1818, she was 
totally wrecked in a furious hurricane, upon the north end 
of the small island of Barbuda ; the crew were fortunately 
all taken from the wreck the next morning, and landed upon 
the beach, where they remained for about a week, employed 

* 1813, November 2, aged 83, Richard Hawkshaw Losack, Esq., 
of the Island of St. Christopher's, and Lieut.-General of the Lee- 
ward Islands. (' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. C22.) 

His widow d. 20 March 1818, aged 86. They had issue ; Geo., 
Admiral R.N., d.22 Aug. 182:) at Milan ; Woodley, Capt. K.N.,d. May 
1839 ; James, Lt.-Col. 23d foot, d. 21 Jan. 1810 ; Richard, d. 1839, 
aged 73 ; an only dau., m. 22 Feb. 1796 John White, R.N. 

James Losack was Speaker of St. Kitts 1744. 

Crest : Over a coronet a double-headed eagle displayed. 

Arms : A double-headed eagle displayed, on a chief party per 
pale three crescents on the right, gules three etoiles on the left. 



GEORGE III. 



cxlix 



in saving the few stores, etc., that were not under water. 
At the end of that time the officers and crew removed to 
the settlement, if it may be so' termed, situated at the other 
end of the island. " The extent of Barbuda may be about 
ten miles long and seven broad. On the north side there is 
an entrance into a large lagoon of six or seven miles in 
length, and ft'om half a mile to a mile in breadth. On the 
southern bank of this lagoon is situated the small settle- 
ment, consisting of one white man and 300 or 400 black 
slaves. The island is a grant from the Crown to the family 
of Codrington ; and from the sale of its stock and the 
profits derived from the many lamentable wrecks, is supposed 
to yield to the present owner an income of £7000 per 
annum. The white inhabitant at the time I visited the 
island was a Mr. James, the respectable attorney for Sir 
Christopher Codrington. He had then been resident about 
ten years in the island, and, with the exception of an 
occasional trip to the neighbouring island of Antigua, 
lived entirely secluded from the world. From the very 
superficial view I was then in the habit of taking of any 
place, I am unable to say how many acres were under culti- 
vation, but it strikes me they must have been few, and 
confined entirely to raising a sufficiency for the maintenance 
of the slaves, and providing food for the stock. Almost the 
whole of the island was covered with wood ; and the stock 
that run wild in it was reckoned to amount to, horned cattle, 
3000 ; sheep, 40,000 ; horses, 400 ; deer, perhaps, 100 or 
150. Rides were cut in the woods ; and Mr. James, who 
kept a great many wretchedly broke horses in his stable, 
some Porto Rico blood hounds, and two very expert hunts- 
men, was in the constant habit of mounting his horse at day- 
break, and, thus accompanied, repairing to the woods to hunt 
the wild bull, or deer, if such should chance to fall in his way. 

This was sport, as you may naturally suppose, sailors had 
no particular objection to ; and no first-rate sportsman in 
Leicestershire ever went to meet the hounds, at a favorite 
cover, with more animated spirits than I mounted my rough 
vicious pyeball to accompany Mr. James in his daily 
diversion ; and it would have puzzled the best huntsman in 
England to have displayed more judgment, skill, and 
dexterity, in selecting and separating a young but full-grown 
bull from a large herd, than my two black friends did. As 
soon as this was accomplished, the bull generally made, at a 
furious rate, for the thickest parts of the wood, followed by 
myself and motley companions. 

The huntsmen carried long ropes before them, and when- 
ever they could get sufficiently near to the bull, they skilfully 
threw them over the animal's horns, and not unfrequently 
seized the creature by the tail, and by a sudden peculiar 
jerk, succeeded in turning the bull over .... At other 
times it was the practice of Mr. James to drive, by means of 
a long line of slaves, and every tenth man a gong, which he 
kept sounding, a vast number of sheep, into an arm of the 
sea. They were then enclosed in this living palisade, and the 
rams caught. The cattle, when wanted for exportation or 
consumption, are caught as above described, and lashed to 
the horns of tame oxen, who never fail, sooner or later, to 
conduct them to head-quarters without any assistance. 

The settlement consisted of a large barn-like looking 
house, belonging to Mr. James, stables, artificers' shops of 
every kind, Negro huts, and an old dilapidated castle, said to 
have been built by the Buccanicrs, who, it seems, made this 
island one of their places of abode. This piece of antiquity 
had nothing particular to recommend it to notice. Two 
very small schooners or boats belonged to the island, and 
traded to and from S' John's, Antigua. Guinea birds were 
found wild in the greatest profusion, also wild ducks ; and 
on the beach were nightly turned many turtles. 

1814, January 20. John Julius, President of St. 
Kitts, writes to say that the government has devolved 
on him. 



February 1 1 . The late Governor Mr. Elliott wrote 
suggesting that the Leeward Islands might be sub- 
divided into two governments, one to include Antigua, 
Montserrat, and Barbuda, with £2000 a year (in 
addition to £1300 a year, the present cost of schooner), 
and the other St. Kitts, Nevis, Tortola, and Anguilla. 

Downing Street, Feb. 15. Lieut. -gen. Sir .James Leith, 
K.B., Captain-general and Governor-in-Chipf in and over 
the Leeward Islands in America. 

('Gentleman's Magazine,' promotions, p. 194.) 

Ajjril 8. James Le Marchant wi-ites to say that 
he has been appointed Secretary of Antigua, worth 
£1 200 a year. In his api)lication to Ministers made 
one or two years previously he stated that his late 
brother General Le Marchant had supported him 
and his family till his death. He did not long enjoy 
his post, for he was dismissed before the end of the 
year. Mr. Oswald was the late patentee. The 
York Light Infantry Volunteers, now at Antigua, 
consisting of 39 Serjeants, 11 drummers, 858 rank 
and file, are ordered to proceed to Jamaica. 

May 13. Julius says that Rowland Burton, the 
Chief Justice, died on 28 April, and that he has 
appointed the Senior Assistant Justice, James Athill, 
as his successor. 

May 30. Treaty of peace with the French signed 
at Paris. 

June 25. Lieut.-General Sir James Leith, the 
new Captain-General, arrives at Antigua. 

September 15. The death of Captain Molloy, 
R.N., Registrar of the Court of Admiralty, is 
announced. 

October 22. The great seal is very old and worn, 
and does not bear His Majesty's arms. 

December 8. The Assembly go in procession to 
St. John's Church, and general thanks are returned 
for peace. 

On 24 December was signed the treaty of Ghent 
between Great Britain and the United States. 

1815. The Hon. Henry Rawlins takes chief 
command during the absence of Sir James Leith 
and President Jiilius. He complains that slaves are 
smuggled to the islands through St. Bartholomew's. 
All Government officers are now compelled to reside 
at the various islands. William Musgrave and 
Anthony Wyke are both candidates for St. John's 
Town vice Hall deceased. 

List of slaves who have been baptised. 
By Rev"" Sam. B. Harman, Rector of S* John's, from 

Sep. 1803 to Sep. 1815 668 

By Rev'' James Coull, Rector of S' Peter's, from Jan. 

1809 to Oct. 1815 683 

By Rev* James Coull, Rector of S' George's, from 

Jan. 1807 to Oct. 1815 427 

By Rev"" Geo. ColHns, Rector of S' Philip's, from 

1803 to 1815 1047 

By Rev-i Nath. Gilbert, Rector of S« Paul's, from 

Jan. 1810 to 1815 191 

By Rev^i .... Chaderton, Rector of S' Mary, from 

14 Dec. 1814 to 27 Sep. 1815 .... 6 

The period of his holding the living. 

Pastors of Society of United Brethren, Jan. 1812 . 1328 
Rev. Jas. Curtin, Missionary of Church of England 2870 
Pastors of Methodists since Jan. 1812 . . . 1996 



cl 



THE HISTORY Or ANTIGUA. 



August 10. Guadaloupe capitiolated to General 
Sir James Leith, G.C.B. 

Oct. 6. The buildings of the victualling department at 
English Harbour, Antigua, were set on fire by lightning. 
From the gi-eat quantity of rum that was in them, the fire 
burnt with such fury as to baffle every effort to extinguish 
it. By great exertions the dockyard was saved. (Southey.) 

On 20 November a treaty of i^eace was signed at 
Paris between the Allies and the King of France, as 
the result of the Battle of Waterloo. 

December. Mr. Eobert Aberdein has been dis- 
missed from the Secretaryship of Antigua, and the 
post was promised the previous June to Mr. S. B. 
Ferris. 

1816, March. The general government of the 
Leeward Islands was divided ; Major-General George 
W. Ramsay was appointed as Governor of Antigua, 
Montserrat, and Barbuda, and to Governor Probyu 
was assigned St. Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla, and the 
Virgin Islands. The Assembly voted the former 
jESOOO currency yearly, and in case of his death or 
absence j63000 currency to the Commander-in-Chief 
pro tern. 

Sep. 19. S' John's, Antigua. The storm of Monday 
last disposed us to hope that the violence of the fever, that 
has now so long prevailed here, would have been abated. In 
this, however, we have been painfully disappointed, as each 



succeeding day has added one or more names to the list. 
With some lew exceptions the fever has been confined to 
persons resident here but a short time. 

(' Ann. Register,' p. 143.) 
The exports from G' Britain amounted to £116,559. 
(Edwards.) 

The imports to G' Britain included — 
222,091 cwt. of sugar. 
38,318 gals. rum. 
98 cwt. coffee. 
6,669 lbs. cotton-wool. 
The shijiping consisted of 37 vessells of 10,236 tons & 
484 men. 

1817. Slave returns. Males 15,053 
Females 17,216 



Total 32,269 

1818, Nov. 1. At Antigua, the late Governor, Lieu- 
tenant-general Ralnsay. (' Gentleman's Magazine,' p. 186.) 

1819, Jan. 22. Major-general Sir Benjamin D'Urban, 
K.C.B., to be Governor of Antigua, vice Ramsay, deceased. 

(Ibid., p. 169, promotions.) 
The new Gov arrived next year. Crop 20,056 hogs, of 
sugar & 6,784 pun. of rum. 



N.B. The Author was permitted by the Colonial 
Secretary to examine the State papers down to the 
year 1816, but not later, so that he is not in a 
position to give much information about the island 
between 1816 and 1894. 



CHAPTER IX. 

GEORGE IV. WILLIAM IV. VICTORIA. 1820—1894. 



1820. In a return made of the Crown Funds there 
appears " An account of the Four and Half per cent. West 
India Duties, from 1760 to 1820— £2,116,484. This 
Revenue is charged with the salaries of the governors and 
various other public officers connected with the West Indies, 
and also with the payment of pensions granted by the 
Crown ; as appears in the accounts laid from time to time 
before Parliament." ('Annual Register,' p. 759.) 

Salaries paid out of the 4^ per cent. Barbadoes and 
Leeward Islands Duty so far as relates to the Exchequer 
1809 — 1818 from returns ordered by the House of Commons 
to be printed 4 May 1820 : — 

£ 

300 

835 

1000 

1461 

38 

1500 

3000 

615 

844 

263 

1744 

1175 

101 

884 

473 

184 

456 

The officers employed here for the collection of the 
duty included at — S' John's, W™ Jervis, Comptroller, at 
£50 salary ; Parham, John Duer, Collector, at £80 salary. 



1809 
1810 


W"' Woodley 
John Julius 


Acting 


Governor 


JJ 


Hugh Elliot 


Governor 


. 


1811 


John Julius 


Acting 


Governor 


1812 


Hugh Elliot 


Governor 


. 


1813 
1814 


John Julius 


Acting 


Governor 


it 


Hugh Elliot 


Governor 


. 


1815 


Sir James Leith 








1816 
1817 

J) 
J) 


John Julius 
Henry Rawlings 
James Tyson 
Stedman Rawlings 
Archibald Esdaile 


Acting 
J) 

yj 


Go 


vernor 



T. Barnwell, Sam. Byam, T. R. Martin, & J. Waters, 



Comptrollers, at £50 salary. 




Gross & Nett Proceeds of the 4^ 


per cent. duty. 


Antigua. 




Gross. Charges. 


Net Proceeds. 


1813 £22,369 £10.342 


£12,027 


1814 26,054 12,829 


13,224 


1815 23,093 11,503 


11,589 


1816 30,117 16,369 


13,747 


1817 29,097 13,426 


15,670 


1818 33,109 16,340 


16,768 


Population. 




Whites 


. 1,980 


Coloured .... 


. 4,066 


•^''^-iFetles ; : 


14,454 
16,531 




OA nor; 






Militia. 




Staff-officers .... 


. 15 


Commissioned officers 


. 87 



Non-commissioned ofiBcers & privates . 



Religion. 



843 



945 



1821. 

Established Church . " . . 16,730 

Church of Scotland ... 183 

Moravians 12,668 

Wesleyans 6,563 

Roman Catholics .... 25 

(Antiguan Almanac for 1852.) 

Occupation. — Of official & professional men there were 
163; 217 were employed in commerce; 13,540 in agri- 
culture, of whom 13,202 were labourers ; 2531 were 
mechanics ; & 2017 domestic servants. 



GEORGE IV. WILLIAM IV. VICTORIA. 



cU 



Whites 



Population. 
r Male 
■ \ Female , 



Male 



r 
Free Coloured & Blacks < pi„™„ig 



Slaves . 



r Male 
' [ Female 



1,140 
840 


1,980 

3,895 

31,064 


1,549 
. 2,346 


. 14,531 
. 16,533 




Total . 


36,939 



1824, June 8. Hon. Bertie E. Jarvis writes : " Wilber- 
force's pamphlet has created a good deal of sensation here, 
as if he had ever witnessed the care & attention, paid to 
the Negroes in this Island, he would have written very 
differently, but he has got all his notions from a Gentleman 
at Barbadoes, where, I believe, on some few Estates, unjust 
severeity has been used." 

Population, 30,314 slaves, 3825 free coloured. 

By letters patent of 24 July a diocese was formed 
of Barbados and the Leevrard Islands, and Dr. Wil- 
liam Hart Coleridge was nominated as the first 
Bishop. An annual sum of £4200 was placed at his 
disposal for diocesan purposes, but no minister was 
to receive more than £300 sterling a year. Two 
Archdeaconries of Barbados the Windward and 
Antigua the Leeward were formed. 

1825, Henry Nelson Coleridge visited Antigua 
this year, and wrote an entertaining volume, entitled 
* Six Months in the West Indies,' of which a second 
edition was published in 1826. He devoted pages 
236 — 264 to a description of his stay on this island. 
Sir Patrick Ross was appointed Governor vice 
D'Urban recalled, and Lieut. -Colonel E. Mathews, 
Lieut.-Governor. 

1826, Feb. 21. Hon. Bertie E. Jarvis writes that M"' 
Huskinson's trade bill has injured, he has taxed American 
produce as corn & meal. I wish M' Wilberforce, M' Buxton 
& their Antislavery Associates were here to judge for them- 
selves, they would be, at once, convinced of the Injustice of 
their Accusations against us, for tho', I am a large Pro- 
prietor in this Country, yet, if I saw anything, like oppres- 
sion, I would be the first to cry it down, but it does not 
exist. The negroes are happy & comfortable, & no com- 
parison can be drawn, between their comforts & those of 
the Peasantry at home, Cheerfulness & contentment mark 
the countenances of the former, whereas Penury & misery 
frequently sadden the brow of the latter & perhaps it might 
appear incredible, when I tell you, but in this small Island, 
there are no less than 500 coloured People, enjoying the 
blessings of freedom, who are actually supported by the 
Parish. 

Mar. 4. The mail boat " lilaria " from Montserrat to 
this Island, was wrecked oflF Sandy Island 3 days ago, with 
y« Methodist Parsons, their Wives, and Children, all 
perished, with the exceptioa of W^ .lones, who was jammed 
in between the masts & was rescued, after having been 
3 days & 2 nights in this perilous situation. It is however 
doubtful, whether she will recover. 

May 20. Sir Patrick Eoss has arrived & his salary has 

been fixed at £5000 a year. 

Hogsheads of Sugar Puncheons of Rum 

of loUO lbs. nett. of IIU Gallons. 

1820 14,912 5,774 

1821 21,642 8,575 

1822 8,198 3,674 

1823 13,183 3,260 

1824 20,122 4,356 

1825 17,260 3,688 

1826 20,342 4,299 

1827 7,309 1,610 



1829. Civil Establishment. 
Sir Patrick Ross, K.C.M.G., Maj' Gen^ in the Army, Gover- 
nor & Commander in Chief over Antigua, Montserrat 
and Barbuda. 

L' Col. R. Mathews, L' Governor. 
Members of H.M. Council. 
R' Rev. W" Hart Coleridge, D.D., Bishop of Barbadoes and 
the Leeward Islands. 
Samuel Athill, President. • 
Samuel Warner. Kean B. Osborne. 

Mead Home Daniell, M.D. Samuel Harman. 
William Byam. Richard W. Nanton. 

Paul Horsford. Rowland Edward Williams. 

Speaker of the Assembly, Nicholas Nugent. 
Clerk of the Council, Thomas Lane. 
Marshal, Richard L. Nauton. 
The slaves numbered 29,839. 

The following letter and petition are in the 
Author's possession ; all the signatures to the latter 
are original : — 

To Robert Stokes, Esq'^. 

Antigua, April 17'^ 1830. 
My Dear Sir, 

I had the pleasure to address you, the 

middle of last month apprizing you that the Petition from 
the Coloured Inhabitants of this Island would be shortly 
forwarded. 

It is with infinite satisfaction I now transmit the same 
to you, with a request from the Petitioners, that you would 
on their behalf hand the Petition to that fi-iend of the 
oppressed, D"' Lushington, with their best acknowledgments 
for his kind promise, this year of presenting the same in the 
House of Commons, at same time apologizing for not com- 
municating direct with that Gentleman. 

The Petitioners have to request a continuance of your 
kind offices, by requesting some noble Lord to present the 
Petition in the House of Lords, the selection of whom they 
leave entirely to our fi-iend D'' Lushington and yourself. 

The necessary explanations and information accompanies 
the Petition, which will be handed you by M' Joseph Phil- 
lips, a native of England, to whom I beg to refer you for 
any information which may be required, he is intimately 
acquainted from his long residence in this Island with every 
particular connected with the West India sj'stem, and has 
himself been much persecuted and oppressed, having married 
a lady of colour by whom he has several children. 

The Petitioners have also requested me to refer you to 
John Osborn, J'', Esq'', should he be yet in London as he 
also is well informed on this subject and with the system 
against which they complain. 

Explanation to be referred to in elucidation of the 
prayer of the Petition, viz' : 

No 1 _ — Weekly Register containing Copy of our Petition 
to the local Legislature rejected, after a great 
deal of abuse from several of the Members as 
will be seen in the Debates on the Petition in 
said Paper. 
N" 2. — Answers to the objections made by several of the 
Whites against the repeal of the AVhite Ser- 
vants Acts, said objections were put by us into 
the hands of those Members of the local Legis- 
lature who were favourable to the repeal. 
Xo 3.— Counter-Petition by 106 White Individuals (to 
the local Legislature) opposed to our Petition, 
etc. 
N" 4. — A concise view of the rise and progress of the 
White Servants Act, and of the method 
resorted to at this time to defeat its pro- 
visions. 
No 5. — The manner in which Juries are impannelled. 



clii 



THE HISTORY OF ANTIGUA. 



I have in conclusion to pray the favour of you and also 
in the names of the Petitioners, to keep us advised as to the 
reception and progress of the Petition in the British Parlia- 
ment, as it is a subject of great anxiety to the many that are 
interested. 

I hope to hear from you very soon and that my subscrip- 
tion to the Society is fully paid up. 
I am. Dear Sir, 

Your most faithful Servant, 
(Signed) NATtf Hill. 

The Petition of the Coloured Inhabitants of the 

Island of Antigua. 
Antigua. — To the Honorable the Commons of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 
Parliament assembled. 
The Humble Petition of the Undersigned for them- 
selves and on behalf of the other Free Inhabitants 
not being Whites, 

That Your Petitioners in the exercise of that Consti- 
tutional Right which is not denied any Subject of the 
Eealm are induced most humbly and respectfully in the 
language of Loyalty and obedience to pray for a redress of 
those political grievances which they have so long and 
patiently endured and which might perhaps have justified 
louder complaints. 

That Your Petitioners in making this Appeal to the 
Wisdom and Justice of Your Honorable House are not 
more Strengthened by the reflection that they have hitherto 
used every Constitutional means short of an application to 
the Imperial Parliament than encouraged by the happy 
retrospect of their past loyalty to the King and veneration 
for that Constitution which is the pride of every English- 
man. 

That by certain Laws of this Island Your Petitioners 
are subjected to many disabilities, restrictions, and exclu- 
sions, operating greatly to the prejudice of their Industry, 
subversive of their rights as British Subjects, poignant to 
their feelings as Men, and illiberal in this Enlightened Age. 

That these enactments have encouraged the adoption of 
Customs which have now assumed the force of Law and 
tend not only to disqualify Your Petitioners from enjoying 
various important privileges but also to their being held in 
a degraded light by the White Inhabitants as though they 
were physically and morally unfit for the enjoyment of those 
Franchises to which they consider themselves justly entitled. 

That the existence of such unnatural Prejudices on the 
one side must create corresponding feelings on the other 
alike injurious to the Peace of Society as it is to the interest 
and Welfare of the Country at large. 

That since the Tear One thousand eight hundred and 
twenty three Your Petitionei-s have presented several 
Petitions to the local Legislature setting forth their Civil 
disabilities and have endeavoured by all Constitutional 
means to procure the abolition of such disabilities, restric- 
tions, and exclusions. 

That in the month of July One thousand eight hundred 
and twenty eight Your Petitioners prayed the Council and 
Assembly to repeal an Act of this Island Number Six 
Hundred commonly called the " White Servants' Act " 
(peculiar to this Island and the Island of Jamaica) 
the provisions of which prevent Your Petitioners from 
engaging in Agricultural pursuits under a heavy Annual 
Penalty. 

That while the humble Appeal of Your Petitioners on 
that occasion was rejected by the House of Assembly in 
terms of Insult and Abuse by some of its Members it is due 
to the Council to Acknowledge the liberal Sentiments 
expressed and enlightened Policy manifested by most of 
the Members of that Board ; but Your Petitioners despair- 



ing of any beneficial change in their political condition 
through the medium of local Legislative interference are 
impelled to lay their grievances before Your Honorable 
House in the anxious expectation and perfect Confidence of 
obtaining your powerful interposition. 

That Your Petitioners would briefly represent to Your 
Honorable House that they are prevented from being 
employed on Plantations as Overseers or Managers, — that 
they are not eligible to hold Commissions in the Militia, 
notwithstanding they compose two thirds of its force — nor 
to serve as Grand Jurors, Petit Jurors, or even on Coroner's 
Inquests, and they are also excluded from Parochial Aid in 
every Parish, although willing to contribute their proportion 
towards the poor-rates. 

That these and other less important, but equally vexa- 
tious disabilities, contribute to harass and perplex the minds 
of Your Petitioners ; nor can it be otherwise, when they 
perceive that the recommendations of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment in their behalf have been unavailing, and that neither 
Education, Wealth, nor Merit as good Subjects and Citizens, 
have any tendency to render them eligible to Situations of 
public trust, honor or emolument as enjoyed by their more 
favored Brethren. 

That your Petitioners are impressed with the conviction 
that their full participation in all the Privileges of the 
British Constitution is an Object essentially interwoven 
with the prosperity of the Colony, the advancement of its 
social Happiness, the Consolidation of its strength, and the 
establishment of its Security. 

Your Petitioners therefore most humbly pray that 
Y''our Honorable House will be pleased to 
take the Subject of their PoMtical disabilities 
into your earnest Consideration and that 
Your Honorable House will grant such relief 
to Your Petitioners as will enable them to 
participate in all the rights and immunities 
which are enjoyed by others of His Majesty's 
Subjects. 
And Your Petitioners will ever pray, etc., etc., etc. 
April 17th, 1830. 

Nathaniel Hill. 

Henry Loving'. 

Rich" P. Blizard. 

Chris' C. Jilizard. 

Peter P. Walter. 

W"' Thibou. 

Thomas V. Moore. 

William Este. 

Georfje Cranstouu. 

Joseph Shervington. 

James Nibbs Brown. 

Baptist Slaney. 

Robert Tait. 

John Halliday. 

Jos. Donowa. 

Tyrrell Shervington. 

William Irish Wyke. 

Jn» O'Brien. 

James Grenville Hicks. 

William Lynch. 

Ju° H. Moore. 

Daniel W. Scarville. 

John Haycock Coates. 

Henry Mearns. 

Henry Anderson Pritchard. 

.Tames Pritchard, Sen'. 

William Woodman Dow. 

Thomas Coull, J"'. 

Charles S. Bouisson.